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Research Papers - Science topic

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Questions related to Research Papers
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I am working on research papers and want to know the tools and technique used to extract data from research paper.
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Harnad, if your papers are in PDF formats, you can use tools like Mendeley or Zotero which can "read" and import the metadata from PDF. Then you can easily export these bibliographic data in some format which is appropriate for you.
Is there any standard rule stating that the research article should be published within 5 years of conducting of the research?
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I feel that it should be published as early as possible since it is very important for new data to be shown to the public.
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In the medical and engineering fields especially, new results are coming out all the time. In all fields, a 5-year old unpublished paper would have to at least have its literature review refreshed before publication. Nevertheless, some papers are timeless in their insight. I have an important, unpublished paper from last century that still must be submitted! My mitigating excuse is that I have been too busy!
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It seems incredible but it’s still this way, journals are the best indicators of research quality according to our latest survey. Researchers believe that Google Scholar (H-Index) is still unreliable, and no university or research center is looking or demanding it seriously; it also adds pressure on scientists, which makes them compete with themselves in a too transparent way and sometimes unfair, since appointments are often much higher in science. What do you think?
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It is neither journal nor any any index better indicator of quality of one's research, it is in fact your achievement to which extent one takes beyond solution of a problem are what you have noticed which others have not. It doe not matter whether one refers to your contribution or not, it is a common practice now a days that the original contribution is rarely mentioned. However, one will dig deep and come out with the result that so and so made breakthrough. In the present culture of research publication, journals and some type of its impact factor or other index to get job, to me, however, the inner satisfaction of the contribution that counts most, if the person can defend one's research.
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Results are results may be +/- it has to be published. Then why negative results were not published in journals?
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Several journals publish negative results. Here are a few of them:
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine
Journal of Negative Results
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results
Journal of Interesting Negative Results
The All Results Journals: Chem
NEGATIVE RESULTS IN CHEMISTRY
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What tools do you use to stay up to date with the last publications in your filed?, google scholar alert.? How to avoid read over and over again that long lists in different papers that you already know won't gonna use?How to avoid reading over and over again that long lists of different papers.
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Google scholar updates when you have your own google scholar profile with the good keywords is really a reliable mean. Alternatively, searching only among "online first" articles on Springer and Science Direct websites
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Many threads here (and postings out there in the web) deal with troubles regarding ISI's Impact Factor and denying its usefulness for evaluation of scientific impact. On the other hand, a lot (if not the majority) of institutions use the IF to evaluate faculty.
Is there a definition of "impact of a paper", which can be accumulated for an individual researcher and can be agreed upon by authors and committees? If not, what can be done to support institutions in finding appropriate candidates for positions?
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Hi Dear Michael
I think the impact factor is very important to other index
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Writing a systemic review is not just a collection of various articles on a particular topic. It requires good skills to collect random points, communicate through the lines, connect the dots and emphasize the same in a simple yet powerful way and transform it into a single 'review article'.
Is that all?
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A reference:
Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2), xiii–xxiii.
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Is funding necessary for broad research collaboration?
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In France, where researchers or teachers get already their salaries for doing research, it is a rather usual thing to have unfounded projects (or projects for which no specific budgets are forseen). Those research projects are an intrinsic part of the activities of a research lab and which are budgeted (this is the case of public research labs). However more and more researchers and research labs compete on a national or international level in project calls (in France, habitually launched by the ANR - Agence National de la Recherche) in order to finance specific R&D projects or again R&D projects that require an extra-investment.
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Are there any sources, especially free, where we can find the best papers i.e. papers with maximum citations?
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Use http://scholar.google.com to search your field. Usually papers with the highest number of citations appear first.
PS. 1. Your Question appears in the topic"Research papers", but your question relates to searching, and citations. 2. It would help us if you identified your field as pharmacuticals. 54 other people may have found your question too simple or too general to be answered. They may not agree with your proposition that number of citations = best.
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The Royal Society (2012) opine that: “a shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as a private preserve … expanding the criteria used to evaluate research to give credit for useful data communication and novel ways of collaborating … [and] the development and use of new software tools to automate and simplify the creation and exploitation of datasets”. Likewise, research organisations such as the Research Council (UK) also advocate this shift.
Is this a commonly held opinion and what is the global perspective?
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In Germany, I would suggest the the DFG (German Research Society) as the most prominent institution as it is subject independent, government financed, and fully related to basic research (we additionally have the BMBF funding applied science). In terms of a DFG funding (which, in Germany, more or less is the non plus ultra for scientific projects), you must publish your results. Since some years the association explicitly supports open publications as far as those are listed within the DOAJ. Going a step further, the DFG even supports authors with funding for such open journals that take a publication fee.
However, what makes the whole "thing" a bit more complicated and far less promising (according to fostering the Open Science movement) is the acceptance of open publications in the research community: The reputation of a scientist (in Germany in far too many disciplines still fully depends on the (ISI) Impact factor of the journals in which the scientists' work has been published. Even though there is evidence that publishing in Open Journals has no negative effect on further citations (see e.g., http://www.jofde.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/661/1210), those journals often are not ranked in the citation indexes (some are too young, others never applied, ...). The IRRODL, e.g., took 13 years to get indexed in the SSCI. In the practice, this results in the ongoing preference of publications in closed but ranked journals. I guess, in Germany, some further time is required until open publications meet the same level of acceptance as closed (ranked) journals have. A very good support, however, could be provided by the ISI Web of Science and other Ranking Systems' producing associations.
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I have got a somewhat general question about scientific writing to discuss.
I think, everybody agrees that the paper is the major output of a scientist's work, so producing perfect papers is the primary goal of a research fellow. But what is a perfect paper, and how can we judge about the quality?
There are various criteria, like number of citations, number of downloads, etc, but they all refer to already published and discussed papers. Imagine the paper is newly born. How can a scientist write a nice paper? How it is recognized by the editor? How it is graded by the scientific community?
Thinking of this, I have come to a naive conclusion that a "perfect" paper means different things for different people.
First, the author as a paper producer. He/she wants to present own striking results in an interesting, attractive, and clear manner. From this point of view, writing a perfect paper is a matter of collecting proper data, analyzing it, and presenting it in the logical, properly illustrated and conclusive manner. This is more or less clear, and has been discussed in a number of lectures, books, and publisher workshops.
An author as a member of research department wants to advertise the institution and to get a huge number of citations: good or bad, but now the quality of a researcher and thus the future funding are getting more and more dependent on the formal citation criteria.
Then, an editor wants basically the only thing - to maximize the impact factor of the journal while keeping the scope within preset frames - this means merely less papers and more citations needed. An additional attitude might be to minimize the paper length at the same time, however, with Supplementary material available online this gets minor issue, I think.
As most of the scientists may play different roles (author of the own papers, reviewer of the others' papers, research fellow using the results of others' papers as inspiration, or even editor accepting or declining papers), at different moments he has to analyze the papers quality from different points of view.
So, my questions are as follows:
- When you are writing your own paper, you are the best expert in your particular field, and likely you know well some broader context. How do you make your research appealing and exciting to others? How to provoke the widest possible discussion of your work? How to make the paper interesting even to people outside you particular area (which may lead to fruitful multidisciplinary work)?
- Staying in the frame of the certain scope of the paper (it is more or less fixed by your work already done), how can you inspire more citations of your paper? Imagine that your work is not worth publishing in the TOP journal at the moment, and it will appear as one of the tens or hundreds of papers published this month in your field. How can you attract more attention from your colleagues?
- Imagine that you are a journal editor (again, not of Cell of Nature, but of a middle-class journal), and you receive a paper submitted. The paper is not directly related to your own research field, and the broad context may be unclear. How can you estimate whether the paper will be hot and well cited, or it will be hardly noticed in spite of the properly done research? (Assume for a moment that you don't have ideal peers, or their opinion is unclear, and you should decide about the acceptance yourself).
I would be glad to hear your opinions (especially the point of view of practicing editors is interesting for me). If the topic has already been discussed elsewhere, could you please give me a reference?
I have got some ideas on the subject, but I would prefer to share them after I get some feedback from others.
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1. Are the results new?
2. Are they important?
3. Does it overturn our previous thinking?
4. Is the research trustworthy?
5. Is it reported clearly?
Citations and impact factors are poor proxy measures of the above.
To make the paper appealing, use photographs, graphs, equations, text and tables to get the point across as painlessly as is possible.
Obviously hold as many seminars as you can on your work, whenever you can.
Do not be afraid of "marketing" your paper through popular magazines and newspapers, but this will not gather citations.
I am not in favour of "trying to get people to cite your work". You can take a horse to water, but you cannot force it to drink. Asking people to cite you is unprofessional.
Nevertheless, the greater the exposure your paper has, the more likely you are to garner a citation. So publish it on the Web. Give out free physical reprints at every occasion. {Pretend that you only have a few copies left, and you are doing the person a big personal favour in giving them your 'last copy'!}
To gain the attention of the journal editor your research should be revolutionary rather than evolutionary. This goes back to my question 3 above.
Yes, there is a "game" being played, but the ethical rules are strict.
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We want to publish our new research and due to financial instability, we want to publish it for free. Can we make it and how should we do it?
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Hi Dernie, It seems that your aim is to publish in a pay for view journal. My advice would be to do some research and identify which journals you could publish in. Read the aims and scope and check that your topic fits. You probably have a good idea in any case which journals these are. If you need help speak to your Librarian who will help you draw up a short list. If you are thinking of Open Access choose carefully. Most established publishers offer and Open Access route. Most reputable publishers will offer a fee waiver if you can make a sound case. Fortune favours the brave. See the last paragraph here as an example [ http://www.sagepub.com/journals/Journal202037/manuscriptSubmission ]. Not all reputable Open Access publishers are expensive see also here [ http://peerj.com/ ].
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Why would one go for short communication? What are the details that need to be furnished in short communication.
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Check the journal's requirements (e.g. the number of words). Sometimes such short articles are published to respond to some recent articles (e.g. to argue that something Prof. X found in country/region/patient group/firm/... Y is not true in country/... Z) or that the author(s) of the previous study made a mistake in definitions, methods, selection of reviewed articles (e.g. ignoring some important keywords).... In such studies authors do not usually cite so many papers (they will maybe cite 10-20) and they mainly focus on the article they comment.
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How useful is this in research and scientific writing?
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I have started using Scrivener for thesis writing. It's a powerful tool for managing and organising ideas for writing purposes. Each chunk of text is saved as a separate physical file (default in Rich Text Format (RTF), which is compatible with MS Word). Some of the features are not very intuitive, e.g. styles formatting. An important limitation seems to be the lack of reference management features, i.e. in-line citation, bibliography generation. My work around is to open the individual text files in MS Word and create in-line citations (using Mendeley) that way.
Writing an article, how do you perceive that?
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I have been asked this question, how to write an excellent article, excellent language, techniques (methodology), integrated parts, achieving objectives, satisfying hypothesis,etc. Any suggestions?
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This is a very significant question which we do not talk often about and for many it is taken for granted. I am still amazed that a lot of people still only think about writing an article after they have generated experimental results. They try to match the experimental data or results to a story rather than planning to write a story from beginning. Many people think it is the same thing, but it is vastly different with vastly different outcome. Writing an excellent article really starts with the choice of a topic. Deciding on the topic deserves a far greater attention than most people realize or care about. It is extremely important that the chosen topic is one that will add significantly new knowledge or even entirely new concepts/principles. This may required detailed literature review to ensure novelty or newness of the topic. I doubt if anybody can write an excellent article without properly going through this process. Also from this comes the opportunity to develop an effective hypothesis for what you aim to achieve in the study. Once a topic is decided upon, a careful prosecution of research plan and experimental work is still needed to ensure that you can obtain the results to support or even disprove your hypothesis. This, in some instances, may provide a case for refining the hypothesis and research plan to further prove the point you set out to investigate. The quality of your results and findings will in many respects dictate the quality of the journal you decided to publish your article in. The general observation is that novel and high quality results tended to be published in high IF/high quality journals while those of lower quality results or less novelty tended to published in lower IF/lower quality journals. Whatever the case, this is where you decide how you write your article, The cardinal rule here is you must read the full journal guidelines for authors. Better still, read at least 3 similar published articles from the journal to give you a good knowledge of the journal style before you start writing your article. From there on you can start writing ensuring logical reasoning and clarity with the aim(s) clearly defined and justified in the introduction. The experimental section must logically demonstrate how you set out to prove your hypothesis/aim, while the results, discussion and conclusions must demonstrate how you have accomplished your aim(s). This is a general overview of what you must do if you aim to publish an excellent article, but there are other considerations which you can obtain from reading a good book on scientific writing for journals. Two key considerations among this is english/grammar and writing skill. If you know you are deficient in these two area, you must seek assistance to ensure that you adequately communicate your research findings. Even if your findings are excellent, but it is poorly written, the article may not pass through the revision process.
How to convince publishers to implement an honest and rewarding peer review process?
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This topic is rather common on this platform, but it seems that though each scientist wants something that is quite specific, most of the scientists think of an honest and rewarding peer review process. Some are asking about double peer review having in mind the highest standards as regards honesty; there also reviewers that wonder how they got in the position of being used for free by editors; others raise questions on the general scientific quality of the referees (who are missing the subject) or on specific peer reviews performed by too-bored outstanding referees (unmotivated). Fortunately, numerous scientists (some of them old&wise reviewers) stated their support towards a completely open peer review process. However, in order for the open peer review process to be viable, a published peer-reviewed paper must contain the name of reviewers immediately after its authors. The Editor will decide their order in accordance with the reviewers’ contributions to the final form of the manuscript. Thus, the reviewers will be both responsibilized and rewarded. First, referees will accept to analyze papers only on the topics they have already proved they can deal with (and will face directly the authors’ critical analysis on the matter). This could also mean the end of one-paragraph superficial reviews. Not rarely, the referees critically influence the manuscripts by significantly improving their quality, which is why they deserve to be mentioned in the published papers. Of course, statistic indexes can be developed for the scientific reviewers, who are nowadays magnificent, average or horrible anonymous volunteers. Also, the authors, editors and reviewers will be motivated to avoid the association of certain research groups in author-referee teams (multiple papers published by certain authors, and reviewed by the same referees). It is worth trying to understand the advantages of this system and state them clearly to the publishers because it is totally unfair for the scientists that have revised (scientifically contributed to) hundreds of manuscripts during several decades to remain anonymous. P.S. This nice and pretty recent article of Massimo Bionaz might be of some help: http://www.omicsonline.org/what-scientific-journals-can-do-to-improve-the-peer-review-process-rewarding-the-reviewer-2155-9600.1000e120.pdf The theory is ok. How about practice?
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Yes, @Ernesto, and after that long and winding road reaching an open peer review process there would be a radical change in academic publishing, I imagine. Nowadays, the relationship between authors and publishing companies is a symbiotic one; we need them to bring our ideas on paper, and they need us to fill the paper they want to sell. In a commercialized world this means companies want to spend as little money as possible to get their business done, and get as much money as they can for our (=authors, supervisors and reviewers) work. This is a topic that is being discussed in several threads on RG with a strong focus on Open Access publishing. Many established authors question the quality of Open Access because of perceived limitations regarding the peer review process. But, how could Open Access happen, after all? I think the development of Open Access is mainly due to the change of paper-based to digital/online publication. Even if a publication is online (where Internet users, e.g. scientists, expect free information), someone has to pay for it, either the reader (represented by a library) or the author. Now, how is this related to open peer reviewing? Good Open Access journals of today offer authors a stage, where they can present their results to all of us for free. That’s what science should be like. OA journals can ensure quality by sticking to a high standard of their peer reviews. Open peer reviewing would be a good way to show that the standards have been met (or not). When I stated above that there would be a radical change in publication, I imagined the following scenario. With an open peer review process not only a journal (OA or not) can show the standards they are following but also every single paper published anywhere online. So, why not publish our OA papers by ourselves online following an open peer review process. No journal, no publishing company - no one who organizes the peer review, though. In the end, it will be we who decide whether we want an open peer review or not. We do this just by submitting to the publications that follow this process and avoid those that do not follow it.
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Can you suggest tips and rules of thumb that could be used when preparing, writing and submitting Review Papers for high-quality journals in science and engineering? What should be and should not be considered when preparing the manuscript? What should be the layout of the paper and how should the contents be discussed? Any rules on the number of references and how should be cite them?
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Dear Emmanuel,
Normally, journals will provide guidelines, but for example you can check and use Cochrane Collaboration, PRISMA, CONSORT, AGREE guidelines.
What is your take on the scientific journal Reproducibility Index?
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I was intrigued by this topic after reading an article on retraction watch. http://retractionwatch.wordpress.com/2013/07/08/time-for-a-scientific-journal-reproducibility-index/ As far as I acknowledged this matter, the idea of a Reproducibility index has already gained some support. http://www.scienceexchange.com/reproducibility Not once I have read papers reporting "perfect" and/or "fortunate" results that made me smile. However, writing letters to editors to criticize certain authors is mainly a tool for heartless full professors that are able to face a negative karma. Beside, the reproduction of funny studies takes time and not rarely money. :) And even though the tool of "letter to editor" exists since the second issue of any journal, there is a global increase in "funny publications". Nevertheless, playing with scientific data or generalizing artifacts might affect scientists that trust prestigious publishers. One has to wonder what percentage of the financial support has been granted based on ideas derived from "generalized artifacts" or fake data published in literature. How many titles or functions have been awarded based on these? On another hand, it has become almost common the publication of valuable real results where the scientific information remains hidden in the back of small errors in the experimental sections. This phenomenon does not fall in the misconduct behavior although it is pure Machiavellianism. The main effect of the implementation of Reproducibility Index would be an essential step towards a highly responsible research environment. Now, how can a practical determination of this index be approached?
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Dear Marius, Most of the reseachers are more or less aware of the current paper retraction situation either due to misconduct (fraud) or due to msinterpretation of the aquired data ending in publication of wrong conclusions. Now the reproducibility index you are refering to is a bit dangerous and difficult to apply. What happens in the case for example where a scientist publishes a 15 step procedure of the synthesis of a natural product which involves at least 2-3 difficult synthetic steps and someone who is not so experienced or carefull canot reproduce the product at his first or second effort? Should the scientist who didnt manage to reproduce the product flag the above paper by giving a low or poor reproducibility mark? I think that every scientist has ahuge responsibility to minimize/eliminate this type of incidents by refereeing a manuscript responsibly and double check carefuly his/her own results prior to submission.
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Alternative models to measure the quality of research are the personal citation indexes (H-index). Is that true?
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From Google Scholar, you can get three metrics, which all go towards measuring scholar productivity:
*** TOTAL CITATIONS: This matters to a point, in that, somebody that has 1000 total citations is possibly being listened to more than somebody with 10 total citations by his/her colleagues ... This allows measurement of QUANTITY ...
*** H INDEX: Of course, quantity only goes so far, since you can get many publications in journals, which are almost instantly indexed by Google Scholar's super efficient web spiders ! H index is an attempt to get a handle on QUALITY.
*** I10 INDEX: This is just like total citations, but, only counts publications that have >= 10 citations on them. This was introduced to eliminate lower impact publications.
In all of them, the general idea is the same: The more citations you have, the higher quality your scholarly work is ... There is an ongoing debate about whether SELF-CITATIONS should be counted or not, but, due to the difficulty in finding a reasonable formula for this for CO-AUTHORED papers (with,say, 5, 10 co-authors), this would create too much turbulence, so, it is left alone ...
All three of these metrics are available on Google Scholar, although, i10 is only two years old. I expect other metrics to be introduced in the future ... because, there are still many gaps ...
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Most readers pay attention and read a research paper when its 'Title" generates interest. However, exact statement of the main finding as 'Title' educates the 'in-field' researcher.
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The title must present a clear idea of what the reader can expect from the article. Whether it is narrow or broad, depends on the context/content of your report. If you work with mice, you should place mice in your title. If you work with mice and elephants, mammals might be a better choice.
Anyway, a good editor will be part of the process to state a catchy but truthful title for your paper, since they are interested in generating citations.
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To which of the following would you give priority?
Impact factor?
Editorial Board?
Publication Fees?
Subject oriented?
Fast publication process?
Citations?
Any Other?
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It has influence labs and is classified globally and be in a specialized field
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In our research career, we end up inevitably, with a huge tranche of PDFs/DOCs/Txts scattered across different machines and folders. I was wondering of the best way/software that could help organize the collection, as used by you in your personal capacity.
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Although I haven't used any of such tools except for Mendeley which to me is great. Aside its capability for discovering the latest research related to your field of study, I fancy the MS-Word add-on that allows for easy citation and auto referencing.
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try Mendeley Desktop at http://www.mendeley.com/features/ : organise documents/ references with plugins to work with MS words and web browsers
When writing an article, are there any guidelines for the number of citations?
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We usually see a good amount of references in the introduction and discussion. Sometimes, I see limited references in the introduction and the discussion lacks any references. What do you think about this issue?
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The main determinant of number of references is the policy of the journal and editor. One principle which rarely gets stated is that only references personally read by the author should be cited.
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Can anyone suggest any other clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry related journal?
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Hi Deepti, I am not sure, but you can email the editor of the IJMR...best wishes
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Vancouver? Harvard?
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Vancouver style is recommended by The Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR.Medical University. Otherwise you have to follow the standard style recommended by the journals in which you want to publish your articles.
How do you overcome overwhelming amounts of research literature?
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And how do you choose an approach to the problem studied if none seems to be enough?
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From the questions you asked, I have a feeling that you are looking into the wrong places. Consulting a professor in the same field may help a lot in focusing your search into the right area. Take Mr. Andrew's advice and find some books first. Then read review articles as Mr. Artur advised. You need just a few review articles to find a heap of the right kind of articles.
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Both require very different skills to scientists, but have the same relevance for the quality of any scientific paper, don't they?
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According to the publication cycle, both are interrelated and require high-quality efforts to get successfully published by a prestigious journal. Having a bad way of advertising an impressive product will definitely lead to nowhere. Apart from your contributions and based on my experience, I would say that writing a high-quality paper would contribute to 40% of the research cycle. Presenting your work is not an easy process. It takes multiple rounds of revision to make sure that you have got everything that you need in a clear and accurate way.
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see above
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Try an online search or mail the authors
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Im looking for some papers in the CPS area and cloud computing.
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Cyber Physical System (CPS)
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In 1975 I published a paper in ars combinatoria regarding construction of bidb's from skew room squares. To-day I wish to use that as one of the ways to expand the construction of more sets of these same types of designs. Am I allowed to reference my own paper in this new enlarged version of similar constructions?
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Of course you should reference your previous work in the area. Several of my papers are follow-ups or use methods developed in my previous work. The basic rule of citation applies - if it is relevant previous work then cite it.
Anyone know of research oriented books for Geophysical Fluid Dynamics?
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Thanks.
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S. Chandrasekhar, "Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability", Oxford Univ. Press, 1961, corrected 1970, reprinted by Dover in 1981, has a lot about thermal instability of a layer of fluid heated from below: Ch. 2 the Bénard problem;  Ch. 3 the effect of rotation; Ch. 4 the effect of a magnetic field; Ch. 5 the effect of rotation and a magnetic field;  . . . Ch. 13 Gravitational Equilibrium and Gravitational Instability
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The process of publishing a research paper in an academic journal is stretched a little more if you are a non-native English speaker, because you have to translate or revise the wording of the article a bit, though it will never be the same as if it has been thought and written from scratch by a native English scientist.
But I found in some professors a tendency to criticize the writing of non-native academics, which I think is somewhat unfair, because an academic paper is a research work, not a literature essay.
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Dear All,
In my opinion "NO" they are not fair.
Many times (on submission of few of my students) they use to say English language need revisions other wise all the technical issues are perfect. Countries where native English speakers are not easily available have less chances to publish with top tier journals.
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That would make the review process far better, but what are the possible drawbacks?
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Anonymity is crucial to the review process. The reason is that in most fields the number of productive (i.e., publishing) scholars is relatively small, and given that a negative review is likely to generate considerable rancor, we would find little candor in reviews were the reviewers' names made public.
A colleague experienced this problem a few years ago, when she was asked to review a book manuscript. After reading only a dozen pages, she was certain that she knew who the author was, a person who had been a close friend for decades. Unfortunately, the manuscript was terrible, poorly thought out and poorly executed. She notified the editor that she could not complete the review owing to the personal association with the author, specifically requesting that the editor preserve her anonymity. The editor did not and eventually rejected the manuscript. The friend assumed, incorrectly, that my colleague had written a negative review, and she broke off their friendship.
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Wouldn't that make the review process more efficient (and probably more genuine)?
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As an author, when you publish for the first time, it is indeed possible to stay "anonymous". After that, you make inevitably reference to your previous work and so it is very difficult to mask you !
This is the main reason that I belive it impossible to use an anonymous reviewing process. Have a look to the review system used by "Frontiers in"
( http://www.frontiersin.org/about/reviewsystem ), in which both authors and reviewers stay "visible" and which is followed by an evaluation system
This system was "validated" by the scientific community and several journals display interesting Impact Factors after a few years of operation.
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Selecting the right journal for your academic paper is like meeting friends. You have to know what kind of scientific article and research you have, write the article with the necessary ingredients that are expected of it, be where editors and journals are, find an academic journal that publishes articles on the subject you have chosen, and when love arises, if necessary, insist a little.
However, there are still people who believe in the theory of probabilities when publishing in journals: sending the paper to a list of journals, one after the other until it is accepted. This is a fairly poor approach, because selecting an appropriate journal is as important as writing a good article.
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The theory of probablities is not right in publication process: e.g. if you find out that the probablitiy of getting accepted to a particular journal is 5% (the rejection rate is 95%) it does not automatically mean that it will be 5% for your paper: if your paper is good and suits the journal very well, it can be much higher, while if it is not good and/or does not suit the journal well, it can be near 0%. I select journals for my papers depending on the nature of papers (literature, data, methodology etc.) and their potential fit with the journal. I prefer journals that have a good reputation in my field.
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I'd say that giving talks and publishing the results in journals are by far the most important for dissemination of research. After that, the two things you can do to help are to try and make people aware of the existence of the results (talks, blog posts, informal discussions with colleagues and visitors, etc... - all of this tends to be strongly field dependent), and making the paper accessible to everyone (on your web pages, through sites mentioned above, etc...)
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During my chit-chats on RG, I discovered a very interesting problem that I didn't know existed before: Academicians from resource-deprived countries can conduct great research, however, they cannot publish their results due to the high costs of prestigious journals' page charges etc. While clearly these journals need to charge these fees to continue operating at the highest possible quality, my question is different: Is it possible that an organization can be formed to strictly allow academicians to publish in these journals, almost like a sort of scholarship? My specific idea is as follows:
*** A global organization is formed out of good, volunteering scientists
*** The entire purpose of the organization is to allow EQUAL chance to scientists from all over the world, initially strictly for publications.
*** The funding for this organization will come from worldwide grants
*** The only criteria is the quality of the research and quality of the publications
*** If the editorial board, after an initial review, decides that, the quality of a publication is high, it gets submitted to the top journal and the publication costs are covered by the organization.
*** Very clearly, this could only work, if the organization is totally uncontaminated with political motivations etc.
Is this possible? Or, am I a dummy in thinking too optimistically?
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@Tolga, I like Your idea! You say: "Is this possible? Or, am I a dummy in thinking too optimistically?"
I think You are not a dummy, it is possible, maybe looks like a fairy tales, maybe not sustainable at the moment, but I hope that it will become reality!
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Getting citations is becoming increasingly important to the academic career of a researcher or professor, so worrying about them is logical.
SEO is a marketing methodology that improves network positioning on search engines like Google, and if applied to your papers makes them more easily found, and thus most frequently cited.
If you get published in indexed journals, you're doing almost everything right with your article, when writing and rounding it. You just have to review the SEO recommendations to display your articles in search engines in a more relevant way.
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Hi Rafael, Another good question! I liked the idea of being your own SEO, for those who don't know it is Search Engine Optimisation or I suppose to be correct, Optimiser. The article's advice is a good of course, publish in a good journal which is well indexed and it will probably promote itself. I just think that a few actions that might have been missed here.
The first is to create, or a better word, curate your online profile. It's not quite SEO territory, but you do need to be found. You could imagine a reader asking the question who is Rafael or Matt? I will look them up on Google, see if they have written anything else, where they work and so on.
Second is to play the odds on social media. Blog about your article and tweet about it. It will get picked up quicker than the prehistoric process of Indexing in major databases and place a copy - accepting copyright restrictions - on your Institutional repository or personal webpage.
Third is to be prepared to engage in discussion with others on social media, create an audience, it might not shake the world but these discussions I find can be interesting and useful at the time of publication. BW Matt.
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Is it reasonable to use these terms?
A number of papers have been published a long time ago, but still have many citations.
If it is possible, then is it predictable?
Is citation can be a suitable measure to judge the useful age of a paper?
Which papers have more useful lifetime or long expire date?
Thanks for your inputs.
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Why is it so important? Good scientists are like poets: they HAVE TO do reseach and publish (interal motivation). If the only goal is to get citations, it is narcissism, not science. Mendel was forgotten and his findings had to be reinvented later - but that does not change the fact that he was a great scientist.
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My guess is that a research paper carries more weight on the fundamental issues whereas a technical paper puts more emphasis on the methodology aspect, not necessary reporting on the findings. But I am not sure if this is right, what are the actual differences between the two?
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Research articles: A description of a study with a clear research question and novel and interesting results. A research article should be around 4,000 words  with no more than 10 figures. Longer articles, with justification from the authors, require editorial approval.
Technical notes:are shorter than research articles and may be used to describe a new methodology or to present results from new techniques or equipment. A technical note should be under 3,000 words with no more than 5 figures and tables.
Review articles: Typically review articles are invited content but we will consider well written reviews which are relevant, timely and potentially high impact. We will discuss article length directly with invited authors.
How should one conclude a conceptual paper?
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In general, the conclusion of a empirical study contains the concluding remarks on findings, implications, and future recommendations. What about a conceptual paper? What should be included in the conclusion?
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Review your work as presented in your paper (limitations, possible extensions and the next step forward). Contrast it with the work others have done. Give the reader closure. Then stop.
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The literature review is an issue that is always left to the end or given no importance from the beginning. Although in some ways it is always done, because you have to be documented first, writing a good review is not easy, it takes time, your need imagination and telling a credible story to justify your research and conclusions.
But who taught you to do a good literature review? How did you wish to be taught? What is the best way to teach to do it?
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That is a good question.
Writing a Review Paper is in art in itself which is difficult to be learnt. You must know perfectly what about you want writing. In other words, you must have published several Research Articles about your subject so you may share your proper experience.
Best wishes,
Djamel
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Writing with a foreign co-author can sometimes increase the chance of getting your work published (e.g. if you wish to get data from abroad). Do you find your co-authors at conferences, through colleagues' recommendations, Researchgate, Linkedin, Facebook and other websites, or have they found you?
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Tiia, sometimes it is more difficult to collaborate with somebody IN THE SAME BUILDING :) compared to somebody THAT IS IN A DIFFERENT CONTINENT !!!
I would say that, as long as the two co-authors have the same mindset, the LOCATION makes approximately ZERO difference !!!
Currently, I am writing a research proposal with a collaborating faculty who is on vacation in India, and he Skype's in. Aside from the 12 hour difference, there is about a zero difficulty. We use Dropbox to share documents. I make a change, and he sees the changes in about 10 seconds. We have scheduled Skype meetings at 10AM, which works good for both US and India ...
Last year, I wrote a similar research proposal with a faculty member who was at a conference in Romania. We used Facetime on IPhone for the meetings. It was like he was here :)
Last month, I submitted a conference paper with a Ph.D. student that I just accepted from Iran. He is the primary author, and I am the secondary author . There was zero difficulty in co-authoring. Again, we used Skype for regular meetings, and Dropbox for sharing documents ...
Technology has advanced to the point, where the entire planet is a single click away !!! I love this :) If two people have the mindset and can co-author, location is no longer relevant parameter.
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The manuscript that comes for review has its authors and affiliations mentioned which is a source of bias that can impact the review process. Why don't we just send the manuscript without mentioning authors, so that it can be judged on its scientific merit and not other factors.
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Dear all,
I agree that the problem of bias against new or unknown investigators is potentially serious and that this is a strong argument for double-blind peer review. However, in my view there are some further factors to consider.
(1) First of all, here (http://www.jstor.org/stable/2006906, Blank 1991) is some evidence that bias may be weaker than anticipated, thought there is in fact signficant bias against authors from nonacademic institutions. Also, this study found that "referees are more critical when the reviewer is unaware o f the author'sidentity" - so this would be a further argument against single-blinding. However, another study (Goodlee et al. 1998, http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=187748) found the opposite, i.e. that rviewers who were blinded to authors' identities were less likely to recommend rejection than those who were aware of the authors' identities". So probably before we can dedice, more studies (newer and from other disciplines) are needed to see whether there is any consistent pattern.
(2) The bias is not necessarily only caused by the reviewer but may also - perhaps to an even stronger degree - be on part of the editor. This effect is probably stronger in journals with high rejection rates, where articles are often not even sent out for review, but I am not aware of any evidence for this editorial bias against particular groups of scientists - nor of any practical way to introduce double-blinding in the communications between authors and editors.
(3) When the authors are known to the reviewer, they can more easily check whether the authors self-plagiarize or whether there is any novelty in comparison to what the group has published before.
(4) In many cases, the idenity of the authors may not be concealed effectively, because the system they are working on is already published, or e.g. because the location of their field experiments needs to be named and reviewers can deduce who the authors are. In that case you would get a different bias: well connected reviewers knowing their partners and competitors well more easily guess who the authors are. This is probably not desirable either.
(5) Some journals (e.g. Annals of Applied Biology) do have forms in which the reviewers have to declare any conflicts of interest. This is a compromise to reduce bias but of course is based on honesty. In any case, I think the editors have the responsibility to select reviewers who are unlikely to be biased.
(6) Many, if not most studies that are rejected from one journal will end up being published somewhere else. But the recognition of the paper by peers will then not only influenced by its quality, but also by the affiliation of the authors or the journal where it is published. I.e. an even stronger bias than in the peer-review and prior to publication might be located in post-publication. This is not necessarily an argument against double-blinding (on the contrary), but it also shows that there are more problems elsewhere.
(7) There is always the possibility to challenge the reviews. If the review is of bad quality you can contact the editor and argue against specific points raised by the reviewer. I.e. if the recommendation to reject an article would purely be based on knowing the author or its affiliation, it would be relatively easy to challenge the (weak) arguments brought forward by the reviewer. Though in that case (as I have experienced) it would be unlikely that the editor changes his or her opinion. But again, it is then the responsibility of the editor, whatever the review: single or double blind.
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Several journals, especially those with high impact points, include expensive fees, as part of the submission process. But, what can we do if we do not count with economic resources to pay the publication costs?
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Hello,
Of course, you can. There are a lot of important journals where you can try to submit a paper without taxes:
- Elsevier journals (http://www.elsevier.com/);
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C., Mayo,M.,Maniloff,J.,Desselberger,U.,Ball,L.(Eds.),VirusTaxonomy:
Classification andNomenclatureofViruses:EighthReportoftheInternational
CommitteeontheTaxonomyofViruses.Elsevier,AcademicPress,Amsterdam;
Boston,pp.3–8.
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Www.gen.lib.rus.ec, i think its illegal
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As we all know number of US govt. offices have been shutdown. Due to this, important web sites are either not functioning or not updating. We are frequent users of PubMed and other NCBI web sites. Our research heavily depends on these web sites, particularly on PubMed. I want to know from other users how much it is affecting their research. And whether they will upgrade all information when the PubMed Site will be up?
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PubMed is open, however it is being maintained with minimal staffing due to the lapse in government funding. Information will be updated to the extent possible, and the agency will attempt to respond to urgent operational inquiries. For updates regarding government operating status see USA.gov.
One thing to know is that science survived numerous wars against itself ... numerous setbacks ... And in the recent 100 years ... 2 world wars and a cold war shutdown for many years. Still research and knowledge continued. So I am sure this will just be a temporary setback and things will get better soon.
Private scientific databases still function I suppose ... Science Direct, Thomspons web of knowledge etc; ...
Let's hope for the best, prepare for the worst and forget the rest ...
Regards,
Akilesh. R
Chennai, India
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I have read a paper which presents a high level description of an algorithm. Some steps of the algorithm are described in natural language and are hard to reproduce when trying to implement the code.
After reading other papers related to the original one I have managed to write all the subalgorithms in Pseudocode and implemented and tested the algorithm in C++.
In order to prevent others from going through the entire process again I would like to publish a scientific note which describes all the subalgorithms.
My work does not bring any novel contribution to the existing literature. It is just detailed description of an existing algorithm which might be useful to other researchers.
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@ Parvu,
I think it is a great idea to share this type of work, since they are rare and hard to find.
I would suggest you make a kind of "Technical Note", and post it in your own lab's web site, or the University or Company one (if possible).
Otherwise, you can look into websites like HAL, which are open archives repositories pretty useful for this kind of notes. You could also post it on RG!
Hope this gives you some ideas !
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I am helping to teach a course on communicating science and through this course, I have come into contact with an absolutely beautiful paper. It is clear, concise, and elegant. I am not at all interested in the subject (it is not the kind of science I do) but the communication is so good that I am still thrilled. I am hoping to find similar quality papers through you all. What is your favorite scientific paper of all time? What is the one you think most clearly got a story across to you? Please do not post your own papers or papers that lack a thorough enough introduction to explain things to a scientist that is not specialized in the field.
The paper I fell for is:
Molecular Computation of Solutions to Combinatorial Problems
Leonard M. Adleman
Science, New Series, Volume 266, Issue 5187 (Nov. 11, 1994), 1021-1024
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This would be my paper of choice. How do ants measure distance? Well the creative design and crisp execution make it my all time favorite. Its simple its clear it tackles a fundamental problem in a beautiful experimental way!
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I'm working on my mini-thesis final project; a statistics-specific search engine.
Now I'm doing a feature for searching on research paper, and pdf file concerning to statistical domain.
I am in need of some search APIs (then I can do some classification to cut-down the results into statistics-related only). I have tried Microsoft Academic Search and Google Book. Now I need additional APIs for source.
Are there any other search APIs for research paper and pdf file?
Thanks.
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In Google you can insert filetype:pdf as additional
search condition. At a first glance it works in Bing, too.
If you want to want to write a local search
engine especially for Windows, there's an API
named IFilter. PDF support is provided by Adobe.
Update: copy and paste the above links. Redirecting does not work.
Regards,
Joachim
Does a review paper have the same value as research paper while evaluating publications of researcher?
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Research paper Vs Review Paper
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An updated and knowledgable review may have more weightage than a research paper, becoz research papers may be many but reviews are only few, and if published in same IF journals then definitely review may be having more impact - a blend of all knowledge put under a single platform / umbrella.
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I've using Word since so many years, but new to LaTeX, and starting seems difficult as there are a lot of commands. Is LaTeX is really better than word?
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Hi researchers
Every software is good when you master it. For me I like MS Word very much.
regards.
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Is it possible to detect the real time ATM card fraud detection using data warehouse based system. I've upto one million transaction dataset in the Oracle database & I need to prepare a fraud detection model based on the dataset available. If it's possible, I'd like to request to provide some links for related research papers.
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Hi Jivan
There are various papers available from a google search. One which I've read and am busy applying to other financial data is by Wiese and Omlin 2011:
"Credit Card Transactions, Fraud Detection, and Machine Learning: Modelling Time with LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks"
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Perhaps one way is to identify the important bullet points based on experience.
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In my humble experience, you must develop a feel for what the journals editors and readers are looking for to be able to predict it, which can only come with experience in the discipline and reading that journal regularly. So, no short cuts I'm afraid.
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I came across Index copernicus value, Global Impact factor, IIFR , JC etc .Can anyone suggest which Impact factor to be considered best?
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The IF was devised by Paul Garfield, and (therefore?) has lead to lazy behaviour of such organizations as committees reviewing serious researchers' achievements.
But @Neha wants to know about the impact of journals not individuals. And I wonder why? A journal is a journal. And we are we. Don't go for IF, if it isn't necessary for your career. Instead, go for honest Open Access with a sound review process. People blame OA journals of misbehaviour, but you can do the same for 'respected' journals that pimp their IF with review articles, which often are cited more often than plain studies.
Another problem with IF is that it relates much on the field of study you want to publish for.
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I recently did a google search on the title of one of my conference papers and was directed to a website for a Chinese heavy machinery manufacturing company. This was a bit strange since the article focused on the development of an expert system for payrolls at a power company which cited prior pilot systems at an aluminium smelting company.
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Your report has an appendix which gives the interesting logic(?!) of overtime rates. This would be of interest to any social worker. It would even be of interest to any heavy machinery manufacturer who wants to improve its competitiveness, apart from smelting companies. Like most people, the Chinese were interested in a social part, not the whole of your report. It was not inappropriate.
Sadly such social "citations" do not count towards boosting your index of research reputation!
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Many academics review articles for journals without any real support from their institution. We are rarely given any time to do this and end up squeezing the time taken to review articles into already busy schedules. I feel that I really benefit from being a reviewer and that it is important for academics to work together to develop and maintain a rigorous peer-review process, but where is the support?
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Yes. The trouble is that the universities do not even ask for a count how many journal articles you referee. Nor do the universities get subsidies on based on how many you referee. Industry does not even know that refereeing happens. Yet refereeing requires quality time for research and writing, which always seems to be left out of so-called performance appraisals and so-called workload management.
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As plagiarism is a major issue, the scientific community faces across the world, I want to know if there are any free tools or websites which are authentic and detect plagiarism with ease and high accuracy.
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Somebody on another RG thread recommended http://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/ I rather like it.
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A conference paper presentation gives you a platform to interact with people of the same field but journal publication is generally considered superior especially with a good impact factor. What do you think?
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In my point of view, I think that we can gain useful and novel ideas from both proceedings and Journal papers. However, each of them has a couple advantages and drawbacks.
+ Advantages of Conference Paper (Proceedings): (1) takes short time for feedback (Nearly one or two months depends on the conference). (2) Presenting the work done so far. (3) Interacting with international audience working in the same field. (4) Negotiation and feedbacks.
+ Advantages of Journal Papers: (1) frequently peer-reviewed (i.e. the paper will carefully evaluated for errors and possibly rewritten a couple of times). (2) Higher Impact Factor compared to Proceedings. (3) High quality papers with deep analysis. (4) Useful Feedback from reviewers, etc…
+ Drawbacks of Journal Papers: (1) takes longer time for feedback (nearly a year in some high impact factor journals). (2) Research topic may become outdated as a result of publication delayed.
+ Drawbacks of Conference Paper (Proceedings): (1) some conferences take whatever you send them if you participated in the event. (2) Less feedback from reviewers, etc…
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Regarding project proposal.
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Follow @Ian's advice, and If you managed to get hold of George A. Attig's monograph on "Effective Proposal Writing" (ISBN 974-587-274-1), there shouldn't be any answers left.
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I am looking for an example of how the appendices are structured using APA. I would prefer a visual example as I am confused about how to label each table and figure correctly.
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Look at the APA Text
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Research journals want original contributions not published elsewhere before. It is common to share results in conferences where the paper would appear in their published proceedings. Can we still send the articles to journals after the research is completed?
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yes but you should add some more results with more details and without any plagiarism
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Which of them do you think have more possibilities in the future?
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Rafael,
I agree when you say that cites mean that academics read your work. But the other option (impact factor) is based on cites too, although it is based on journal cites and individual article cites. But, on the other hand, there are some examples in that a very bad paper is extremely cited exactly because it is so bad... One alternative is to develop a citation index that could be sensible to that.
Regarding the reviewer power to accept/reject your work based on what so ever policy, it does not change from subscription to open access journal. The peer review process remains a black box where a excelent work can be rejected by a bad reviewer (which is not so good, because it will be accepted in other journal) and a paper full of mistakes can be accepted by the same reviewer. I believe that the reviewr names should be published when they accept a paper, to associate their names to their decision.
Open access, in my view, will limit the information available to those who have good research budgets from one side and, which is much more important, it already is transforming the publication of a paper in a business without quality. I receive a lot of invitations monthly to publish papers, book chapters and to be speaker in conferences. Of course, that is always a small fee of about U$ 1000,00 to that. Am I a so great researcher to by so invited? No, of course! By thay find your name through searches on the internet and invite everyone who has the name linked to one subject ou keyword and send invitations. Is it not a fishing technique? Is this science that we want? My institution pays those fees if I have a paper accepted, but since they are so desperate to get authors, do you believe that a bad paper will be rejected and they will give up the publication fee?
I have serious doubts about that...
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I'm looking for more publishers like Elsevier, Springer etc.
I'm a mechanical engineering student working on CFD and IC Engines.
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Go to the website of Inderscience publishers. They have a large number of journals which do not charge and the journals are SCI listed.
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Can anyone guide me regarding the strategy to perform a meta-analysis of meta-analyses? Why would one want to perform such a meta-analysis? Is there risk of giving undue weightage to certain data, as some studies may have been included in multiple meta-analysis?
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Theoretically meta-analysis of the meta-analyses can be done but the better way is to add individual stuides using the information of the previous meta-analyses. The previous meta-analyses usually gives you the effect sizes of their included studies.
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Does an increase in the number of co-authors have a negative effect on the impact of the first author or the corresponding author? Is the total impact factor of the paper equally distributed among the authors of the paper? What is the actual belief prevalent in the scientific community on this matter? Does the scientific weightage of the research paper depend on the number of coauthors also?
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Well speaking generally, it depends upon the "quantity of material" in the study not on quality. For example, if a study took place in multiple centres, data is gathered by various clinicians in different hospitals for identification of gene polymorphism, or a questionnaire based cross sectional study is conducted in students of many universities by various persons, paper editor and statistical analysis were done by different persons then it is justified to have increased number of authors. Usually this type of multi centre studies have huge sample size and are published in high impact factors holding journals. But if sample size is small, study is not multi centre, then having large number of authors creates doubt.
2- Impact factor is not divided among authors for calculation of their own individual impact factors or for mentioning in CV... But some award distributing agencies divide impact factor a paper by total number of authors to produce merit list for granting awards.
3- If a paper is published in "nature" and it has 15 authors then no one will think of decreasing the weightage of that paper due to high number of authors but if a paper is published in a paper having impact factor 0.58 and has 9 authors then some one can think why 9 authors when 4 authors could do that "quantity" of work. Scientific weightage in real sense is not dependent on number of co authors, its actually the impact factor. but "moral weightage" can decrease
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It is becoming common to see mistakes in some published papers.
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Hi Essam
I also observe the same ...as mentione by you.....in such case I usually communicate the errors to the Editors of the Journal..so that it can be corrected..
bye
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It is becoming common to see this phenomenon in manuscripts sent to us by some journals to make decisions.
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Docoloc is great. I would also recommend the VIPER software for detecting falsification and plagiarism. You can check it on http://www.scanmyessay.com/. Its free.
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If experimental work was done at institute 1 and then the first author moved to institute 2 (where he exploited data and wrote the article), what should be the affiliation of this author in the article? Institute 1 or 2?
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"The affiliation should reflect the author's current and primary employment."
As I am unaware of this practice (or possible convention), I would be incline to think differently and to first ask the following questions:
1/ Does the journal where you intend to publish have any policy on the subject?
2/ (more important) Does your institution(s) have any policy on the subject? (which is highly possible.)
If not, then the choice "The affiliation should reflect the author's current and primary employment" seems to be arbitrary (or conventional).
If not conventional, in the situation described by Azaad Khan, the choice that the affiliation should reflect the author's current and primary employment seems to be unfair for the institution who mostly contributed to the result (through salaries and/or equipments and/or etc.).
Therefore, for fairness (and considering that the question cannot be solved by looking at the policies of institutions/journals; nor by conventions), why the affiliation should not reflect the average of time spent on a given paper in every institutions where the research has been conducted? (as a whole: experiments/preparations/calculations/getting data/meetings/conferences/writing the paper.)
Example: I spent three years in institution A to work on this project and 1 year in institution B. Then my primary institution in the paper is A and my secondary institution is B.
Otherwise, it is also important to notice that conventions may change from one field of research to the other. Therefore, you might want to search for conventions in your area of research by asking your peers.
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I am searching for good journals in medical image processing please suggest me good journals
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Dear Sir,
There are many good journals in this field, such as;
(1) Medical Image Analysis:
(2) BMC Medical Imaging:
(3) Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics:
(4) Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences:
(5) IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging:
(6) Journal of Digital Imaging:
Also, I will update you when once I found others...
Best Regards,
Saeed
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I am going to write an article now based on my previous work. My work is based in silico drug designing for infectious disease. I don't have any experience with writing research articles? Can anyone help me?
Are there basic outlines / points which should be keep in mind while writing any research article?
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I will add some things here which once my supervisor told me to remember while writing the original research article.
1. Title and abstract are very important for every article which attracts the attenstion and interest of the reader, and specially if reviewer likes the title and abstract, then he/she develops positive attitude towards your paper.
2. Your introduction should be relevant and precise giving enough background about the work you are going to show in your paper. Avoid too descriptive and unnecessary text.
3. Last paragraph of your introduction section should talk about important results of your work
4. Pay very much attention to your 'DISCUSSION' section and try to avoid repeating the sentenses from 'RESULTS' section here. Discussion is the place where you compare your data with already published work and draw your correlation or so..
5. Conclusion from your study and hint for future work is also desirable.
I hope these points could be of help in addition to what basic info Om has provided here.
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I would like to know what category to apply in a congress
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@Kusum, the essential parameter for review papers is a new/distinct view on all the literature available on your review topic. What methods do the studies use, how are they organised, any common rubrics? Work out new overall insight.
There may be many papers to review or only 21, but be sure you cover all relevant sources. You don't want to get caught falling short of references, especially of the important ones (those that are cited).
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I'm looking for colleagues who combine both perspectives as I do in my work for networking and developing mutual research strategies.
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I definitely draw on existential thinking and ideas in my work in this setting. I find Yalom's books extrememly helpful, especially 'Staring at the sun'. I also do a lot of research around the existential experience of cancer patients but tend to focus this more on cancer survivorship.
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I have collected the data and analysed. But writing discussion is little difficult, as I am looking for pathology in brain for psychological symptoms. Please suggest me as to how the discussion part should be written for a paper. What all contents it should hold ?
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I think that Dr. Heyda has some excellent suggestions. I would also have a section pointing to the strengths of your study, potential limitations and directions for future research.
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These days, the research as such is getting a lot of appreciation and recognition, also for the researchers. But, 1) How much is the public benefitting from this research? 2) How much of the findings are actually relevant in our day to day life? 3) How many of the results are being implemented or tried to be implemented? 4) If we do a cost - benefit analysis of amount of money (government, private agencies, national, external all) and the output to the public (read as the environment, people, resources, energy or anything), what will the output be? 5) Why are researchers just bothered about getting it published in a high impact journal not in and as a common article, or both?
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Research is primarily about an increase in KNOWLEDGE, which is useful. However, it must be balanced with the APPLICATION of the knowledge to solve real-life issues and have socioeconomic benefits. For me the latter is the purpose of ENGINEERING whereas SCIENCE is the focused on the knowledge.
The engineers need to take the knowledge (i.e. new technology), demonstrate it at a useful scale, find useful potential applications, understand the cost-competitiveness and then develop products with that technology.
Only then, when you actually end up Manufacturing those products, do you get the full value of the original science. You get the jobs, economic activity and the benefit of using the product.
The cost of product development is quite high and many businesses avoid it, so the technology sometimes never ends up being used...
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I established primary normal cell cultures from human foreskin. Then identifying these cells by ICC method with anti-Vimentin and anti-Cytokeratin19 antibodies. The cell showed positive signal to Vimentin and negative signal to Cytokeratin19 (they was expecting results, because only cancer cells show Cytokeratin19). However, I don't know if the ICC's results are enough to demonstrate normal cells? Are these results enough proof to provide to research journals when I would like to submit a paper?
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What do you mean with normal cells. If your cells are vimentin positive and cytokeratin 19 negative your cells could be fibroblasts (and no epithelial cells). cytokeratin 19 is a marker for epthelial cells. Endothelial cells and muscle cells contain vimentin as well. So it depends what kind of cell type you want to isolate.
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It is seen that most of the researchers are unable to realize their ideas because
of the lack of funding. So, it is very important to create or ensure a funding
possibility.
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You should have some good and plausible ideas and you have to convince other that you know what you are doing.
So a good concept enhances your chances for funding, but there will never be a guarantee for it. My advice would be that you do each research job you have as good as possible so that people know that they can expect some good results from your work.
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Are you changing your methodological approaches? Are you doing lower-quality research? Are you skipping crucial experiments?
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Dear All,
Until now, I received zero support for my work. This will be continued.
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In writing an article I am refereeing to the materials of another article of mine. Would it be fine if I just include the whole article in my appendix?
I have seen this as a norm in thesis writing.
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As Hussein previously mentioned, you can simply cite your other paper. Although self-referencing is a common practice in research, i don't know why some researcher opt not to use it !! Self-referencing is the answer to your question as it will also help in self-promotion. Remember, you don't want to say again subtopics you have already dealt with extensively in your previous work.
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I am writing a report on my summer internship in a regenerative medicine institute. I am not however, fully sure on the layout of my report. Previous reports that I have completed were based on 3 week lab series at most but this is 10 weeks of work. Should I follow the same format as I did for the shorter lab series or adapt that of research articles? My report has to be 5 pages long.
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Hi,
yea, there is a difference between a research article and a report. In a research article you present your findings while doing research on any topic you are working on.
In research report you can write the experiences you have come across while doing internship and the techniques that you have learned. but try to be precise and short. Regarding layout you can ask your supervisor or incharge and if there is no layout specific to your institute, you can divide it week-wise or topic wise.
All the best
Dr.Shakeel
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Most reviewers of academic papers are volunteers, who spend valuable time for research when they try their best to improve our papers and evaluate their appropriateness for publication. Usually, authors welcome constructive criticism and applicable advice on all aspects of their papers offered by reviewers even if they do not follow all suggestions and comments.
As a reviewer I try my best to finish the reviews as soon as possible (in most cases I am asked to finalize the review within four weeks). Very often I think I can help improve a paper, be it the overall organization, the language, or description of theory and methods used to at the results stated. Sometimes I reject the request because I do not have the knowledge needed to seriously review a publication.
As authors we want to get suggestions that are concrete and practical to meet internal or external deadlines. What are your experiences with the review process practiced in the current academic publication setting? Some ideas:
- constructive vs. destructive criticism
- timeliness of review result
- appropriateness of language used by reviewers
- level of understanding the paper under review
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While I'm inclined to sympathize with Afaq's point that the debate may not be conclusive, I believe the topic is worth discussing even if it only affects the behavior of individual reviewers and submitters as they see points of view they may not have previously appreciated.
With regard to the sub-points of the original question:
- I have gotten benefit, in one case great great benefit, even from destructive and occasionally insulting reviews. If the reviewer becomes emotional, I can learn what triggered it and perhaps I may learn more about the underlying beliefs and assumptions that are driving thought in a field. If the reviewer sarcastically dismisses an approach, then I had better either justify the approach more carefully, or find a new one. In one case I did find a new one and an important paper resulted. It is important not to over react. At least the journal editor called for a review. That's first base, and not easy to get on! And at least the reviewer took the time to say something. The worst case is getting told "we have many good submissions and can't get to yours." Then you know you didn't make the cut but get no information. A few journals, even IEEE journals, do not give review feedback because the community is small and there is no way to keep the reviews anonymous. In that case it is essential to write the editor or someone else "in the know" and find out what the objection was.
- Timeliness seems to be getting better in the last few years. A delay means either the editor is having trouble finding a reviewer, or has lost track of your manuscript. A follow up note is advisable after 3 months to make sure it is not the latter. That happened to me once. I had waited nearly a year! In another case, an editor asked me to remind him in about 3 months, and I had to do so 3 times (9 months) as he went through 3 reviewers before he found one who was able to complete the review.
- Most reviewers I've encountered are at least civilized in language, but if they don't like your work of course it comes through between the lines.
- The level of understand is the most difficult area, when new ideas or methods are used in a paper. Papers that make incremental improvements in accepted theory or methods are easier to review and get published more quickly. There is nothing to do here except keep trying to find ways to explain the transition from established thinking to your new methods.
Hope this is helpful to somebody. In addition to publishing in my original field, I have published cross-discipline in two other fields and do not have a PhD in any of them. So believe me, I've seen just about every possible response from a reviewer (including good ones). But it is possible to get through if you keep polishing your work and are willing to change it when you realize a better idea.
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Two of my research papers are published in an international journal with impact factor of 1.125, and a processing fee of 2000 has been paid, is that paper valid or not?
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My submission is as follows:
1. Most of the time researchers are more concerned about the Impact factor than their research work. I personally feel this is the mindset we develop from our predecessors.
2. The Impact Factor calculated by various agencies has already raised a lot of confusion.
3. I think we should focus on our work only, rest is secondary. If we do some great research contribution, its impact as well as the "Impact Factor" will be visible to everybody.
"Not necessarily it is calculated by XYZ agency".
This is what I believe
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Print media has been virtually overtaken by instantaneous dissemination via internet. Advertisements are providing research-work with free access to scientific publications. And yet, many high impact journals sell access to individual users on hefty payment. What future holds in store for end-user?
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Absolutely astounding impact !!!! As you have said, the audio-visual and high accessibility impact of internet has taken the dissemination of scientific information by storm ! Everything has been made apparently so easy and yet at times, so expensive too ! The end-users, in a way, I believe , will be more benefited than anything else!
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I'm new to grant applications, but it has recently been stressed to me how important nice formatting is for winning them. This surprised me, as when I have reviewed grant applications previously, I have simply considered the science behind the study. Am I naive in focusing on the science rather than the aesthetics?
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Hi Matt. I can assure you that your colleagues are not pulling your leg. Lay-out, formatting, esthetics...are really very important aspects of a good (and successful ;-) application. As you indicate, this may be surprising, and obviously, cosmetics can't substitute good science.
However, you need to put you into the position of the evaluator who usually has to plow through a large amount of applications in a minimal time. As an example, major EU grant applications, literally 100 of pages long, are often evaluated in a matter of a few hours.
So readability is paramount. Less is more in terms of text. Good illustrations (perhaps preliminary data supporting the application), Pert-charts etc. Air! Spacing between paragraphs, good, informative heading structure - all of this makes it easier for a stressed and tired evaluator to read through and even enjoy reading through your application.
Key to a good structure to know the evaluation criteria. These are often available as separate documents, but often over-looked by the applicants because the think this is just something for the evaluators to read. If you e.g. see that your application should be judged on "originality", then make damn sure that you have a sub-heading called "Project originality" where you explain the originality of your proposal. Sometimes this works like putting words in the mouth (or the mind) of the evaluators. While they form their own opinion of the originality, you've made sure that your point of view has come across. If it's a realistic, short and concise comment on the originality, an evaluator may actually use it.
Cheers, Thrandur
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Does anyone have access to Journal of Nanocience and Nanotechnology, I need full text of two articles?
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if you need a specific scientific article is the best that you request that goes directly to the author or any of authors by email, usually tend to send it.
What factors contribute to the credibility of published works and the evaluation of manuscripts?
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I have recently come across couple of news articles about "Alleged Data Manipulation in Nano Letters and ACS Nano from the Pease group" as well as " GSK fires Chinese R&D head for publishing fraud data in Nature" which raised questions about the credibility of articles published by these journals. I would like to know what factors contribute to judging a manuscript/ journal to fit into higher impact factor class... How do the referees or editors evaluate the journals? Is that because of that from known or reputed authors or genuine reasons? what if some one unknown or a new researcher or single author comes out and tries to publish work in higher impact factor journals? http://www.chemistry-blog.com/2013/08/13/alleged-data-manipulation-in-nano-letters-and-acs-nano-from-the-pease-group/ http://www.biospectrumasia.com/biospectrum/news/190069/gsk-fires-chinese-r-d-head-publishing-fraud-nature
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Hi Srikanth: It is a shame that reviewers did not catch this fraud! It would not have slipped my attention. But seeing these kind of things requires that the reviewer spends a significant amount of time actually studying the paper. This can sometimes be hard. I currently receive only some 2-3 review requests per month which I certainly cannot all take care off. I am sure more established scientists receive many more. The work load can become very significant. That is of course no excuse... but it is my opinion that fraud is typically caught by the community sooner or later nonetheless. It may actually be a good thing if people get caught late in the process (i.e. after publication) because otherwise the case would not have gone public. Regarding your question, scientific fraud can occur on any level. Science and Nature have had their scandals (e.g., the Schön case). And much lower impact journals have just the same issues. I have rejected several papers in the past because data was obviously manipulated, because data was re-published without citation etc etc. I try to review responsibly but that means that I spend half a day on a manuscript. And I apply the same standards to the work of established groups that I apply to newcomers. Sometimes people suggest to conduct review in a double-blind fashion. But I do not think that approach works since you have to check out prior related work of the same group (for example to see if the same data got published previously). So is there a perfect solution to this issue? No. But if you commit fraud and you publish it, then chances are very high that you will be held responsible in the end. C.
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I have noticed some people on research gate have up to 30-50% of papers co-authored with the same individual, who also has high overlap with other individuals. Others show relatively minor overlap. You can see this by looking at the Top Authors link and seeing how many publications a top author has co-written with a person. Is this a sign of a truly collaborative partnership, a sign of different standards for co-authorship, or a sign that some researchers are non independent of one another? I ask this because in the Canadian NSERC funding system, individual grants are supposed to be evaluated based on the quality of the researcher. When people always co-author with the same individuals it becomes challenging to assess them as independent from their co-author. What are people's thoughts on this in terms of evaluating single grants to a research lab?
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Thanks for the response. This particular issue is relevant when it comes to evaluating not only scientific couples, but when evaluating tenure or promotion applications in departments where strong collaborations have been forged. Collaboration is good. Collusion, if it is occurring to produce repeated co-authorship, is not. I guess that goes without saying.
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It offers immediate publication, open peer review and full data deposition and sharing.
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HI, I had a very good experience with F1000Research. The manuscript was accepted within 2 weeks and was reviewed by Janet Rossant and Christine Mummery – the top scientists in the stem cell field. The paper has also been accessed 7509 times – so even though it doesn’t have an impact factor, it still makes a high impact. Best of luck in your submission.
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Through the expansion of my online academic profile I have come across anecdotes and references to people who have had work plagiarised in some form or another. In an age of online networks and communication how does one go about contributing and sharing without becoming vulnerable to plagiarism or similar acts (I don't necessarily mean serious acts of intellectual property theft)
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I thought about that a lot, too. And actually my solution seems to go the other way round. In my case, I presented an original and -in a reduced group, I guess- `hot´ research involving previously not explored sources on several congresses. As I did not have any publication on this topic, at a given time, I started to fear that someone could `steal´ my findings or a part of it - and I could simply not prove that it's mine. My solution: to get a publication as fast as possible. So, I did not look for a high-ranking journal, but something small (and quick) in order to publish a first version - and than extend it for other publications. So if I find somewhere certain quotes without reference to my text, I know and can prove that it's plagiarism.
And that's where I have to contradict Gwendolyn: it is great if my (or your) ideas are spread - but ideas are the the only product one can sell on the academics-market. Those ideas can get me a job, bursary or whatever - for me or the person that uses my ideas. So, I would fight for my ideas...
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I am working with Zotero (combined with Dropbox that facilitates the files synchronization), a free citations management tool, I find it simple to work, gives me some features that I like a lot (storing PDFs, tags, synchronization between different computers, ...) and permits the installation of additional functions using extras, like: Zotero Scholar Citations; Zotero Word Integration or ZotFile. This permits ordering by citations counting, or annotate PDFs and extracting notes.
What I would like to know is how you deal with the research sources and if there is a more effective way to work or tool?
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Over the years I have come up with a system that work well for myself and in working with my students. When I collect research papers, I also download the publisher's citation in a bibtex format, including the abstract. I then group the citations into general categories, limiting myself to 5 or 6 subjects (e.g. drug design, nonbonded clusters, methodologies). The bibtex files are edited to have unique keys by taking the last name of the first author followed by the first letter of each following author's last name, and then followed by the publication's year (e.g. SmithMNOP2013). On the rare event that the same authors, with the same author sequence, publish additional papers that year, then I add an "a", "b", et cetera to the end of the year. The downloaded PDF files are subsequently renamed according to this key (e.g. SmithMNOP2013.pdf), allowing one to find the paper quickly according to the bibtex key.
When my student's follow this convention, it allows us to seamlessly exchange found information. We also have unique PDF directories set up on our networked home directories that are readable by members of the group. One could alternatively store these on a personal cloud service (e.g. Dropbox), which I believe maintains the wishes of publisher to limit the paper's distribution to the general public.
To easily manage the citations and PDFs, as well as to search the abstracts and titles for keywords, I use JabRef (http://jabref.sourceforge.net). This free java based program is operating system independent, and is continuously being updated by the opensource community. JabRef can also import citations that are in other formats (e.g. RIS). Given that the PDF files have the same name as the bibtex keys, it also can link to your PDF files once you specify where they are located. (Note that some care is needed since JabRef will complain about certain special characters, such as different types of dashes or Greek symbols.)
I have always had poor experiences regarding citation management and formatting when using popular Windows and Mac based writing program, including OpenOffice. I have switched to LaTeX because of this, and have found that switching the bibliographic formats as required by journals to be very easy now. There is a learning curve for LaTeX, but well worth it in the long run (i.e. a little time now save much time in the future). Most journals in my field now provide a LaTeX style file and submission options. I have also found that less errors are introduced by the publishers when typesetting the articles for publication.
Best regards,
Karl
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For unit, we all know that we need to follow the SI unit, how about engineering terms? Do we have SI for engineering terms? Or do we need to refer to the English dictionary or something like that?
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If you are a well-known worker in the area e.g. highly cited, you may get away with creating a definition of your own. However, the definition of a term is generally worked out by consulting enough papers or authoritative sources to decide for yourself what the accepted definition is. Another way would be to dig out policy papers or regulatory pronouncements by government agencies because these documents often define what they are referring to.
Clem
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It has mostly been used in assessing art therapy assessments, specifically the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT). I am interested in knowing how the rating tool does or does not work adequately for various populations, as I am working to make it more reliable in setting norms and making specific standards for various types of clients.
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I used it when I was doing trauma therapy with female inmates.  It did tend to show change in those that seemed to gain more from therapy/those that were more invested in therapy.  Although, sometimes people are just goofy and use crazy colors for their drawing or draw things in an odd way; you kinda have to be able to judge if this is case with your clients or not.   
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Our project is looking to have our papers published.
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Hello Jean, I consider that "Ecology and Society" and "Ecosystems" are two journals that publish very interesting and important papers on the topic
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A couple of reviewers deciding the fate of one's scientific work and amazingly one is favoring and the other extremely against :)
What are your opinions as I believe that there shall be centralized publishing for the scientific articles i.e one web page asking submission on Artificial Intelligence from around the globe instead of one thousands places to select from. We find hundreds of thousands of Journals and Proceedings that are publishing or rejecting after a review from couple of people where most of them claim to be the area experts but mostly are not. Researchers and students are wasting time to find the right place first and then are rejected due to language/presentation barriers or poor background or sometimes merely some impossible revision suggestions due to reviewers' being inactive researcher. Journals are also making their own monopolies to aim at unnecessary high impact factors. Consequently, many good researchers getting a dumb response due to comparatively above average work but not the well above average . More interestingly, one work is sometimes rejected at a low impact factor place and gets accepted at a higher impact factor.
Open access is even worse as it burdens the authors with heavy amounts.
In my opinion, all the articles shall be published after an initial plagiarism check at one place or forum within a couple of weeks. Let the community decide whether the article is acceptable or not. The articles not cited within next one year shall be removed from the annuls.
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I think that any paper should not be accepted without some scientifical verification, because in the other case a lot of good works will sunk among the millions of really bad ones.
On the other hand the modern scientific publishing system is seems preety strange to me. One journals publish any payed paper and get relatively high impact factor as a result of open access, other - sell papers for strange amounts of money. A lot of top-ranked USA journals rejected papers from not top world counties or university without any considerations (if the paper has no USA authors or USA grants mentioned in it).
Referees (not all of them, surely,but a very large part) want only to see citations of their own papers in the paper reviewed and oftenly reviewing papers only by abstract and bibliography.
I think, that all scientific papers should be free of any charges and open accesible.
Journals do not spend a lot of money today on the electronic publicationsm and referees are working without salary too. Selling of paper journals to libraries will give them some quantity of money and the missing amount should be payed by the top world/country universities of goverments which all are interested in scientific development.
And all referees of the paper should be mentioned in it with or without their decisions on it. That will make them to be much more thorough in their work and not too interested in getting a lot of additional citations.
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I am a PhD candidate. I am writing a dissertation: "What are the factors of failure in the implementation of new project management technology utilizing dashboards as a tool to measure key performance indicators (KPI)." I am seeking 5-10 participants for a field study in project management.
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I need 3 volunteers to be interviewed about dashboards and project failure. Interviews confidential, of course. Identity masked and coded. The field study is for the Scientific Review Board and Industrial Review Board. Can you help?
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What are the incentives in place (if any)?
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I guess it is as Prof. Andersen says: "publish or perish".
No papers = no funding.
No funding = no students, no projects.
No student, no projects = no papers.
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It's a simple but relevant question that I'd like to address to all researchers in this site. Possible answers I guess you could give are:
a) Yes, absolutely
b) Well ... yes though everything can be improved
c) Not really but I will sent it for review.
d) Not at all. In fact I will not send it for review.
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As a researcher, one should never be happy with what one has achieved , there is always room for improvement ! As for me, I feel one should always try for betterment, so when u go through what u have put down in black and white, there is always something that can be improved ! So I go with answer (b)
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Recently read a PlosOne paper and it has lots of RNA-Seq data analysis, it did say the raw data was deposited at NCBI but it is too raw to dig into for several pieces of sequences (who wants to re-analyze 50 Gigabytes sequencing data?). The supporting data contains lots of analysis where gene i.d. comes out of no where. And qRT-PCR genes only were shown by acronyms all through the paper. An email has been sent to the author but got no response. What will you do? Force it by sending emails to the journal,the funding agent or simply give up?
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I suggest you writing to the corresponding author AND other authors in the paper. You can find them by "google-ing" them, most of researchers from Universities will have a personal page with contact info, that may be useful while trying to reach one author even if he/she's not the correspondence author.
Also, be aware that most of the correspondence author are busy researchers running a staff of students, associated researchers, postdocs, etc, and struggling to get funding from somewhere. It's not always the case, but it may be, and if so, that could also explain why you haven't had a quick answer. I'm not trying to excuse them, but that has happened to me (once I asked for more details in one of the methods because it wasn't clear enough in the paper and I got an answer three -almost four- months later).
Writting to the editor, as Wang tells you, may be considered sort of rude and I won't recommend it unless you absolutely need the info you are requesting and if it's urgent.
Finally, as has also been told here, a researcher has a moral obligation to share their data, methods and provide biological material if requested. It's a bona fide statement and we, in Science, should all play by those rules (it makes us expand knowledge faster and better!), unfortunately, nowadays there's no more than the moral obligation, so you can not force anyone to share anything (we should be able to, but we can't, it's a shame if you ask me).