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A questionnaire is an instrument usually used in survey research. How to make a good questionnaire so that it can provide us the best results (valid, reliable) to our study?
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Simple steps:
1. Literature review
2. Key informant interviews/ focus groups
3. Make a questionnaire
4. Get reviews from experts and sample audience (face and content validity)
5. Refine
6. Send for stability reliability analysis.
7. Use statistical techniques to assess instrument properties (validity and reliability).
Good luck!
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The Liverpool Mental Health Consortium LGBT group are planning on administering a questionnaire to the LGBT Liverpool community
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Hi Rory, for measuring social isolation you can use UCLA scale of loneliness., probably the best measure. Good luck!
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Like measuring internal marketing and its dimensions, and to measure the performance of employees at hospitals. Thank you
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You can refer some standard books like " Handbook of Marketing Scales: Multi-Item Measures for Marketing and Consumer Behavior Research" by William O. Bearden, Richard G. Netemeyer and Kelly H. Haws for many self-report scales used in the area of marketing.
For measuring employee performance, you can refer to books such as the "Handbook of psychological and social instruments" (First, Second and Third) for suitable instruments.
On finding suitable instruments, you can adapt them for your study and use it after checking their validity and reliability.
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Please guide me to design a Fuzzy AHP Questionnaire for weighing the criteria.
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I only can attach on file per post
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I want to find the adult form of a Brief Questionnaire for measuring Self – efficacy
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Is this what you are looking for? The 10-item questionnaire:
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Want to understand how it correlates
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Hello Kaushiki. I am a statistician. I can design a validated questionnaire for you and assist in co-authoring the study with you if you would like. Just let me know. Vonda
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Despite best efforts to highlight win-win solutions for all stakeholders, the barriers for respondents from industries have been challenging. Some industries may have adversive reaction for their data to be published or known. In recent years, interesting new methods have been deployed used with mix results. Some methods may be innovative and bold. Others could have ethical issues and could fall into grey and yet to define areas.
Could you share some experiences or advice that could increase the participation of respondents in qualitative and quantitative data collection or in the development of new data collection methods from respondents from industry (general)?
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In the work a group of us did with school districts, we found the same response initially. After several years of working with them on small projects, they learned to trust us and then were more open to large projects.
So, my suggestion would be to find a small, non-threatening project to work with your industry folks to show them how you work and that you can be trusted. Then go for the bigger projects
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I would like to do a study based on this topic and i can't find any questionnaires. I need help with the questionnaire or any study related to this topic.
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For hospital based research (Temerloh, Malaysia), non funded study.
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Here is a copy of the SICT, however it is only a 25 item scale so I am not sure if that is what you are looking for or not:
Rofail, D., Abetz, L., Viala, M., Gait, C., Baladi, J. F., & Payne, K. (2009). Satisfaction and adherence in patients with iron overload receiving iron chelation therapy as assessed by a newly developed patient instrument. Value in Health, 12(1), 109-117.
Link is attached, Good Luck:
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Or is there any study that measures the validity of a questionnaire?
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Validity of a questionnaire can be validated by two methods. Cronbachs alpha and PCA. PCA method is described in this book section:
A Step-by-Step Approach to Using SAS for Univariate & Multivariate Statistics, Chap 15 (although this section numbered as Chap 1, its the same)
What should be the criteria of adopting a research instrument (questionnaire)?
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In social science, what standards and criteria should be undertaken while adopting a previous research instrument (questionnaire)?
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Thank you for the question - well, adopting an old questionnaire - this needs to have its validity and reliability proven... otherwise you cannot take it on board. In case you are going to have your own questionnaire and in my case - I have done online survey - in this respect please refer to the following which I used in my writing... Covington, Chandice;, Beth; Nordstrom-Klee, Virginia; Delaney-Black, Thomas; Templin, Joel; Ager, and Robert J. Sokol. "Development of an Instrument to Assess Problem Behavior in First Grade Students Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine. Part Ii: Validation." Substance Abuse 22, no. 4 (23rd April 2008 2001): 217-33. Crawford, Scott D.;, Mick P.; Couper, and Mark J. Lamias. "Web Surveys: Perceptions of Burden." Social Science Computer Review 19, no. 2 (1st June 2007 2001): 146-62. Custominsight. "Online Survey." Custominsight.com, http://www.custominsight.com. Fenlason, K.J.;, and K.; Suckow-Zimberg. "Online Surveys. Critical Issues in Using the Web to Conduct Surveys." In Getting Action from Organizational Surveys, edited by A.I.; Kraut, 183-212. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.
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I wanted to ask you if anyone could help with a valid questionnaire for screening babies from 6 month old to 3 years and 3 years old to 5 years for a range of disorders from DCD, ADHD and AUTISM. Could be of a great help.
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Thanks
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I have never used SCL-90 before. I want to assess people entering rehab and at exit. Should I use the inpatient version, and can I manually score these? I have a budget of zero for this project.
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Dear Ann, perhaps you find an access to the US-american Manual of L.R. Derogatis - it provides T-score norms, and you can manually score the scales. I placed the German manual on Researchgate - here you find comparison tables. Sincerely yours, Helga
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I’m planning to evaluate pharmacy information systems via a questionnaire with likert scale for the sample size population pharmacist and physicians using the system.
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If u can elaborate, i can assist u. We are having pharmacy practice department in the college and our students visits pharmacy as a part of the course module
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The number of questions other than the demographic questions
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There is no definitive number. It entirely depends on your sample and your objectives. My personal experience is that for a general effects study for example a single double side printed sheet is enough. Somehow having a thick wad of papers turns away most prospective respondents as well as making them give extremely ridiculous nonsensical answers.
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I am a bit confused about the best types of online questionnaires tools.
I need the following features in the tool:
- good price
- exporting the results to a database such as Excel and SPSS
- unlimited number of respondents
- accepting answers in all languages
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I think you can make this survey on Google Drive.First, you make an account google, then you should go to Google drive, afterthat you should create a form. it is very easy.
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Need it for a friends thesis which sets out to explore who succeeds in getting back to work after having been unemployed for a period of time.
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Here http://teachinternalcontrol.com/uploads/LOC_Measures__1_.pdf is a review of LOC scales done by Halpert & Hill in 2011. I found it very useful.
I myself would say that Nowicki-Strickland would be a good choice for adult population. It is not new, but it is still widely used.
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If you ask a question to someone, his/her feeling towards your query may be changed after a while. Where does reliability stand in this case?
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Human moods and attitudes do change but they change in patterned way. Every individual has certain limitations to their mood change. So n the basis of their perceptions, beliefs, values, IQ their attitude can be measured and some predictability can be brought into findings through standardized tests. Thats what psychologists do all the time
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Will virtual methods see the demise of the paper questionnaire? If so, what problems might we need to consider when reverting to virtual data collection?
I came across this story whilst researching and thought it was worth using as context for q and a.
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Dear Suzanne,
Of course we will have a paperless office - just a few more forms to sign before it will be delivered.... I think that in practice people have a variety of valid concerns and varying levels of comfort with technology. So both researchers and participants need to have a high enough level of comfort before the transition will be complete. However, I suspect that it is pretty close to occuring. The rise of various companies offering research services have already made it pretty easy to handle most of the concerns of hosting the data; the ubiquity of cell phones in some contexts means that participants have already enough technology to fill out any forms they wish.
When I look at the suggested link I think that there is a little too much emphasis on recreating the paper world. Anonyminity is relatively easier to establish in the online world. There are some concerns with data protection, but they are not overwhelmingly more complicated than forgetting to lock my office cabinet each night. When I really think about technologically enabled data collection I think that static questionnaires are just about the last thing I would re-create in a wired world. Not only should the context be customisable and inclusive (ratings can be replaced by photographs, recordings, etc when needed) but the timing itself should be made to fit. Someone can fill out an ongoing survey that bridges the gap between ESM and our current static forms. We can even collect data from units (families; workgroups etc) that currently don't fit the way things work today.
So .. what problems. I think that once you deal with basic data hygiene and the learning curve associated with new tools, the biggest thing to consider is how you will interpret results from people with whom you have progressively less contact. An example: when you ask how do you do... the answer may reflect an evaluation of state or politeness. In person when can properly judge how a question is interpreted. On a questionnaire we often have problems. But a questionnaire going to someone in the population whom you have not met and have no other information about may be very easily misinterpreted.
Cheers.
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For my studies I need to observe and follow up people that are working together in TV journalism projects, but I won't be able to observe their actions directly and personally, since this kind of work is being done at very different places and different times. Should I therefore rely on their self- monitoring?
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Journalists tend to say they do one thing in the abstract, but may do something very different in day to day practice. Personally, I would stick with obs and/or interviews about specific case studies. I have used questionnaires in audience studies before but found that they needed follow up interviews to properly 'get at' qualitative issues anyway.
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Self management is an important item for patients suffering from chronic diseases,e.g patients under dialysis. I want to know if there is any questionnaire or checklist for measuring and evaluating patients`self management.
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I would like to answer your question with a question! What do you mean by self-management? From my perspective there are three levels of self management for patients with chronic renal disease. The first self management approach is driven by the type of dialysis you choose, for example, unit dialysis, CAPD/PD, home dialysis, nocturnal dialysis and extended hours dialysis. Each of these include learning varying levels of self management. The least intensive unit dialysis, the most intensive, nocturnal dialysis. The second self management approach is the clinical perspective on self management, which is in the main covered by Claudio's list. The third and most challenging type of self management approaches take into account the time when you are at home and need to cope/adjust to what may be up to 17 different symptoms, be they mental, physical, emotional or spiritual. Some literature and patient interviews suggest that in the first 5 years, the patient focus is on the clinical approach, but in the next 5-10 years after that, there is a blending of these types of self management. Unfortunatly, unlike diabetes, for example, there are not, from my understanding, generally available validated self-management programmes for renal patient. A huge challenge for many on dialysis - and even many on transplants.
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This is for a questionnaire in employee climate survey in terms of HR Analytics.
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before getting into the actual methods issue (which can be done after a survey has been conducted, although this is not preferable), you of course need to consider the theoretical aspects: how do you justify that a certain question should get more weight than others (and will you be able to defend it afterwards)? there are several rankings of, for instance, national innovation or business climate, that use a mix of hard facts and added qualitative measures that seemed designed to show that some countries are at the top.
one could, of course, like Sanaria mentions above ask top management. But if you are after the answers from employees you are after, it would be preferable to turn to them. one version used in studies of psychosical health (but also in relation to voting) is to first ask people how important they think different areas are (e.g. scale 1-5) and then ask them how respective areas are in their present jobs. that way, you can get individual level weights if you want (or company weights simply by adding answers and using means).
one problem is however what people claim is important versus what really matters to them. in Sweden, having good work colleauges almost always ranks at the top and salary quite far down on the list. Still, few people voluntarily change to a lower paying job just because they think the people working there are nice (unless bullied)...
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Also what questions can be asked from managers to assess employee competence.
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Measuring organisational performance is tricky as there are so many possible criteria and indicators. It is, of course, possible to use a range of financial indicators that commercial organisations routinely generate such as ROI or profitability. A recent review identified 132 different measures of org performance! That review also suggests that performance needs to encompass financial performance, shareholder return and market performance. In terms of questionnaire based measures there are some that are reputational in nature and others that are also subjective, quasi-objective or self-report - each with their own hazards. The review article is Richard et al (2009) Measuring Organizational Performance: Towards Methodological Best Practice. Journal of Management, 35(3): 718-804
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I'm looking for prejudiced paper pen tests for children (primary school), computer based ones (e.g., Child-IAT) can`t help.
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Some of the work done by Melanie Killen and colleagues on stereotyping and exclusion in children and adoloescents might be interesting for you. Maybe one of the tests they use can be adapted (for instance biased intention attribution in ambiguous everyday contexts).
Mulvey, K. L., Hitti, A., & Killen, M. (2010). The development of stereotyping and exclusion. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1, 597-606.
Killen, M., Kelly, M. Richardson, C., & Jampol, N. (2010). Attributions of intentions and fairness judgments regarding interracial peer encounters. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1206–1213.
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Can anyone suggest the procedure for standardizing a questionnaire developed in a survey study?
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There is no limit to the evidence you can collect on the Validity of a scale. And you have to show a high degree of vaidity before you can use your scale for any population.
For reliability you can find alpha, test-retest correlations, inter-item correlations, split-half correlations.
There is no validity index. To begin with you should investigate the content of your scale through the opinions of experts on the construct of interest. Most of the suggestions made and other investgations might help. Suggestions such as factor analyses, t-tests between distinct groups, ANOVA, correlation between your scores and other questionnaires measuring the same construct or related or unrelated constructs, investigation of invariance-especially if your construct can be divided into two correlated sub-dimensions, are a few that you can consider. It is however not only statistical evidence that you need. For example the opinions of experts about the content I mentioned above Or whether the observed hierarchy of items is essentially the same as the one expected (by experts).
The sample must be as large as possible (within time and financial conatraints) but most importantly REPRESENTATIVE of the population for which the scale is constructed.
To discuss this more, if you wish, contact me at p.panayides@cytanet.com.cy
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I am looking for a validated self-report questionnaire on heterosexual romantic jealousy and whether or not it exists in a German translation.
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Hi Steffen,
I have a number of self-report questionnaires at my disposal - however it does matter whether you need a trait measure, or more of a state measure of romantic jealousy. I have to admit that I only have English or Dutch versions so you might not find them useful - if you are interested I could certainly either send them to you, or provide you with references.
Best, Karlijn
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Having the questionnaire filled in I am not quite certain what I am supposed to do with them. I mean, let's say, I have offered the questionnaire to 30 people, how do you take average of their opinion? AHP extension needs the average.
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If I understand the question correctly, you can aggregate the judgements calculating their geometric mean (not the arithmetic mean, since they are multiplicative, not additive).
You can google for "ahp" and "aggregation of individual judgements" for a list of related publications.
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Especially in high tech industry. Factors include customer satisfaction, trust, commitment, corporate image, switching cost, communication.
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See previous studies by Blocker et al. (2011) and Flint et al. (2011). they are about customer value but the final output is customer loyalty. 
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I'm going to conduct research on this topic among workers in hospital setting.
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Your can find the Nordic MSD scale in this article: Kuorinka, I., Jonsson, B., Kilbom, A., Vinterberg, H., Biering-Sørensen, F., Andersson, G., & Jørgensen, K. (1987). Standardised Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Applied Ergonomics, 18(3), 233-237. doi: Doi: 10.1016/0003-6870(87)90010-x
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Needs to be fairly short and accessible. Preferably relating to MH in children but that's not essential.
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This is my adapted version of Opinions about Mental Illness (OMI; Cohen & Struening, 1959) - let me know if you will use it and maybe we can collaborate?
Regards
Tony
Does anyone have a questionnaire for evaluating perception of training by trainee/ learner?
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Training or learning involves an interactive relationship between coach/teacher and trainee. One of the ways of quantification of the work done by teacher/coach is to assess the perception of learner/trainee of the quality and effectiveness of training which he followed. A post-training questionnaire could be a useful manner to achieve that goal.
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Hi Mohamed, you may see coach-athlete relationships questionnaires that its measure by autonomy-supportive and you can find them in selfdeterminationtheory.org website. or you may see the motivational climates in classes scales, you can find the best papers and scales in SDT website for these too. Best wishes,
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Some say that while preparing an awareness scale it should be as Multiple Choice Questions, like achievement tests. The higher the correct response, the higher the awareness. However, I still doubt that this type of scale actually assesses the respondents' knowledge of the studied area and not the awareness. Any guidelines, please?
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A very helpfull reference is the book of Robert F. DeVellis - Scale Development: Theory and Applications (Applied Social Research Methods) In this book you can find an answer to your question
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I have conducted a pilot study (test re-test) to determine the validity of the items in the questionnaire. I am unsure of whether to include a separate chapter for the pilot study analysis or whether to include it as part of the methodology chapter.
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Thanks for your answer. The pilot study was administered to check the validity of a pre-established scale developed in the US to the local context (Malta, Europe). However the problem is that I have a small sample size of 15 participants. I was thinking of including the results in the 'Instrumentation' section of the Methodology chapter, since the pilot study determine the modifications of the questionnaire I am now using. Once again thank you for your contribution.
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I am looking for the German versions of the three questionnaires mentioned above. One is the Short Form of the Brief Symptom Inventory - 18, Purpose in Life Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule.
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Dear Andrei, attached you will find the German version of the BSI-18. I added a few papers dealing with the BSI-18 on Researchgate, sincerely yours, GHF
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In general, I'm looking to test if a target's physical attractiveness can affect people's judgements, and ability to detect deceit.
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There is a test by Jens Hoffmann, TU Darmstadt.
I don't know more about it.
Regards,
Joachim
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Validity is one of the most important characteristics of a good research instrument. However, some researcher and even I myself are not familiar with establishing validity of quantitative researches. Are there guidelines on how to establish validity of research instruments in qualitative research? Say for instance interview guides or open ended questionnaires.
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Dear Eliseo
To be clear, we are talking here about ‘instrument validity’ not ‘study validity’ (internal or external).
If we take one of the classic social methods discussions of instrument validity, they would suggest that there are five ways to validate an indicator (for instance, a question asked as part of a questionnaire, or for that matter during a qualitative interview).
a) Face validity: to claim face validity, you normally rely upon previous studies that have shown that this is a good indicator or measure of the thing it is meant to measure. An example would be an exit poll: it has been shown that asking people how they just voted in an election is a good measure of how they did vote (not many lie).
b) Criterion validity (concurrent): this is used if a measure does not have face validity in its own right, by checking it against something with face validity. For instance, if you ask ‘how far do you have to walk to work?’, you can check the validity of what people answer by checking a sample of responses in your pilot with a pedometer to check the actual distances walked.
c) Criterion validity (predictive): like the previous example, here you need some outside validation, in this case in terms of whether an indicator predicts behaviour. If you want to ask people about their help-seeking behaviour during illnesses, you could check the validity of your question by seeing how many times they visit the doctor over the next year.
d) Construct validity. This is used when there is no face or criterion validity test, and is based on a theoretical or conceptual justification that a measure has validity. For instance, it may be logical to assume that holding certain progressive attitudes on current affairs will predispose someone to vote for a political party known for supporting such causes. Eliciting respondents’ views on these topics can be argued to be a good proxy measure of future voting behaviour. This kind of theoretical validation is often used by market researchers, who know that it is hard to get people to give honest answers if asked straight out ‘how are you going to vote?’
e) Finally, you can also use ‘content validity’: this is achieved by using a range of measures that are accepted (face validity) as covering the main features of a phenomenon. For instance, you can find out about a person’s social class if your questionnaire covers income, education, cultural pursuits and attitudes, which are accepted as together comprising social class. This kind of validity is often claimed for questionnaires and interviews that ask a wide range of questions about a topic.
So you can use any or all of these different methods to validate both quantitative and qualitative research instruments, including interviews.
Does this help?
Nick
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There are many people who do not trust the results, which are the basis of the data collection questionnaire. What do you think?
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Hi,
According to Nunnally (1978) Cronbach's Alpha should be bigger than 0.7. Please see the paper attached below.
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I started a study in menopausal women. The survey is done by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Is a 24h recall and record questionnaire reliable?
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Thank you for your answer Emily.
Indeed, I will be use a 24hour dietary recall.
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I am using the french version of the Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire (AQAP, 22 items) and have difficulty calculating the scores. I would like to know how you use this questionnaire, and to get an idea of scores are obtained in different studies.
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Dear Alexandra
The Sport Index is divided into four categories (<1 h; 1–2 hrs; 2–3 hrs; 3–4 hrs and > 4 hrs) and each of these categories has an appropriate coefficient (0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5) Usual daily activity and leisure activity are scored in a range of from 0 to 5. Global PA will be the sum of 3 indexes.
Maybe this article will be helpful for You.
Kind Regards
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Your question is not very clear...
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In developing a questionnaire for KAP studies on diabetes in a community setting, what are the specific open/close ended questions that could be asked to ascertain their KAP?
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Hi, Victor - I would look at pre-existing questionnaires that have been used in a similar community setting first to see which questions might be useful for your ultimate goal. It is important to decide what your objectives are for conducting the survey in the first place... improve services? identify barriers to self care? determine local views of why, how, diabetes occurs?
I like to ask some of the community stakeholders their opinions as part of formative research before I develop or adapt a questionnaire. Say for example you wanted to know what were the local community's views on why people get diabetes - you could do semi-structured ethnographic interviews with a few medical professionals, local religious leaders, a few respected community leaders, several people of different ages with and w/out diabetes. We did a study like this several years ago with a Native American community and found that many individuals felt that it was their fate to get diabetes. Since some felt this their lot in life, they were not that interested in preventive care or making lifestyle changes.
After collecting these interviews and of course doing a thorough literature search for similar studies, you can begin shaping a questionnaire. This all takes some time, but doing the formative work up front will give you better results and guide you to ask the right questions that are important to the priority community.
Donna
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I need to translate and validate a few questionnaires into another language. Can anybody share their experience in this process?
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To validate a translation you have to make a pilot study with a representative sample. It would be necessary do a item analysis using IRT (the model depends of the kind of item you have). And you have to do a DIF analysis as well.
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I am going to develop and validate women's autonomy measurement scale.
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Alpha is not a great way of measuring reliability for a number of reasons. I would recommend using item response methods like Mokken scaling to make sure that the scale or its subscales meet minimum criteria for a unidimensional scale (Loevinger's H of at least 0.3, but better to have it higher).
That said, sample size for alpha depends on the number of items, but also on 1) the desired alpha and 2) the 'null hypothesis alpha'. If you expect an alpha of 0.8, and you want your confidence interval to exclude a value of 0.7, for example, you need a sample size of 31.
Here are the sample sizes for a 12-item test for alpha = 0.8,0.85 and 0.9
. ssalpha 12 .8
For a 12 items-scale, and an expected alpha of 0.8
sample sizes for desired 95% lower bound CI of alpha (LB-alpha):
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LB-alpha Sample size
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0000.790 2,423
0000.780 622
0000.770 284
0000.760 164
0000.750 108
0000.740 77
0000.730 58
0000.720 46
0000.710 37
0000.700 31
. ssalpha 12 .85
For a 12 items-scale, and an expected alpha of 0.85
sample sizes for desired 95% lower bound CI of alpha (LB-alpha):
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LB-alpha Sample size
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0000.840 1,375
0000.830 356
0000.820 164
0000.810 96
0000.800 63
0000.790 46
0000.780 35
0000.770 28
0000.760 23
0000.750 19
. ssalpha 12 .9
For a 12 items-scale, and an expected alpha of 0.9
sample sizes for desired 95% lower bound CI of alpha (LB-alpha):
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LB-alpha Sample size
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0000.890 622
0000.880 164
0000.870 77
0000.860 46
0000.850 31
0000.840 23
0000.830 18
0000.820 14
0000.810 12
0000.800 10
Sample sizes go down a bit with more items, but for 24 items the sample size is only about 5% to 10% smaller.
Calculations in Stata using the cialpha command written by Lin Naing and Than Winn of University Sains Malaysia
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A questionnaire such as PANAS
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Check out the profile of mood states questionnaire.
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I have a self-efficacy questionnaire and I want to know how can I classify the score of my questionnaire. Do I use the medium to classify the subjects into "self-efficacy" and "no-self efficacy"? Or what can I do?
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With group SE scores there tends to be a bit of a ceiling effect. Our group means tend to be almost 7 on a ten point scale. We have also done a little work on seeing what confidence levels actually predict behavior change. We have chosen 7 and above but you could chose 6 and above if you wished. I would not go with any mean or median but rather with a cut off score.
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Qualitative research has now been widely employed by researchers. Yet, some research work seems to be not satisfactory enough in terms of academic inquiry and requirements though it contains a high degree of rigor.
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Hello, Ngo.
Asked how many interviews would be necessary, my thesis advisor would say, "Enough." That's actually a pretty good answer, though it may sound facetious. When your participants stop telling you something new about your field of inquiry, then you have enough participants.
The nature of your research is also important. If you're studying well-known phenomena as a confirmation or marginal extension of existing research, then a _larger_ number of participants may be required before you acquire something interesting to discuss. On the other hand, a brand-new line of inquiry may allow you a smaller number of participants -- since each participant is more likely to add to the core conceptual categories whilst simultaneously providing new codes and categories.
Practically speaking, I must agree with Ayodeji Ogunrotifa's suggestion of 10 participants as a starting point. In my own research, I had planned on 20-30, and found myself saturated at 19.
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For quality improvement and outcome as evaluated by unit head, peer, and client served.
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I would look to the Military protocols to formulate an assessment tool. There are dedicated professionals who have formulated plans for all types of scenarios and I believe you will find valuable information on their site for your sector.
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And the scores on the questionnaire are on a likert scale e.g. 1 = none, 2 = rarely, 3 = a few times, 4 = often, 5 = very often, should you then undertake a 'descriptives' test in SPSS to get the mean scores to see at which time point the scores were higher? As I have just done this but I have a result of Mean=3.24 (time point 1) and Mean=3.70 (time point 2). Should I round the two numbers off to i) time point 1 mean = 3 (a few times) and ii) time point 2 mean = 4 (often)?
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Likert Scale Data is qualitative not quantitative. You should report the median and you would be better to have bar chart of the two sets of data. Remember, arithmetic means are the best location measure for quantitative data not qualitative data. Any well written Statistics book will tell you this. Also, do not listen to peiople to who tell you to round data,
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I want to enter the data from the questinnaire attached. What's the best option? I don't have SPSS builder.
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Hello Tsepo Mokau, when I worked at the Baker, there was one researcher working on a project that had questionnaire data like this. The forms were scanned and then I think they were put into an access database, which could then be imported into SPSS. Good Luck with your work. Cheers, Deborah Hilton Statistics Online
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Is there a scale or questionnaire to assess perceived stress? What is the difference between presumptive and perceived stress?
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Some people have done adaptation of Holmes and Rahe's PSLES for Indian context.
Another measure developed under a Task Force Project of the ICMR provides opportunity to assess the perceived stress as well as life event stress in addition to additional scales for adolescents. One may use the scales relevant to one's research purpose.
The details may be obtained from Prof. A. K. Srivastav, Department of Psychology, BHU, Varanasi -221005. It would be better to send a letter than email to get information about this scale.
Hope this helps
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I want to do a comparable study.
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Depends on you research question, really. I would advise to be carefull about using standardised questionnaires, the information you will obtain may not match your research question and you have already invested time and effort into this.
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The coping strategy questionnaire (CSQ), (Rosenstiel & Keefe 1983) in its original version consists of 50 items assessing patient self rated use of cognitive and behavioural strategies to cope with pain.
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Pls Google it and you will get it from the internet. Don't be a lazy student
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I am looking for a sun exposure questionnaire to use in a shift work population. Vitamin D levels will be drawn along with the study. Does anyone have a good recommendation?
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Hi Julie,
I am looking for something similar.  Can you let me know what questionnaire you ended up using?
Best,
Doria
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Please explain the steps involved.
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If you use SPSS you should follow this way: Analyze->Scale->Reliability Analysis. In appeared window you should move in right part all items in interest and click OK.
But you should remember that table of data consists of items, not scales of the test.
Normal value of Cronbach's alpha starts from 0,7.
And validity is also a question to your test. So you should think about tests to which your test will have positive or negative correlations. Also you can make contrast groups. Or find some measures of real activity.
But I don't understand what exactly is the purpose of your test, so I can't give an advise.
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Do you know any questionnaires to distinguish self-regarding and other-regarding people?
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I first Google Scholar. Then I look at other research articles and see if they will share the questionaires they used. Even if I develop my own it helps me think about what questions I want to ask. ,
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For this purpose should we use the SF36.com's calculator or should we buy the kit from the site or can we make it easier?
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As latent variables, each score is best analysed using it as latent (continuous) variables in multivariate analys. However, ordinary softwares (Stata, SPSS, R, SAS) cannot perform such analysis, at best Factor Analysis. For normal analysis, as Daniel said, the sum scores are the usual (also recommended by those who developed). For more sophisticated, and perhaps better, analysis you can use Mplus or Lisrel in a context of Structural Equation.
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We have finished a study aiming to evaluated the Strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) cross-culturally. We need someone "from outside" to do an independent analysis in MPLUS.
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Dejan, I am familiar with SDQ and use Mplus
can you let me know a little more as to your needs,
Robert
Tool for simple online-questionnaire.
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I would like to set up an online-questionnaire addressing a group of around 60 people with academic background, which would contain around 20 questions and should be answered ad-hoc mainly by ticking boxes (yes/no) or by selecting an answer on a given scale (e.g. score between 0 to 10 or similar). Is there an easy-to-use and free of charge online tool which can be recommended (I have no experience with setting up online-questionnaires so far)?
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The following sites may do the job (To be honest, I haven't tried any of them): http://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/online-polls/ http://www.webpollgenerator.com/ http://freeonlinesurveys.com/ http://www.simple-polls.com/ http://www.esurveycreator.com/ http://questionform.com/ The link below recommends 10 free online poll makers: http://www.javascriptbank.com/top-10-excellent-free-online-poll-makers.html
How can scoring systems be established in constructing questionnaires?
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Upon constructing a questionnaire, scoring is a big issue. How do you share your experience and how to guide the students?
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Do content validation from the expert on that field. Then contact a psychometrician to further validate your tool. You can use cronbach's alpha for reliability test and then pilot the tool before actual implementation.
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Attempting to develop a measure for parent's of paediatric chronic pain patients that will also look at parenting styles and catastrohising
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The best measures of attachment in children tend to be behavioral (e.g., the Strange Room) but other researchers use parental ratings for classification (e.g., Gunnar) or a variant of the Attachment Q Sort (see van IJzendoorn, et al., 2004 in Child Development). Given your concurrent interest in parenting styles, using parent ratings is likely to artificially inflate any associations and leave your data vulnerable to bias but the Q Sort may be less problematic. Good luck.
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Exertional rhabdomyolysis. I want to know how much has been trained for the race.
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Physical intelligence for h. Gardener give sterategy i think to assess physical activity and training
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I look forward to using the HSCL-20 questionnaire to monitor the evolution of depressive symptoms in a research project. This scale is widely used in US clinical trials on disease management models for depression. But I'm not sure if this is a validated tool separately from the SCL-90. Besides, I do not know if there is a Spanish version of this questionnaire (I am aware of the Spanish version of the SCL-90, but not the independent subscale for depression: HSCL 20). Dear colleagues, I request your experience and knowledge.
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Hola Eric, yo tengo la prueba SCL-90, en español, la he utilizado para evaluar sintomas de psicopatologia en conductores. Actualmente estoy adaptandola a una muestra general en El Salvador. Esta prueba tiene buenos indices de fiabilidad tanto en la versión española como en mis dos estudios. hay mucha discución sobre la validez, los estudios anteriores revelan una inadecuada validez de constructo. parece que si se pueden obtener otros crieterios de validez como de criterio. Si es procedente utilizar una subescala como la de depresión. yo Le recomedaria que también aplique la escala de ansiedad y depresión de Golber. EAD.bien para validar la primera o bien para utilizar la segunda.
Saludos
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Suppose I have a Questionnaire for a Stress assessment that contains 30 questions, each question has 5 answers (0- no stress, 1-mild stress, 2- moderate , 3-High stress, 4- Severe stress). The Total score of the 30 question varies from 0 - 120.
How we can categories the Total score (the range of total score is 0-120) into mild , moderate and severe? Which cut off s should l take for mild, moderate and severe?
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I would suggest one of three approaches.
If it's possible to validate the questionnaire against another validated stress questionnaire this should be your guide for categorisation. 
Another approach is to look at the data. If it is non-normally distributed it might "suggest" reasonable cut-offs. Such cut-offs are,  of course, disputable and you might want to perform sensitivity analyses to see if the main results persists when cut offs are changed. You probably also need to argue that the group categorisation is clinically relevant. 
The third approach, and perhaps the best one, would be to divide the total sum into tertiles, i.e. the lowest, the middle and the highest third of summed responses. This could also be criticised, but at least you base the categorisation on a objective rule.
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I have an old database of a study, in which the JAS was administered. I would like to use the data for a research question I have, and thus am in need of the scoring syntax.
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Check and Google the internet for this
Which statistical procedure is best fit for my data?
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The purpose of my study is to explore the respondents' overall preferences and if their background characteristics (e.g. age, gender, country...) have a significant impact on their preferences regarding 10 proposed systems.
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Hi Elmira, I'd be happy to do some suggestions, but your question is rather generic. Good advise requires more detail. What is your research question? What are the hypotheses? What data do you use? Do you want to have bivariate or multivariate results (depend on the theory)? What is the measurement level of the variables? As a very general suggestion: since you seem to be comparing countries, you may want to consider multilevel regression.
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I want to translate and validate a standard questionnaire. The original version contains 26 items. How many samples do I have to take for validation?...
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Hi Deepak
"There are no general criteria for the required sample size in a validation study. A sample size of at least 50-100 participants is generally recommended. However, certain methods require larger numbers of participants" . See the following website for further information.
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I am interested to translate a universally accepted questionnaire into local language. What are the main parameters that i have to tested for validation and standardization?
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the first step, is translate. (i agree with Ivan en la complejidad del proceso)
1. translate the questionnaire of English to bengali (for example) for a person that lenguaje native is Bengali, but is expert in English
2. translate the questionnaire of English to bengali (for example) for a person that lenguaje native is English, but is expert in Bengali
3. To analize diferences
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We are looking for rating scales to measure caregiver-child (age 6-60 months) interaction in a before and after evaluation of a brief play-based therapeutic intervention for foster carer-child dyads.
Any suggestions - in addition to the Crittenden Care Index, Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Crowell procedure - would be much appreciated.
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Sorry I can't help you! Caregiver-chil interaction is not my cup of tea.
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We intend to conduct longitudinal research about student nurses' attitudes towards chronic illness. At risk of reinventing the wheel, does anyone know of a suitable questionaire we could use? If so that would be extremely helpful.
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I have spent a lot of time in the chronic illness literature and I am not aware of a tool regarding student or nursing attitudes. The problem you face is that chronic illness is a broad term covering everything from hypertension and Type 2 Diabeters to cancer and HIV. So that is the biggest hurdle you would have in designing an attitude tool. Often people associated chronic illness with aging and longterm care settings. If you are thinking in that direction there are many tools to measure attitudes towards elders or ageism. Lubkin's book is probably the most insightful resource on chronic illness. Perhaps you might be able to narrow your focus or find a research tool there.
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Who should be included in the two types of review?
What should be archeived in these two focus group interview?
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, InsyaAllah this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
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I am looking for a situational empathy questionnaire, (not dispositional empathy) to measure empathy after a manipulation that I hypothesize that‎ will increase empathy.
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This is an old topic, but I thought I'd chime in in case it helped anyone.  A few of my students were looking for the same thing and found these two articles that attempt to do something along these lines but in different ways. Perhaps not quite what the original poster was looking for but maybe could be adapted. 
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If you're looking for an overall performance indicator, perhaps the win/loss record of a team would be appropriate (or number of goals, etc.). Questionnaires tend to measure constructs that are more specific such as particular beliefs, values, tendencies, or behaviors. Most questionnaires measure constructs on the individual level rather than on the team level.
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For children from 9 to 12 year old.
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Please contact my colleague Professor Rodrigo Marino at the University of Melbourne.  I am sure he can point you in the right direction.  
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I am looking for a standard questionnaire or scales to assess the function of memory.
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Let me know if you cannot find them
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I'm reading up on self-affirmation research as I work on developing a new research line while on sabbatical. My department has the manual "Study of values" by Allport, Vernon & Lindzey, but not the actually questionnaire. Can anyone help me locate a copy?
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I don't have the original questionnaire either, but Kopelman, Rovenpor and Guan (2003) have created a new updated version that is more appropriate for the 21st century. Only 15 of the original 45 items have been modified and it even explains what the changes are, so you could reconstruct the original version from it if you really needed to. The reference is:: Kopelman RE, Rovenpor JL, Guan M. The Study of Values: Construction of the fourth edition. Journal of Vocational Behavior 62 (2003) 203–220.
If you are interested in a different approach to measuring values then please check out my publications, especially 'Field trials of a novel toolkit', and our websites www.esdinds.eu and www.wevalue.org.
Best wishes
Gemma.
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I have found two tests that measure Procrastination: General Procrastination Scale (GP, Lay, 1986) and Adult Inventory of Procrastination (AIP, McCown and Johnson, 1989). I would like to know which one would be useful to apply in a student population? Is there any paper that about the difference between these two questionnaires? Are there other questionnaires that could be relevant?
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You can use Procrastination Scale (Lay, 1986) - for Student population
I'm attaching the link below:-
Can someone advise on the adjustment disorder questionnaire?
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Can anybody give me some information about one questionnaire that assess adjustment disorder.Preferably the Persian(Farsi) version.
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Dear Sina Rostami Thank you This site is very useful Best regards Manijeh
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By an essay of Freeman Dyson entitled Frogs and Birds (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/scientific-lecture/ams-einstein-public-lecture-freeman-dyson-birds-and-frogs), which was written for his planned Einstein Public Lecture, he divides mathematicians (but I think it belongs not only mathematicians but all areas of science) up into two species: birds, who “fly high in the air and survey broad vistas” (i.e. seek abstraction, unification and generalization), and frogs, who “see only the flowers that grow nearby” (i.e. study the details of specific examples).
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Due to my diverse background, I have been exposed to many cultures and disciplines.  Although what I have learned from everything so far, is that I don't know enough!  So I try to keep learning, especially from my mistakes, & my peers.  I learn things everyday, but what I love the most, is helping others!  I wish that in today's fast pace, that we could all slow down a little and enjoy a little more.  :)
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By an essay of Freeman Dyson entitled Frogs and Birds (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/scientific-lecture/ams-einstein-public-lecture-freeman-dyson-birds-and-frogs), which was written for his planned Einstein Public Lecture. In it, he divides mathematicians (but I think it belongs not only mathematicians but all areas of science) up into two species: birds, who “fly high in the air and survey broad vistas” (i.e. seek abstraction, unification and generalization), and frogs, who “see only the flowers that grow nearby” (i.e. study the details of specific examples).
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Dear Shian-Loong,
Thank you for your interesting idea and well discussing another part of the object too. Before reading of Freeman Dyson's lecture I had some opinion, but was not sure that sometimes the whole schools (I mean research schools - may be the research environment, as you write), even systems can affect and belong itself to one of these part. I think, people, who "lived" in different environment can feel the difference of them. Of course, the environment directly direct you for one of these type if you breathe or "watered" in the medium. I am not sure, but by my opinion, they want or do not want, the researchers belong one of these type by their manners.
I imagine also, what will be in case of disbalance between these two types.
With this question I would to know the researchers opinion that how they feel themselves as a researcher and why they prefer to be just in this role.
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My research is TQM in higher education with special references to autonomous colleges I have developed a questionnaire with 65 questions in 4 dimension how to give weightage to each dimension is there an formula to do it.
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You can use AHP technique to provide weightage to the 4 different dimensions. You can read many articles related to SWOT-AHP or youtube videos on AHP.
I think it will help your work. 
Does anyone have an adjustment disorder questionnaire or an adjustment disorder inventory for assessing patient with spinal cord injury?
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Seeking questionnaires
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question. Regards
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I would like to request a questionnaire to measure online students’ satisfaction based on their tutor’s attention. If any of you could share with me a questionnaire I would really appreciate it.
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Thanks Tylor, need a questionnaire already validated. If I make my own questionnaire takes several months to validate.
Thanks for sharing this questionnaire.
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Career success of employees is determined by their pre-employment behavior. Graduates and their employability is one of the major issues in Sri Lanka.
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Go to the Journal of Vocational Behavior. There you will find good research papers on employability. Be sure to read the paper by Fugate, Kinicki and Ashforth: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001879103001611
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I need this for a cross-cultural study about social change and adolescents' future orientation (mainly career and finances)
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Hi, It depends if you're assessing it concurrently or retrospectively. If the latter, the Parental Bonding Inventory is one of the most widely used measures of parental care and control. The Children's Report of Parenting Behavior (Schludermann & Schludermann, 1970) is also widely used and is good for use in children and early adolescents. The answer to your question also depends on which specific variables you're interested in - for instance, care, control, criticism, etc, or maltreatment variables (physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, etc).
Hope this helps!
Daniel
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Which of the following or any other questionnaires do you think is best to measure coping mechanisms in an outpatient medical setting and why?
- Jalowiec Coping Scale
- The COPE inventory
- Ways of Coping Questionnaire
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Try the CSI (Amirkhan, 1990). It is the only empirically derived measure of coping. The scale and a more complete description are attached.
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In order to ask individuals whether or not they have experienced psychotic symptoms, I am looking for a questionnaire or a self-report measure - preferably standardized. Such as the SPQ, for example, for schizotypal personality traits:(http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/4/555.abstract).
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You could also look into CAPE
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I have been led to believe that a questionnaire, when determining results for a population, has less need for confirmation of Reliability and Validity than when determining how one respondent compares to a wider population. But I can find no literature to support this. I have found only literature that reemphasises the importance of these, in all circumstances. Can anyone advise or offer a pointer?
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Hi Garry,
I think it is of utmost importance that you make sure that the instrument in use measures what it is supposed to measure. If you want to infer from your results to an entire population the instrument should be valid and reliable. If one respondent answers in a different way than expected - if that is what you mean - this answer is part of you variance.
A lot of scales or entire questionnaires are pretested to check for validity and reliabilty. See e.g. the following edited volume by Saris and Gallhofer:
Yours,
Oliver.
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Seeking background research for a project
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Hi Iain, thanks - I will pass that on... I know its not available online so its off to the library I think!
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I want to find an appropriate questionnaire for assessing the memory in patients suffering from different bodily diseases.
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Hello,
I don't have a copy. We have to get the materials and the scoring sheets from a testing organization, Pearson. Here is a link to their website:
To get the basic kit, is about $750.
However, you might try contacting researchers in your neuropsychology department because they should have the WMS or a similar neuropsychological test for memory.
Thanks!
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Is it a convenience?
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Jamal,
Your sample is your original designated target group - with whatever inclusion/exclusion criteria you have imposed. Your sample population is all of those that you approached - not how many responded. All should be representative of the 'total' population for your results to be generalisable.
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Once the questionnaires are filled in and emailed back is there any way data can be transferred in the spas file directly?
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How many emails, columns and rows do you have, can you not just re-type it in
Inter-rater reliability- what is best time to leave between two raters administering a questionnaire?
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In administering parent bonding questionnaires to mothers in a neonatal unit. Any suggestions on the time that should be left between raters? Too soon and recency might influence results, too soon and other factors might have interfered? 24 hours? Any advice?
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I would suggest doing a pilot study with different time intervals between ratings and seeing if the time interval has an effect on the data. However, if a pilot study is not possible, then your best bet is to see what other researchers do in similar cases. Another way to tackle this problem is to split the questionnaire in half. That should neutralize recency effects, at least to a degree.
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We need a questionnaire to measure function of Meth abusers, before and after intervention in clinical study.
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Dear Schwann,
Presently there is no specific test to follow these patients but in my opinion 3 scales may be interesting in your studty.
ASI score gives an overall assessment of the impact of addiction (in general Alcool, cocaïn but other drugs also) on the person (medical: somatic,psychological,financial,legal); it provides a profile of the severity of the addiction ("severity"rated from 1 to 9).
SF36 determite quality of life (in alcool dependence but also in the case of other drug use)
HAD scale to detect Depression or Anxiety.
Best regards.
Jean.
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Questionnaire for exercise knowledge
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
Regards
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I want to study effect of some relaxation technique on anxiety level in a short period. So can anybody tell me whether we can use STAI and re administer after 7 days?
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Internal consistency coefficients for the scale have ranged from .86 to .95; test-retest reliability coefficients have ranged from .65 to .75 over a 2-month interval (Spielberger et al., 1983). Test-retest coefficients for this measure in the present study ranged from .69 to .89. Considerable evidence attests to the construct and concurrent validity of the scale (Spielberger, 1989).
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Research purposes.
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Please rephrase your question more intelligibly. What kind of index are you talking about and what is its purpose? And why would you need to design a questionnaire to build it? Who would be answering its questions: the indexer, the index users?