Science topics: Psychology
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Questions related to Psychology
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Wagner,
There are several options for ebooks in psychology. My preference is through Kno, they have many enhancement features and more are planned. These however are paper books that are digitalized. If you are looking for a book published specifically as an ebook, check out Flat World Publishers - there mission is to provide economical digital books.
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I have noticed that decisions regarding continuing a relationship or remaining in a job seems to revolve around a four-year cycle One supporting bit is that Helen Fisher, Rutgers University did a study on divorces for the U.N. She found that divorces world-wide peaked in the fourth year, In the legal industry a general guideline is that a lawyer should be asked to become a partner within four years or consider leaving the firm, Does any know of any research into the time factor for making stay or go decisions. Could there be any factors that force time-based decisions?
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Some literature on burnout in occupations suggests a timeline (see Maslach for example). However a four year time frame as an average is not something I would necessarily endorse. Perhaps it might take two to three years to develop burnout prior to reaching a decision to quit. Some authors in medicine have noted that burnout can develop in 6 months whereas early work in burnout research followed individuals in human services for up to 20 years. It would be fascinating to explore this literature to see if there was a consensus on the average time it takes to develop burnout. If close to four years then you would get some support possibly for your hypothesis.
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E.g. collection issues, reliability issues etc.
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I'm doing some right now. One of the major issues we're having is to get the timing down correctly. Our research is using salivary cortisol assays to measure specific stress response to the Trier Social Stress Test. The hight of cortisol concentration seems to be 30 minutes prior but all of our filler stuff doesn't last that long. Currently we're just writing down the times and hope to statistically control for it. Most are between 15 and 30 minutes for us.
The timing differs if you aren't using saliva.
McRae, A., Saladin, M., Brady,K., Upadhyaya,H., Back,S., and Timmerman,M.(2006) Stress reactivity: biological and subjective responses to the cold pressor and Trier Social stressors. Human Psychopharmacology. 21, 377-385, DOI 10.1002/hup.778
goes over it a little bit.
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I'm wondering if anyone has suggestions for a brief (around 15 items or less preferably) well-being measure that could be used within individual therapy and coaching settings, that could suitable for use session to session and has (reasonably) robust psychometric properties?
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the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (14 items) seems to do very well in such settings. Has been used successfully by the student conselling service in Cambridge. the positive focus makes WEMWBS the measure of choice with people with mental illness and their carers
BW Sarah
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The NImH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research-funding/rdoc/index.shtml) is aimed to “develop new ways of classifying disorders based on dimensions of observable behaviors and brain function”.
According to the RDoC, psychopathological states as depression could be seen as “response to adversities”, e.g. response to loss or response to frustrative non-reward (or withdrawal/ prevention of reward, i.e. the inability to obtain positive rewards following repeated or sustained efforts). Without doubt this reflects clinical observations on depressed patients.
Adversities are part of human life and so are responses to such adversities. There is a wide range of intensity of such responses to loss or non-reward, from mild to moderate to severe etc.
Are there findings in brain chemistry that support the existence of a continuum in biochemical brain functioning from “normal” to “normal response of loss (or non-reward)” to mild, moderate or severe “abnormal response to loss (or non-reward)”?
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The short answer to your question is 'no' - there have been some popular candidates - Serotonin levels being the most well known of course and cortisol/corticosterone but there are no changes in these indices that are consistent enough to be considered even diagnostic let alone causal - Indeed, I have argued in the J Psychopharm paper linked below that we have got things so wrong with depression that we have no choice but to stop what we're doing, abandon what we think we know (because it has bought no progress in over 60 years) and start again using different, more rational, approaches http://www.academia.edu/2240421/The_failure_of_the_antidepressant_drug_discovery_process_is_systemic
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Cognitive psychology is the study of inner mental processes, unlike behaviorism which studies observable phenomena. It has been able to attain some scientific credibility since its origins in 1960s. The methods and measures used in cognitive psychology researches form the backbone of this field, other than the information processing theories which lie at its core. Advancing the implicit measures and tests have provided us necessary information and knowledge about the cognitive processes. But at the same time it has been criticized that the implicit measures and many other widely used tools in researches involve a sort of self-report information. A participant is asked to provide answers which are what he/she observes to be there. Although there are several procedures where no self-report is required but still a large part of literature in cognitive psychology has used self-report in their tasks. Doesn't this reduce the quality and validity of the data which is analyzed to confirm the theories and concepts? Doesn't cognitive psychology at large, if not completely, still remain non-empirical in approach? Though no school in psychology has been able to call itself totally empirical, but is this fact realized by many, that much of so-called scientific work in psychology is still not objective, especially in the case of cognitive psychology whose chief aim is to know about mental processes which can not be observed directly like physical phenomena or overt behaviors?
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A few comments of my own on this issue:
1) I do not think the distinction between Cognitive Psychology and Behaviorism is as clear and strict as implied in the question. It is true that the fundamental principles are, to some extent, opposite. This is particularly true if a “true” behaviourist would comment Cognitive Psychology. However, from the point of view of Cognitive Psychology, Behaviourism would represent an historical heritage. This can be seen in the pioneer work of Tolman on mental maps. Many of the studies conducted in Cognitive Psychology rely on “behaviouristic” experimental designs (see also point 3 below).
2) There is nothing un-scientific in implicit measures per se. For instance, many results in the so called hard sciences depend on measuring indirectly certain phenomena. Just one example: the detection of the Higgs boson. An excerpt from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_boson#Experimental_search) reads:
“To produce Higgs bosons, two beams of particles are accelerated to very high energies and allowed to collide within a particle detector. Occasionally, although rarely, a Higgs boson will be created fleetingly as part of the collision byproducts. Because the Higgs boson decays very quickly, particle detectors cannot detect it directly. Instead the detectors register all the decay products (the decay signature) and from the data the decay process is reconstructed. If the observed decay products match a possible decay process (known as a decay channel) of a Higgs boson, this indicates that a Higgs boson may have been created. In practice, many processes may produce similar decay signatures. Fortunately, the Standard Model precisely predicts the likelihood of each of these, and each known process, occurring. So, if the detector detects more decay signatures consistently matching a Higgs boson than would otherwise be expected if Higgs bosons did not exist, then this would be strong evidence that the Higgs boson exists.”
Granted, the logic relies heavily on a powerful and highly developed theoretical framework. One seldom finds theories as evolved in Cognitive Psychology (but, as Mark noticed, there are highly sophisticated theories on reaction times) – the point is: observing or measuring indirectly a phenomenon does not, by itself, weaken scientifically such study and "direct" observation is not a criteria for scientifically sound research.
3) I got the feeling that, at least implicitly, you embraced the idea that something which is subjective is, by definition, un-measurable and, therefore, far from the reach of a scientific approach. My point here is that this might steam from a confusion between method and object of inquiry. One fundamental aspect of the scientific work is that it is objective. But notice that this assertion refers to the methodology, not the object. In simple terms it means that the “subjectiveness” of the researcher (his opinions, hunches, etc) do not interfere in the obtained results. In Cognitive Psychology what is “subjective” is not the method, but rather the object of study. This could not be otherwise: the focus of cognitive psychology is a certain subject; it is not a coincidence that the words “subject” and “subjective” share the same terminology (with the use of the term "participants" this link is not as obvious). There is no fundamental constrain to study objectively a subjective phenomena – and that is why we go through such pains to devise and implement carefully thought experimental designs. You can say that Cognitive Psychology aims to study objectively the subjective phenomena. To subtract the subjective would be to deny Cognitive Psychology its own object of inquiry.
Can the myths of nature from Cultural Theory of risk be used as an environmental attitude measure in a value-attitude-behavior hierarchy model?
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According to Homer and Kahle's model of cognitive hierarchy, values influence behavior indirectly through attitudes. I am attempting to conduct a study of the underpinnings of behavioral responses to the threat of climate change. I am planning to use Schwartz basic human values as my values index, and I already have an index of climate change related behaviors. However, I'm having trouble selecting an appropriate measure of mediating environmental attitudes. Similar research has employed the New Ecological Paradigm scale as an environmental attitudes index, but I have previously found this scale to be rather unreliable in the social-cultural context of my study. The myths of nature, on the other hand, I've found to be decent predictors of climate behaviors in previous studies, and also more representative of general beliefs concerning nature held among the study population. So, can they be taken as an index of environmental attitudes?
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Dear Charles, Thanks for the papers. First of all, I agree with you that we need a study linking between cultural and attitudinal dimensions related to the environment. The “heuristics” proposed by Douglas, provide the framework from cultural theory of risk that you have chosen. But there are other sociocultural approaches to Nature concept that would be interest for your discussion. For example, the work of Philippe Descola (referenced in the paper of Grendstad and Selle, 2000), Adrian Franklin and of course Tim Ingold. Second, there are many attitudinal measures related to the concerns, values and pro-environmental behaviors. The shared by Maria Amerigo is very useful. Another alternative is the attitudinal measures of lifestyles developed by Florian Kaiser. Finally, I am developing a research about the ideas underlying the concept of “Nature” of Connectedness to Nature, a kind of environmental identity strong related with environmental behaviour also. I hope to read soon results of your work. Success.
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About Path Analysis applied in counseling psychology research
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Path analysis is a type of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The SEM includes several things but two of its applications are very common - the Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Path Analysis. In SEM terminology the former is called testing of "measurement model" and the later "structural relationship model". The path analysis is also sometimes referred as Causal Modeling as we test a specific pattern of relationship among variables in which some are assumed to be the cause of the other(s). However, this label is a misnomer as we can not establish cause - effect relationship in true sense using path analysis.
In simple terms, the Path analysis involves testing a theoretically or empirically determined specific pattern of relationship among a set of variables. Say, we are working with four variables A, B, C, and D. Then using path analysis we can test the relationship among these variables as defined by some theory or hypothesis based on prior experience or empirical evidences. For instance, if any theory suggest that A is a variable that may cause changes in both B and C, and B and C are the variables responsible for change in D. It is also assumed that A has some direct effect on D also. Then we can specify the relationship among the said variables as stated above and test it using some software based on structural equation modeling or even regression analysis based software or macros. The said model may be displayed visually also in which we'll link A to B and C with an arrow pointing to B and C (the arrows represent the path from A to B and C and suggest that A is leading to B and C). After this, we'll link B and C to D but now the arrows will originate from B and C and will point towards D. Finally, we;ll add A to D with arrow pointing to D to represent the direct relationship of A and D. This pattern of relationship among the said variables represent the nature of relationship as suggested by the earlier theory. Now we'll test this model of relationship using specific software.
The results of this testing has two important components. The first is the overall fit of the model. This is assessed using the available fit indices such as Chi Square test, chi square and df ratio, the GFI, CFI, TLI, RMSEA etc. For a model to be called good fit, the Chi square should be non significant (but for large samples it may be significant and may not a pose problem if other indices suggest good fit), the chi square to df ratio should be less than 5, the GFI, CFI, TLI, should be .95 or higher (but a value above .9 also suggest an adequate fit) and the RMSEA value should be less than .05.
The second important component of the results involve testing the significance of the paths and this should be done when there is an evidence that the overall model is fit. This includes testing of significance of direct effects (paths) and indirect effects (if it is in the model). In the above example, there are five direct paths ( A to B, A to C, B to D, C to D and A to D) and two indirect paths (A to D through B and A to D through C). If indirect paths are found to be significant then one can infer that the relationship between A and D is mediated by B and C. If only one indirect path (say A to D through B) is found significant and the other is non-significant then well infer that the relationship between A and D is mediated by B but not by C. suppose that the direct path from A to D is also significant then one can infer that A has some significant direct effect on D but also has some indirect effect on D through B and C, In other words, the relationship between A and D is partially mediated by B and C. similarly, the other paths also need to be interpreted.
To have more confidence in the tested model, one should also test the alternative relationship among the variables and if these alternative models do not fit or have a poor fit than the one that was hypothesized then one may say with more confidence that hypothesized causal relationship is more likely to exist.
Hope this helps
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Do theories of political psychology have any implications in flourishing an appropriate political system in Pakistan given our ground realities like illiterate population, cast and feudal systems, where people do not actually know the appropriate utilization and value of their votes?
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May be we can look at Political Consciousness which evolved by Lawrence R. Alschuler (his book titled, Political Conciousness of Liberation from Jungian perp) that had been taken from Paulo Freire's Concept about dehumanization. there are three stages of consciousness development ; Magical Consciousness which refer to a condition wherein the people do not realize that they are being pressured by the oppressor, second is Naive Consciousness which refer to a condition wherein the people individually realize they are oppressed by the opressor and the third is Critical Consciousness which mean a condition wherein the people collectively realize the situation and then start to make a movement againts the oppressor collectively and coordinatively..
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When writing clinical assessment reports targeted at children under the age of 5, are certain organisation/writing styles preferable to others?
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suggest you look at the work done around the neighbour hood early years and early support.This was a joint project done with the dept of education and skills , dept of health and supported by surestart. Individual organisations suchas down syndrome educational trust and scope were involved. consultation was done on this topic , you also may find Peter Limbrick helpful with his work on the team around the child.
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Over the last decade, Wagenmakers has offered not only compelling critiques of standard approaches to data analysis in psychology, but potentially game-changing alternatives to analysis as well (e.g., Bayesian techniques). The days of the p value as an indicator of evidence seem numbered. But are they? How long will it take the field to embrace the limitations of null hypothesis significance testing, still so widely taught and practiced in the field?
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I see the Bayesian framework as an extension of the frequentist framework where some of the assumptions are replaced by a probabilistic distribution, and their existence is thus rightfully questioned. Unfortunately, choosing an appropriate modelling of this uncertainty is far from trivial. Often, flat priors are used as reference which typically reduces the analysis to a frequentist approach. Furthermore, I think that the use of frequentist statistics facilitates scientific reasoning based on observations, as little knowledge is required to apply the methods. Unfortunately, this also implies that users do not need to comprehend what the calculated numbers actually mean (their literal interpretation is, in fact, very complicated. The actual meaning of a p-value is a very good example). In addition, by reducing a complex problem into a black number on a white piece of paper it is easy to make an appealing case for a large audience. This implies that there is a risk of oversimplification and publication bias. In short, I think the step from frequentist to Bayesian analyses is an important one but requires some changes:
- no requisite to report p-values in scientific journals (although reporting of parameter uncertainty remains important)
- increased collaboration between statisticians and clinicians.
- more emphasis on sensitivity analyses, particularly in frequentist settings
- encourage data sharing to allow replication of scientific findings
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How children are affected and coping with domestic violence.
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Internal Auditors are expected to conduct a series of examinations and tests, not only on internal system of an organization, but to establish conformity with rules, procedures and policy statement and report same to the management. But how can these functions be discharged effectively?
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I would agree with Charles in that there should be a correlation between internal auditor self-esteem and independence. An individual with low self-esteem tends to be introverted or have social anxiety (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21788011). This can lead to ineffective communication between the auditor, their staff, and the department being audited. Another aspect to look at is emotional intelligence and the ability to be an effective leader in relationship to self-esteem (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20602738).
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Hi guys,
In preparation for an upcoming project, I have decided to revisit the question of clutter perception. In our paper, Predicting Perceived Screen Clutter By Feature Congestion, we came to the surprising conclusion that contrary previous publications on the topic, human perception of clutter is not cumulative. Rather, it is exponential in nature. In other words, clutter is completely manageable up to a point. After this point it does not matter how much "stuff" you add to a screen, the visual system becomes overloaded.
Does anyone else have a similar experience with their research? We feel that this could possibly be due to the experimental design that has been used in previous research: Unlike our research, where we used a paired comparison to compare the stimuli, other research papers typically have done a simple rank ordering. Thoughts, ideas?
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Exponential is likely in the correct direction but is definitely not the correct answer.  Follow the structure of the eye - dorsal and ventral pathways - for your investigation.  Then there is the "what's in it for me" issue with volunteers.  A glass of alcohol - one person sees salvation, another sees a chemical mixture of ethanol with other stuff, the third person is looking out of a jail cell.  Yep - perception.
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While doing my first research in clinical psychology, I have looked for various empirical paradigms in literature that I could use for my research. Not only in previous Clinical literature, I have looked in General Psychology literature also. What I have found is that studies on psychological processes, other than clinical ones, have much to contribute to clinical field which clinicians are not looking at large. Clinical researches are done from very restricted viewpoints, and this makes the 'understandability' of clinical phenomena difficult.
One reason which seems valid is that clinical phenomena is different qualitatively from the non-clinical one. So clinical researches should aim at exploring the variables applicable to clinical samples only. But then there are many variables which have been studied in non-clinical population that have been applied to clinical populations too. So why is it that clinicians are un-willing to apply the same psychological principles, applicable to such a large non-clinical population, to the clinical population? Are we not mis-interpreting the core phenomena of 'abnormality'? I mean do clinicians really consider abnormality as just a deviation of normality or something else?
This issue seems revolving closely around the concept of classification in clinical psychology where disorders are treated as categorical phenomena, not dimensional ones. If they were considered dimensional, same principles that are applicable to a person before he/she gets disordered would be relevant of observation (and hence exploration) after they get disordered. Where do those phenomena die-off after a person gets a mental illness? Can this also be viewed in light of psychiatry's influence on clinical psychology? Will this narrowness end only after we implement more and more dimensional views of disorders in our studies and explore the trajectories of disorders as following a 'deviational path' rather than being an illness?
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My wife and I developed a social processing model which sets clinical
behaviours within the context of psychological theories and models applied to non-clinical behaviours. This might give contribute to your own thinking and search for a more holistic model, which endeavours to describe/ explain clinical behaviours in terms of general psychology. I am also attaching a case illustration of how this model could be aqpplied to PTSD.
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We are working in physiotherapeutical based compliance research (musculoskeletal orientated). Therefore we are looking for assessment tools to measure/assess motivational aspects from a patients point of few. The tool should be easy to apply. Could anybody help me out if there are any useful questionnaires applicable for our purpose?
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Hossein Rezaei- I disagree with the comment that knowledge = motivation. If this was the case then simply informing patients that smoking is harmful and can increase their chances of developing life-threatening illnesses would mean that everyone exposed to an anti-smoking campaign would give up. It would mean that everyone exposed to a safe sex campaign would wear a condom. It would mean that healthy eating campaigns are adhered to and mcdonalds would very quickly go out of business.
When are we going to accept that information-giving is not enough to motivate or change a persons behaviour!? I know exercise and a healthy diet is good for me, yet I engage infrequently in moderate exercise and healthy eating. Knowledge does not motivate. It does not change behaviour.
If you want to motivate your patients you need to talk and listen to your patients. Establish how motivated they are. Elicit and establish the patients values and link these to realistic, achievable and clearly goals that are defined and set by the patient. Identify the obstacles to achieving these goals. Are these obstacles the patients lack of self-belief, low confidence or low self-efficacy. Usually they are a combination of all of these, mixed in with low mood and a disadvantaged background.
This is a very short-sighted view in my opinion, and one which is causing the NHS to fail in it's every attempt to engage with the patients that are utilising 70% of the budget. This prescriptive, knowledge-giving approach used by many, most, of healthcare professionals just does not motivate.
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Stigma is a recognizable barrier to accessing effective mental health interventions, thus policy makers see anti-stigma campaigns as vital to the provision of holistic mental health. Research shows that mental health professionals are frequently stigmatized and also exhibit high levels of stigma towards their patients. If mental health professionals cannot stop stigmatizing their patients, why do we expect improvement from lay persons. Remember being politically correct is not synonymous with less stigmatizing attitudes.
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Excellent observations Bawo and Mahesh. "Paternalism" is a good descriptor of a situation where, instead of us walking beside the sufferer, finding solutions, offering encourangement, being their cheerleader, we are expected to stand above and be some remote judge of their mental health status. In true healing, we are beside them and believe in them.
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I undestand this as the Life-Orientation-Test has been developed out of the construct of "learned optimism". Cans somebody please confirm that?
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The LOT-R, and its development, emerged at around the same time that Seligman was positing his early theories on "learned optimism." One key difference is that the LOT-R is supposed to be an assessment of dispositional optimism, rather than any sort of learned optimism. That being said, research suggests that trait forms of optimism, and pessimism, can be learned.
Regarding your question, I think that, in general, the answer could be "yes," that the LOT-R has been used as a measure of the development or promotion of optimism. However, most of the previous studies done by Seligman and colleagues also utilized the Attributional Style Questionnaire, or the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire. Those measures, rather than assessing future expectancies, measure optimistic versus pessimistic attributions, or the way that an individual explains their past experiences.
I hope this helps - please feel free to send any follow-up questions!
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We are doing a research project on using games to study how people can be seduced to display more cooperative or more competitive behaviour.
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Would any of the prosocial behavior assessments help? I looked into PsycTests and found the PCQ - Perceptions of Collaboration Questionnaire that assesses perceptions of the cognitive compensation and interpersonal enjoyment functions of collaboration among middle-aged and older married couples. There is the Smither, Robert & Houston Competitive Index....
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We are looking to buy a new response box for use with psychophysiological and EEG experiments and need something with a low latency, is relatively cheap and is available in Europe. We would only need 2-4 buttons on the response box. Does anyone have any good suggestions, or could you tell me about the response boxes you are using in your lab?
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We also use the Cedrus RB-730. I have been interested in using the touchscreen to avoid the noise involved in looking up and down from the screen to the response box and back. Has anyone ever used a touch screen monitor? This would be very beneficial for cognitively impaired patients!
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I have been searching a theory about discussion, and who is the figure that create theory about discussion.
But, I can't seem to find it. Does anybody know about this?
Thank you for the help.
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In education, the cognitive dimensions of discussion are described in Bloom's Taxonomy , revised by Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001.
Also, a social constructivist view suggests that discussion is : “personal interactions in social contexts and the appropriation of socially constructed knowledge” (see Black, 2005).
The great philosophers of history used discussion method (see Socratic method).
Body building VS personality: do you perceive that good body building has a positive output on personality properties?
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Personality may go with body building. This implies that stronger persons can cope with stress situation in a better way. They have less fears from one side and from another side they may think that their body strength affects on the others
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I am not expert in this field but here is what I think: It's increase of testosterone production due to a proper stimulus (excercising, e.g. body building, but possibly also other sports and/or other activities) that affects the personality, and that also affects body strength, etc. I.e., my opinion is, that variation of hormone levels affects personality much more than muscles and/or strength alone. My answer to your question: yes, bodybuilding affects the personality since it leads to hormone level changes. I wonder whether the change is positive. To some extent, but too much may be contra-productive. What do you think?
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I'm seeking for an operational definition for cognitive processes. When we talk about a process, it means there should be a sequence of steps to a particular end. In the brain, almost any action involves a process, even simply standing still. Thus, what can or cannot be referred to as a cognitive processes and why?
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processes can be difined as the way of accessing, manipulating, storing informtion.
for reference u can read devid marr 1982. he tells that any event can be sen on three level i.e. computaional, algorithimic and implementataional level. decision making process can also be seen at those three levels. for looking within the brain, fMRI,MEG.PET EEG/ERP etc can be used. single cell recording is also possible generally in primate like monkey. for eye aslo these days advanced eye trackers are used. for more u can read michael shadlen 2001, 2002 etc paper on perceptual decision making
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Reasons for children's grinding and clenching of jaw during sleep.
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Thank you Fabiana and David. Grinding is normal at this age. The neuromuscular system is preparing a new shape of the dental arch : curves of Spee and Wilson. This new shape is fundamental for a correct occlusion . This " shaping- flattening" of the dental arch accurs as the CNS comes to a mature state ; milk teeth happen to be softer also. At the same time swallow changes and the child starts to walk with pendular coordination , that is , when walking arm is brought forward opposite to advancement of foot. Avoid to introduce any appliance at this age: taking away space for tongue function is crazy; interruption of affferential feedback for CNS IS EVEN WORSE.
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Most teachers are familiar with the taxonomy introduced by Benjamin Bloom in 1956 to classify learning objectives. The three widely used domains carry the labels cognitive, psychomotor and affective.
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Hi Brijesh.
there are some variants proposed by Bloom. as the proposed Cagne, Marzano. Meanwhile, I do not go with the current needs and the kind of mental processes we develop today.
Personally, I prefer thinking skills, such as critical thinking proposed by Robert Ennis (induce, infer, observe, assume, value judging , credibility).
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Can it be subtle even if its not in the favor of their emotion? What methods are being used generally to treat emotional disturbances?
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Psychoanalysis in the Freudian way can never be aggressive. However what can be done through hypnotherapy is to give direction for the search of 'causes buried in the subconscious' by asking the person in hypnotic trance(which means the subconscious mind is being addressed) to search and unravel the roots of the issue described by the patient. Under hypnosis the patient can gain insight either through an event or incidents in the past or the age at which something significant has taken place...thereby giving direction for further exploration. Time and number of sessions taken to arrive at this point is much shorter as therapy is guided by the patient's subconscious.
That was interesting explanation about the Astro moon and universal energy Bhawaan...can we then change the energy we attract?
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Is this a process that can be managed, or does it simply take as long as it takes?
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I agree that all of the above plays a critical part in how we perceive our clients. We tend to listen to what other therapist say about our clients behaviors/words said/ reactions while they are in a group setting- because we are not there to see ourselves. No one knows their clients better than the client’s therapist- for it is in the sessions that many secrets are discovered. However, let’s not forget about what the therapist is bringing to the session as well. What about our past and our upbringing? If we have our own trust issues it is difficult to believe that others are being honest to us.
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We are conducting a study that is going to examine relaxation and cognitive task performance. We are going to relax people to different depths (using binural beats) and have them perform cognitive task(s) that are sensitive to relaxation. We will be measuring task performance scores against heart rate variability skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and EEG results. Are there any known tasks that are sensitive to relaxation, with significance? Example: The Stroop test.
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/Users/JPDas/Desktop/Excerpt from Consciousness Quest Where East Meets West.docxResearch summary from the Indigenous Centres of Research
India continues to provide new procedures for meditation and a rich sample of practicing meditators. Therefore Indigenous Centres of Research have begun to generate studies on meditation and cognitive neuroscience. One such group is focusing on attention by Srinivasan and colleagues (e.g., Baijal & Srinivasan, 2010; Raffone & Srinivasan, 2009; Srinivasan & Baijal, 2007). Their research follows the recent trend on investigating attentional changes in different types of meditation, both as a state and as a trait.
The following study by Lutz, Slagter, Dunne, and Davidson (2008) is particularly relevant for providing a background. It conceptualizes meditation as a training regime for emotional and attentional regulation. In this study, the authors distinguish between the now familiar types of meditation, focused attention meditation, and open monitoring meditation. Other names for them are concentrative and insightful meditation as given in Cahn and Polich (2006). Two groups of participants were recruited in this study, one group was the experienced meditators (EM), and the other group was the novice meditators (NM). Results showed that EM and NM activated a large overlapping network of attention-related brain regions, including frontal-parietal regions, lateral occipital, insula, multiple thalamic nuclei, basal ganglia, and cerebellar regions. However, only NM showed negative activation (i.e., Rest > Meditation) in anterior temporal lobe bilaterally. The authors concluded that “at the highest levels of expertise, concentration meditation may result in a less cognitively active (quieter) mental state, such that other tasks performed in its wake may become less effortful (decreased resources allocated without any compromise in performance), perhaps resulting from fewer cognitive processes competing for resources.” (Lutz et al., 2008).
In another study, Srinivasan and Baijal (2007) used electroencephalograph (EEG) to examine how concentrative meditation enhances preattentive processing. They found that meditation enabled better change detection in auditory sensory memory. This change was observed during a phase of simple concentrative meditation, and not during a preceding part that involved fast and energetic breathing. In a related study, during the same kind of meditation using EEG, Baijal and Srnivasan (2010) found that theta-band activity was enhanced during deep meditation in the frontal area. It was accompanied with reduced activity in the parietal and occipital areas. The authors suggested that reduction in processing associated with self, space, and time.
In a paper entitled “Mindfulness and the cognitive neuroscience of attention and awareness”, the authors outlined an integrated neurocognitive model of mindfulness, attention, and awareness, with a key role of prefrontal cortex (Raffone, Tagini, & Srinivasan, 2010). Lastly, Raffone and Srinivasan (2010) on their paper,“ The exploration of meditation in the neuroscience of attention and consciousness”, stated that “ Many behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the importance of investigating
meditation states and traits to understand cognitive and affective neuroplasticity,
attention and self-awareness, and for their clinical relevance” (p.1). They also presented the main features of meditation-based mental training and characterized the current scientific approach to meditation states and traits with special reference to attention and consciousness. A report on using meditation-based training for reducing ADHD(Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) is briefly discussed next.
Meditation-based training should help ADHD
The benefits of meditation for individuals with ADHD are persuasively presented in a paper from the lab of Srinivasan(Baijal&Gupta,2008). Although the report does not claim to test the benefits in an experiment, it is reasonable to expect that meditation should improve frontal lobe functions . There is empirical evidence of such a connection as reviewed above in the work of Srinivasan and associates.The type of meditation recommended is concentrative meditation although empirical research is yet to determine which type of meditation—concentrative and insight(mindful)—is best suited for ADHD.
The key difficulty of a child or adult with ADHD is not inattention or poor attention; rather, it is the failure to stop, look, listen, and feel (Puhan,Das&Naglieri,2007
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We are investigating the cortisol concentration before and after a stress-inducing task (Cyberball) and we’d like to know if there’s a problem if subjects have a dry mouth after the task (which we experience quite a few time with our subjects) or if the salivary flow is increased because of the task. We received a suggestion from a supposed expert, that the contribution of cortisol to saliva is continuous which may be a problem if there’s a different amount of saliva produced but the hormone contribution stays the same. This would mean that the concentration of cortisol is primarily influenced by the salivary flow and not by the actual release of stress induced cortisol.
Is this actually the case or not???
What we would need in this case is some kind of reference-values that can tell us how much saliva has been produced in a certain time.
Does anybody know if there is this salivary influence and do you have any suggestions for a reference or how to handle this problem?!
And does anybody know the influence of salivary flow on testosterone, too?
All suggestions are welcome!!! And in advance - thanks a lot for all answers!
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Assessment of violence risk is important for the prevention of violent behavior. Some psychiatric diagnoses involve increased risk of violence. Schizophrenia, and especially the paranoid type, is the most important of these.
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In a way, you're asking two questions, or rather, the same question about individuals and groups. We can predict rates of violent behavior in various groups rather well. Geir mentions the association between paranoid schizophrenia and violence, for example. Aside from psychiatric diagnosis and intoxication, there are also psychometric and demographic predictors of violence and suicidality. But when it comes to making strong predictions about individuals, our job gets a lot harder and error-prone. This is driven by the limited validity of our predictors and the low base rates for most serious forms of violence - an issue first recognized by Paul Meehl in the 1950s and fictionalized by Philip K. Dick in the short story that formed the basis for the movie, Minority Report. If, say, only 1 in 100 people is going to do something, then a predictor needs to be more than 99% accurate in order to improve on chance - which is a tall order. Never mind if the behavior occurs only in 1 per 10,000 people...
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I plan to investigate whether the salivary cortisol levels can explain the clinical responses in patients with low back pain (LBP) following a conservative treatment. Specifically, I want to see if patients with higher stress level (higher salivary cortisol concentrations) will have poorer post-treatment clinical outcomes. I initially plan to collect a saliva sample from each participant at 30 minutes after waking. However, an expert suggested me to take at least 3 samples from each participant because of the high variability in intra-individual salivary cortisol concentrations. Apart from the variability, I find that salivary cortisol concentrations may be affected by depression, age, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives or menopause. It implies that I need to adjust for many factors before I can meaningfully interpret the relation between salivary cortisol levels and LBP outcomes. In summary, I may need to either exclude participants taking oral contraceptives/reaching menopause or adjust for all confounders in my 32 participants. However, if I want to put all the confounders into the final regression model to explain the relation between LBP outcomes and cortisol, I need more participants. Any suggestions? Have I missed any other potential confounders?
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Dear Arnold, you have received several helpful suggestions from colleagues. We have utilized the collection of salivary cortisol to answer a number of questions related to the diurnal regulation (rhythmicity), response to stress (responsivity) and moderating factors in children with autism spectrum disorders. While you may not be able to control all potential confounding factors, among the more critical factors that we control for include: food/drink intake (nothing an hour before salivary collection), medications (many can impact the level of cortisol), sleep (use a sleep diary), time of day (utilize a Trackcap devise) and sampling four times per day (immediate waking, 30-min post waking, afternoon and evening 30-min before bedtime). We also employ several statistical approaches to take into consideration intraindividual variability and between-group variablity). For example, we use linear mixed model approaches. If you need more detailed information, I can direct you to specific papers from our lab and others that describe the aforementioned procedures.
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Recently the editor of a submitted manuscript made some important points. For future reference, can anyone suggest information that ought to be captured when evaluating affective responses related to cancer survivorship? Assume the broader definition of "survivorship" is being used to include all those still alive following a cancer diagnosis, that the type of cancer diagnosed is known, and that the affective measures being evaluated may be of any type (QoL, depression, anxiety, etc).
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It seems to me from experience of cancer patients that the ability and the time taken to return to work is an important factor to consider. The emotional aspects of changes in cosmetic appearance in relation to return to work is also of huge importance, highlighting the need for pre-operative counselling towards coming to terms with a different person post surgery, e.g. than before, even if this only temporary. These are important very strongly felt mediators for women.
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Anhedonia, markedly diminished interest (pleasure) or deficits in hedonic functioning play a major role in pathological behavior such as schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective (SA), depression and substance use disorders.The three most commonly used approaches to assess anhedonia in schizophrenia are interview-based measures, self-report questionnaires, and laboratory-based assessments of emotional experience.
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I think the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) looks really good. Thanks for pointing it out, Mark.
Another option may be to use the relevant subscale from the MASQ. See: Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15-25.
Similar to the SHAPS, the MASQ also seems to assess Anhedonia via items measuring positive affect/experiences and taking low scores on these items as an index of Anhedonia.
Alternatively, you could use the specific 'Anhedonia' and 'Lack of interest/involvement' items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) See http://www2.psy.unsw.edu.au/dass/ ). This scale does not assess positive affect/experiences but instead tries to include 'straight' anhedonia items, such as "I couldn't seem to get any enjoyment out of the things I did".
Best
Marianna
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I suggest the use of the Apathy Inventoire, from Philip Robert, 2009. It is a simply and easy to administer and interpret scale for the assessment of apathy in AD.
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We investigate whether a higher level of complexity leads to increased reliance on expert knowledge when voting. We find that when more referenda are held on the same day, constituents are more likely to refer to parliamentary recommendations in making their decisions.
Here is a link to a short YouTube presentation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RH2vmbAiwrQ on our research. I would be glad if you could give me your comments.
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We investigated whether are smokers more rational than non-smokers (ex-smokers). In order to determine rationality of smokers, we used the following table:
Please choose one of the alternatives (question in the questionnaire)
Alternative 1
Reward : 100 000, Winning probability: 100%, Time delay: Now.
Alternative 2:
Reward: 150 000, Winning probability: 90%, Time delay:The month.
Alternative 3
Reward: 200 000, Winning probability: 80%, Time delay: Six months.
Alternative 4
Reward: 250 000, Winning probability: 60%, Time delay: The year.
Alternative 5
Reward: 300 000, Winning probab ility: 40%, Time delay: 5 years.
The sum of the probability of all possible outcomes (profit and loss) equals one, so the risk aversion coefficient equals total probability minus the losing probability (the risk). This means that the risk aversion coefficient equals winning probability.
Time delay is used to determine the time preference rate . if the time delay is longer, the actors are more impatient and expect a higher reward in the future. For examples if the reward of 100 000 that the individual will get for year, worths 250 000 (Alternative 4), the time preference rate, in this case, is 150%.
In the general case, let the utility of alternative i be Vi. In the rational choice model, the utility of alternative is calculated based on the equation of discounted and expected utility:
Discounted utility: exp(–TIME*timedelayi)*utility(rewardi), (1)
where parameter TIME denotes the rate of time preference.
Expected utility: probabilityi*utility(rewardi). (2)
Accordingly, rewriting Vi, we obtain:
Vi(rewardi, probabilityi, timedelayi) = exp(–TIME*timedelayi)*probabilityi*utility(rewardi). (3)
At this point, we simply specify the functional form of utility as the RISK-th power of reward. Such a utility function is called the constant relatively risk-averse form, where the coefficient of the relative risk aversion is denoted by 1-RISK. Taking logarithms of both sides, we obtain:
lnVi (rewardi, probabilityi, timedelayi)=–TIME*timedelayi+ ln probabilityi+RISK*ln rewardi (4)
Formula (4) was used (in the survey) to measure the net utility (rationality) of current and former smokers.
According to formula (4), value of alternative 1 is 0, alternative 2 1.065, alternative 3 1.96, alternative 4 3.71 and alternative 5 4.65.
We found that, from 487 respondents, 364 of them (75% of current and former smokers) prefered safe profit (or the alternative 1). This means that hypothesis: “Ex-smokers are more rational than the current smokers”, was not confirmed.
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One of my students wants to conduct a study on stress among musicians but I feel an occupational stress scale may not be appropriate since these groups of people face a different kind of stress.
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Thanks so much, Gideon, Julia and John, I have forwarded the articles and scale to her, she is yetto get back to me. She is a well known singer and I believe the information will help her in her project.
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This report by Hendrie and Pickles (Behavioural Scientists Appear Not to Have Specialist Knowledge of Laboratory Animal Behaviour) is disturbing, although not surprising. To my knowledge, undergraduate and graduate programs in psychology and in the neurosciences all lack any grounding in ethology of species primarily used for research. Unless an individual professor or student has a compelling interest in this area, only the most general "lore" is transmitted. I must add that even research veterinarians seem to have precious little background in ethology of common laboratory species. This is an area of neglect that needs to be corrected if any of the animal models are to have validity
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Dear Paul,
Many thanks for raising the question - it is as you say, an important issue that is largely ignored.
The answer to the question as to why the natural history of common laboratory species isn't taught in psychology or neuroscience education is unfortunately that not many are interested and even fewer see this as something they should be interested in. Hence, there is no tradition or corpus of knowledge that gets passed down.
Indeed one of the most revealing things about doing this survey came from sometimes very senior scientists, often working in the great universities of the world who took the trouble to write to say how they were genuinely offended to even be asked to say what they know about the animals they work with.
I take this to be a reflection of what is the dominant ethos where common laboratory animals are concerned and that is that they are viewed as being no more than bags of physiology without social needs or natural history.
On balance rat-based science is less harmed by this approach because housing rats in groups isn't so far away from the social conditions they would choose to live in - except of course these are normally family/clan based,mixed sex and they usually get a lot more room. There is also, as you say, very little rationale beyond 'that's the way it's always been done' for holding them in these cramped conditions.
Group housing mice is however pathological for 4/5ths of a cage of 5 and 9/10ths of a cage of 10. This is because a dominant animal always emerges, who then precedes to constantly attack the other animals in their cage because they are now intruders in its territory - the attacked animals are behaviourally, physiologically and immunologically differentiated from the dominant animal doing the attacking and soon start to deteriorate. Hence, most studies using lab mice are conducted in animals that are mainly in such an unusual physiological condition that this only rarely exists in nature.
There are more details about the social organisations of rats and the social organisations of mice in this paper - http://shootingcupoche.com/publication/23800730_Depression_as_an_evolutionary_adaptation_implications_for_the_development_of_preclinical_models?ev=prf_pub
- although the descriptions of these are placed in the context of our thesis that these are not appropriate species to use in animal models of depression because depression is not a universal mammalian feature and their social structures do not predict that they are likely to have developed this as an adaptation.
I hope we get to meet sometime.
Best wishes
Colin
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I just came back from a science conference where the speaker heaped scorn on some phenomena which Quote most people believe in Unquote but which are Quote patently wrong..
For example, he selected the theme of telepathy for special scorn. I have no preconceived idea there, but purely scientifically if we agree (Stapp, Penrose, Walker, et al.) that most neuronal firings in the brain involve quantum processes (specifically the participant ions' wave functions becoming correlated with delocalized (i.e., from the not immediately opposite synapse) receptor ions, then couldn't we envision that on occasion, the wavefunction hookup would occur with a synapse in another brain? It is scientifically not at all impossible. How can we dismiss this beforehand, without prior study?
He belabored on with several more examples which simply flew in the face of people's everyday experience (ask me) and which, IMHO, could perhaps be scientifically explained.
This ties in with the fact that there are already very wide-apart interpretations of incontrovertible experimental evidence in the sciences (30-odd interpretations of quantum mechanics, for instance) and also some interpretations of reality by science which seem so slapstick that they drive people away (such as, you have an infinity of exact copies of yourself across the metaverse, Colin Bruce et al., and yes sir we can prove it), and it drives people away from science.
In a world where a broad scientific approach is our only bulwark against obscurantism, I find this arrogance on the part of some scientists absolutely appalling. What do you think?
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I can only suggest that you start seriously reading up then.
Two indispensable & excellent general-level places to start would be 'The Physics of Consciousness' by Evan Harris Walker and "Mindful Universe" by Henry Stapp.
Is hypnotherapy during the time of Freud different from modern day hypnotherapy?
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I think content wise they are similar but differ in approach and orientation.
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Clinical hypnosis is very useful tool in the armamentarium of clinicians. The technique is very simple.In fact simplicity is the beauty of this treatment.It is inexpensive effective and easy to. Learn
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I am working on my thesis and I am not finding enough research about the comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder and depression. My population is police officers and I want to know if there us a relationship between those disorders and gun violence
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good for you for using DAI. actually the top stressor that police self-report is the administration issues, not the violence they see. PTSD can arise from cumulative as well as single incidents, and I think that will be reflected in the new DSM. I wish you good writing!
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Soft skills has been proposed, so too twenty-first century skills? Others?
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I agree about the comments regarding economists' use of 'non-cognitive' - James Heckman has been using the term for quite a while. I think one of the problems for individual differences researchers is that the term 'non-cognitive' is a misnomer because it is based on a false dichotomy. There are no measures of 'cognitive' ability that don't at least partly reflect 'non-cognitive' factors of motivation and context, while scores measures of 'non-cognitive' ability will likewise be dependent on cognitive and situational factors. So talking about 'non-cognitive' skills can be misleading.
But from my reading of James Heckman, those issues are mostly irrelevant for him because 'non-cognitive' serves an important rhetorical purpose - it directs attention away from intelligence and other 'cognitive' factors towards factors that have been buried by the intelligence lobby. Even though the term is messy, 'non-cognitive' is ideal for highlighting that shift.
But 'non-cognitive' creates a further problem in that it is a negative and derivative term, setting things up in opposition to, but dependent upon, 'cognitive' skills. That problem won't be solved, however, by creating a more positive sounding collective noun, which would only relabel what remains negative and derivative. Instead, we'll need to build around different ideas, whether that be personality, or temperament, or attentional bias, or attitude. So, there probably won't be a good overarching term until as Bill suggests, we get a genuinely integrated theory of personality.
Either that, or we'll need to get really good marketing advice. 'Grit' anyone?
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Many researchers recommend Biederman's RBC theory (1987) versus a multiple view theory but I am intrigued to hear other possible options that might be a bit more contemporary.
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Thank you for your comment, I will defenitely read the paper as I find this: "even face recognition may show a view-dependent recognition performance" fascinating.
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I have done a repeated measures of ANOVA (mixed design, repeated and between 2x4) and tested the sphericity, mauchly's has come up undefined. Does this mean that sphericity cannot be measured, or does it mean that I should use another measure of sphericity?
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Mauchly's test requires at least three levels. I assume your within variable only has 2 levels - in this case, you can safely assume that sphericity is not violated.
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Particularly a bio-psycho-social model/perspective would be of interest. But any other valuable information considering this topic are very welcome, too.
Thank you!
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Miriam lets put it this way nutrition is important for neurotransmitter balance that is key to mental health. Nutritional deficiencies or insufficiencies profoundly affect neurotransmitter production due to insufficient co factors/ precursors for these non survival physiological reactions.This concept is based on the Triage hypothesis by Bruce Ames.
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How imagination is form... How is it helpful in learning mechanism... How can we estimate one action before taking ours.... How can we implement imagination in machines.....
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Creativity is an active imagination. To imagine things, and see and hear things in one's mind, is an important ability, but it doesn't have to involve much creativity. So, in my openion, immigination is not helpful in learning mechanism. Developing a more creative imagination, then, must include working not just on the ability to imagine things, but also on to IMAGINING more ORIGIONAL things. Again, in my openion, you can not implement imagination in MACHINES. This means: seeing things that others don't see, and coming up with new ideas. THIS IS HOW IMAGINATION FORMED. Because Creativity is an active imagination, and machines are not and will never be creative, then imagination can not be implemented in learning. Nice example in web says: normal DAYDREAMING is a process of imagination, and it can consist of an elaborate fantasy world, but one mostly full of things that many people think about.CAN WE IMPLEMENT DAY OR NIGHT DREAMING IMAGINATION IN MACHINES ?
What are some of the leading psychological findings and thoughts that help explain how humans act differently when they know they are being filmed?
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I have stumbled across some of this in the past but I have had a little trouble finding anything good lately. I was hoping somebody could help me out here. I am looking for work that compares and covers the differences in behavior between when we know we are being filmed and when we are not or do not believe we are being filmed.
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An assessment of the Hawthorne Effect in practice-based research. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218628
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As a researcher in vision science, I want to learn to code programs so that I can design my own experiments.
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Hi Nabin!
I am glad that you asked that question. We have been designing experiments in Matlab for a while and can help you to get started.
Here are the steps that helped me to start learning matlab:
1) I am a visual learner so I would suggest to go to http://www.mathworks.com/academia/student_center/tutorials/launchpad.html and look at tutorials from matlab website. They are very useful, especially for beginners and higher levels.
2) After you get familiar with basic functionality go to http://psychtoolbox.org/PsychtoolboxTutorial and learn some basic functions that you will use in Psychtoolbox. They also will explain you how to download a Psychtoolbox on your computer.
3) Then I would run Psychtoolbox demos and look at their code so you know how Psychtoolbox functions work visually. http://docs.psychtoolbox.org/PsychDemos
4) Try to decompose demos and write your own simple code aka white screen, white screen with figures inside of it, moving figures etc.
If you like powerpoint courses:
If you have matlab related questions then you should ask them here:
I hope this information helps.
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Consider situations as collections of objects. When looking in any direction we see hundreds of objects. Most of these objects are not related to any meaningful situation. The possible number of collections of objects is near infinite. How the brain learns useful situations and sorts them from random collections of objects?
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In command systems there is a current world picture from which a situation assessment is made. This picture is a "context" which means that it has a validity based on the presence of objects which are in the locality defined by the sensors used to gather that picture. The picture must be continuously updated so that lost contacts are purged and new ones are added. Often other elements in the picture are also gathering data - these element may contribute (via communications) to a common world picture (eg Recognised Maritime Picture in naval command systems)
These systems are typified by being geographical, realtime and sensor derived and employ tracking and sensor-data fusion.
The presence of so much data is handled by means of command imperatives such as determining threat. Thus one might say that there is a "focus of attention" and that implies and set of prioriterised goals (to select the focus). There are also possible picture evolution (views or viewpoints ) which can be constructed which have the effect of a change of goal priority.
This architecture used to be known as a Blackboard architecture in the past. Typically the Hearsay II or HASP project are quoted see R. Englemore and A. Morgan, Blackboard Systems, Addison Wesley, 1988. After being distorted into parallel system with the blackboard being a kind of scheduler the architecture has declined in popularity, but as a real-time system for handling context bound problems it worth a look.
Another area which springs to mind is by J Barwise (80 and 90s) see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situation_semantics
I hope that these will be of use
Where can I find jpeg images of neutral faces?
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I need some jpeg images of neutral faces ( 4-5 male and 4-5 female) for a pretest. However since it is my first foray into face research, I am not sure where to look. I believe the book by Ekman and Friesen (1976) is supposed to be helpful but I do not have access to this at the moment. Any quick solutions?
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Try: http://www.geday.net/eps/neutralfaces1.htm
Why do we react differently when we are put in the same situation?
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Do you think that it is possible to explain the variations in our reactions according to biological parameters? or do you think of psychological dimensions as an explaining model? or what else you can think about?
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I think this could best be described as Learning. If for what ever reason you are put into a familiar situation, and the strategies used previously did not achieve the desired effect, your brain remembers that and then seeks another solution or reacts with a different behavior etc.
The influence of 2nd to 4th digit ratio and facial features on sexual attraction
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My theory relies on the so called No Such Couple Paradox, which states that there is not even one celebrity couple in the whole world in which partners have facial features as defined by me (read more at nosuchcouple.com). Facial features may be confusing. Sometimes it is difficult to grasp all nuances. Even distinguished academics commit mistakes, examples of misjudgments are given in my ebook. For those who are not fully convinced by face reading or have never paid attention to facial features the answer may be digit ratios. 2nd to 4th digit ratio is an acclaimed method of measuring testosterone. Just measure finger lengths if you are in a long-term relationship or ask your friends to play this game with their partners. All other conditions remain the same as in case of my face reading research: a legitimate long-term relationship and a physically attractive female. Why this last requirement? I assure you this is not a case of lookism. In my ebook you can find a precise explanation of why do I examine mainly the choices of physically attractive women. The No Such Couple Paradox is evidenced once again this time thanks to digit ratios: There is not a single couple in which both partners have very high 2nd to 4th digit ratios, in the light of the average ratios for each sex.
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My objections are not to the use of images of celebrities, but to the sensationalism that is associated with publishing results based on celebrity. With the sheer number of pictures that are on the internet, any analysis of "Couples" is bound to arrive at a similar effect without sensationalism. In fact, you also, by using a wider range of photos, eliminate any "Selection Bias" based on the fact that they are rich, and good looking. A minor point I admit. There is currently a push to a Meta-genomic study based on the idea that some of the "Junk DNA" is actually a control mechanism and perhaps conditional report of the previous DNA expressions, that acts to manage epigenetic factors. If your theory is correct, there might be markers in this Meta-genome that can be used to confirm the development stages, and thus which DNA has been expressed and at what point in the development. It will be interesting to see if this is true.
Items for loyalty?
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I am searching for items for loyalty, especially inside of family and friends but whithin authority and different kind of groups too.
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"I know my family would be there to support me when I will fail in an exam." "Whenever I get ill someone from my family is always there to look after me so that I do not have to worry about medications and treatment." "I find people giving positive comments and suggestions whenever I commit a mistake or get occupied in a problem." "I think people are good and respect sociability." "My friends always look at me with disgust whenever I get angry or express emotions." (negative score) "I am comfortable in asking for other people's opinions and favors on personal matters." Well I suppose you will have to make a distinction between 'perceived loyalty' and 'expressed loyalty', like there is a construct of 'perceived social support' and discriminate between items about 'trust' and 'loyalty' because both these overlap. So what does your construct include? What is the name of your scale or questionnaire?
Split Personality
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What are the major causes of split personality disorder?
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The term "split personality" comes from the use of the word "splitting" to describe the decompensation that often occurs with dissociative identity disorder (DID), and sometimes borderline personality disorder. However, "split personality" is frequently used in pop culture (in the United States at least) rather than the DSM-IV-TR sanctioned "Dissociative Identity Disorder." Some also refer to this as multiple personality disorder. DID is extremely rare, chronic, and is an effect of severe trauma during early childhood, usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Many of us dissociate slightly at times. And during times of extreme stress or trauma, dissociation is a protective factor. DID can be found in the DSM-IV-TR under the category "Dissociative Disorders" along with dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (NOS).
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Currently in the process of trying to change a study that was designed for in-person participants with DMDX presentation software. We're trying to change the study for online research due to necessity for location change. I started looking at Illume this week, but it looks to be mainly a survey tool. Still researching that one - but, has anyone conducted a fast-paced timing study that includes something like a stroop? Aaron Tesch, my advisor/collaborator believes that if anyone has, it's a combination of Illume/Java scripting more than likely. We have one task that is a stroop, and one that is moral dilemmas. It seems that the moral dillemas would work with the survey tool, but not sure on the stroop. Need some kind of presentation software/data collection that will be able to do this, and switch the task order to control for priming. I know one can link into DMDX, but my computer lacks the capabilities - so, setting up the tools for it that way is shot. So - if anyone has done fast paced online data collection - please let me know what they've used, thanks!
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Hi Jennifer,
For our studies we're using Tatool, a Java-based framework for programming experiments (www.tatool.ch). It utilizes Java Web Start technology, which means that participants download the application and run the experiment on the local computer (to avoid noisy reaction time data due to the Internet connection). The software package is open-source, and the demo task actually is a Stroop task variant (see www.tatool.ch/demo). If you're interested, I could also send you a copy of the BRM paper about Tatool.
Just let me know if you'd like to know more about it.
Edit: The paper is now online at
Different personality shades deployed to different peers in an organization or group
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I am trying to discover if there is a clear name or given sub-field that would provide some understanding for the phenomenon of varying interpersonal relationship patterns within an organization or group. Let me give an example of what I am looking for: Let's say you have an employee who acts very helpful and team oriented when interacting with superiors but they shift very strongly to a competitive and less social behavior pattern when dealing with coworkers or peers. Jump in if you are interested in exploring this with me?
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Hi Will, One pattern I have observed that aligns with the example you cite is status orientation (as measured by Holland's VPI status scale). People with high status scores often focus their attention upwards at the expense of those subordinate or equal to them. In some cases there is also a narcissistic component to their behaviour in that they are supportive and friendly with the 'power brokers' while being dismissive of those they see as being of little use to them.
What are good questions to ask in an interview for a psychologist post?
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A number of questions are there to be prepared for an interview and I would your suggestions and ideas. I believe they would be beneficial for a number of professionals and students as well.
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Other than the obvious competency and experience questions, one important set of questions concerns social support networks and personal "sore" points. This is predicated upon the nature of the post, however if it concerns highly stressful interactions, I see it as being important to ensure the employee has adequate and stable support networks to protect them from being overwhelmed and distraught from their work. Another question of interest is if they have any especially sensitive mental health areas, such as ageing or suicide, that they may have difficulty dealing with.
Confidence differences between the sexes
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Just stumbled across this article from a 2011 PT article on confidence between the sexes. It's a good read on the differences between the genders in confidence but I was surprised not to see any mention of the estrogen vs testosterone factor? http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-science-success/201101/the-trouble-bright-girls
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Gender is not a synonymous for "sex". Gender is cultural, sex is biological. This is why there is no reference to hormones. Genders are not biologically determined, as well as your skills and aptitudes are not determined by your hormones.
Why the is past mostly joyful and happy?
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Moments sometimes are stressful (a bit) or not particularly happy but when they become pieces of memory they contain more happiness and joy, why?
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Because after the stressful situation we feel ourselves out of stress and the stressful time has been passed. But bilal it does not happen every time if you study post traumatic or stress diorder the situation is variant .
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We know that emotions are generally regulated by our unconscious, similarly learning and reasoning are performed by working memory/workspace and so on. Likewise, I want to know where our psychological states (beliefs, faith, confidence, depression, stress, etc.) exist, especially as these states vary from context to context.
Can any one point me to some literature or current research?
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To my opinion, the current discussion in this field is rather moving away from a strict localisatory model, where each function has a circumscribed "place" in the brain, to a model of interacting brain regions or networks as principle of brain functioning. In this model, a specific function is not localised in a specific region, but emerges in the activation and communication/coactivation of several brain regions as well as a varying connectivity of brain regions.
One citation of many: Resting-state brain networks: literature review and clinical applications. Rosazza C, Minati L. Neurol Sci. 2011 Oct;32(5):773-85. Epub 2011 Jun 11. Review.
Concepts and principles in the analysis of brain networks. Wig GS, Schlaggar BL, Petersen SE. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Apr;1224:126-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05947.x. Review.
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I am developing a Likert scale for my dissertation. I had 5 faculty members review the initial statements and I have whittled them down to 15. My domain is the U.S. Mental Health System and my three subscales are accessibilty, cost and effectiveness. I plan to submit the 15 statements to 15 therapists to test on 10 of the patients each. What is the best way to do this? Do I continue to have them assess if they think the statement is measuring accessibility, cost, or effectiveness (by entering a 1, 2, or 3 in the blank), or do I give them a scale like 1= strongly unfavorable to the concept; 2= somewhat unfavorable to the concept; 3= undecided; 4= somewhat favorable to the concept or 5=strongly favorable to the concept. Help!
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Yo should give people a scale, so they can relate a number with a concept. Specialy if you're collecting opinions, you must keep it simple and clear to your participants.
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How would you describe the relations/distinctions between these concepts?
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Perception is the brain function that assigns meaning to stimuli.The emotion is intense affective state, very complex, from the REACTION, while mental and organic under the influence of certain internal or external excitations. In the excitement there is strong influence of the instincts, and the inferiority of non-rationality.
Experiences are what you live ... both the actual impressions (ie what actually happened), as the psychological and critical (ie, what do you think of q lived with you for cooperating q, q impressions which left you and criticisms regarding this experience) ...Everything will depend on what you focus on your experience, because every living thing has several angles to look at.
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Some people auto-radicalize themselves with the help of the Internet. They construct extremists opinions in their minds. What are the factors that make such persons in the way of radicalization? Are some people more susceptible than others (is it a genetical problem or cultural)?
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Logic, philosophy, psychology, science they are all connected with the fabric of systematic coherence. That's why science is also known as logical coherence. So auto-radicalization is both psychological and logical problem.
Theories in psychology from all over the world
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I think most of the (fundamental) theories and concepts were led by American and European psychologists. This is the reason why today's extended research projects are conducted in the western hemisphere. What about the rest of the world?
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Swami: Your post is very interesting and pointing to a lacunae in the psychological research. It is true basic psyche of every individual is almost similar. However, history, culture including religion, ideology or philosophy of life and social structure of a society are very important in the cultivation of trait. In simplest form a bay has two antipodal feelings: attraction and repulsion. As a baby grows she leans to express their complex forms as love and hate, friendship and enmity, pleasure and anger etc. What stimuli/stimulus make(s) one to feel sick or pleased depends on a person's acculturation and self-acquired philosophy or ideology. For example, in the West there is a very strong feeling of "personal space" and they safeguard it violently. In our culture, if a person in a market place slaps very strongly on our back and we hear some abusive address, we immediately recognise some bosom or very close friend is standing behind us. The force with which one slaps and the degree filthiness in address determines the degree of closeness. It is why diplomats and tourists to our part of the word are advised not to be be offended if one touches them. But, somewhere else you will not be welcomed for this behaviour rather an altercation with drastically unpleasant consequences may take place. After election of Obama to to Presidency it was said that race is forgone concept in America. But, an altercation between a black Harvard Don and white cop made it clear that race is very much on their palm. To address as kallu (black) in our subcontinent or negret in Latin America is not understood as derogatory or offensive. But, not in Europe, but in Israel non-white Jews migrated from India, African countries are not accorded the same status as the white Jews. On the contrary in 2005 I saw a white Arab Aalim (Scholar) as pink as an Scandinavian to embrace and kiss on forehead of his African student in the Mosque of the Prophet as though the student was his blood relative. Thus, in the final analysis the simple psychology of individuals is twisted by upbringing in a culture or religion or philosophy or ideology etc. Therefore, it is necessary to develop regional psychological models. To use Western psychological theories is like to explain politics and organisation of the governments in historical past in present day political and administrative terminology though to draw analogy is not ruled out.
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The question devolves from the conception of mind and idea. Explaining mind can run into a book. Each quester forms hypotheses from one's own experience. Agreement is elusive when people have different experiences. Furthermore, each person believes everybody has the same perceptions, and has similar experiences. We cannot make sense of testimonies of experiences we cannot imagine, so we reject them as unreal.
My experiences led me to the concept of a hologrammic multiverse as described by Everett and Wheeler. This model supposes that there is a universal "mind" defining everything, like commercial radio space contains all programs and all instants of all programs. The individual mind becomes conscious as individual by focussing/tuning on one phase-frequency in the universal hologram. The stimulus for focus might be the coherence that preserves one's self and grow. Once an idea appears in focus, it grows by harmonic progression until comprising a world. Thus, ideas grow as dreams. Dreams become real as they are amplified by sharing with others. Shared dreams constitute a common mind.
When Einstein published e=mc2, he had no idea how it might be applied. Until the formula was applied, it was merely an idea. The application was made later. Likewise ideas about ideas and mind are merely ideas until they can be proven by application. It is worth while to argue impracticable ideas because applications will come later.
I came to a hologrammic hypothesis in consequence of sharing dreams with a few other people. Of course, this is nonsense to people who have never shared a dream; shrinks call it "folie a (insert a number). At what number of common dreamers does a dream become real? How can dreams, common and individual, become real?
TP
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Basically, emotions help us to connect (and drift us away as well) with each other in nonverbal communication/body language perspectives. Without expressing emotions, we may not know about each other's state of mind. For the same reason, we express different emotions and feelings during interactions. In text messaging, wide use of emoticons is for same purpose i.e. making communication more human by harnessing power of different emotional expressions. Hope this answers your question, Hector. ":)"
***Warning:- Smile can be genuine as well as fake. Actually, fake smiles are more prevalent than genuine in society.***
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Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills
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Maybe, this link will be helpful to you: http://www.trackingsheets.net/
There is also the full version [1] on the bottom of the page.
[1] Educating Children with Autism A book by the National Research Council available online.
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Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel. The word was first used in the English language to describe the physical sensation of touch through either experience or perception. The word is also used to describe experiences, other than the physical sensation of touch, such as "a feeling of warmth".[1] In psychology, the word is usually reserved for the conscious subjective experience of emotion.[2] Phenomenology and heterophenomenology are philosophical approaches that provide some basis for knowledge of feelings. Many schools of psychotherapy depend on the therapist achieving some kind of understanding of the client's feelings, for which methodologies exist. Some theories of interpersonal relationships also have a role for shared feelings or understanding of another person's feelings.
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Feeling is a state of mind, associated with an event or happenstance. Moreover, it is a perception of the event/happenstance and the experience of it.
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Non-cognitve ability
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One of the main problems with "human sciences" in general and psychology in particular is that they deal with words. Too often with common sense words such as in the present case, intelligence or emotion. This is a major constraint and it requires these words to be as precisely and also as broadly defined, as one intends to use them. If one considers, like most students do, that "everybody knows what it means since anyone has emotions", there is no way how to consider that emotions can contribute to an emotional intelligence...
If I use the word "emotion", it means "an adaptive response to a situation or event. This response combines somatic (vegetative, endocrine, and postural) and mental components as to how "I" value this response (implicitly, sometimes explicitly) and consequently the event that triggered it. Since an emotion will be memorized together with its general context (both sensory and motor) this emotion will be reactivated together with its context. Consequently, an emotion can arise from a purely mental activity, but it preserves nevertheless a somatic adaptive component.
Intelligence is even more difficult to define, because it is a general capacity of an individual that designates how efficiently he or she can deal with either common or specific problems, i.e. take an optimal decision. Optimality can be considered as involving in the same time the lowest energy cost and highest benefit either realistic (nutritional, survival, reproductive) or more abstract in terms of increased knowledge and internal coherence).
Associating the words intelligence and emotion means adaptation to a given situation will be succeeded in an optimal manner combining both cognitive and emotional dimensions.
The term "emotional intelligence" can either be used with a very vague definition or no definition at all (as most often the case) or, if supposed to enter as a part of a scientific description, it should be carefully defined, otherwise there will not be any common acceptance of it.
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Is anyone working in the area of self-regulation, researching the relationship between goal orientation and self-efficacy? Specifically I'm interested in the perspectives psychologists here might have on similarities between the concepts of promotion/prevention motivations, goal orientation and self-efficacy beliefs. Thanks.
Bogdan.
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I did a study for my doctoral thesis on self-efficacy in particular on heatlh goals using the common-sense model of self regulation. The model explains the way individuals reach their goals, that is, through the parallel processing of problem-focused and emotion-focused goals, using both cognitive and behavioural processes to control the objective health problem and regulate emotional distress (Cameron & Leventhal, 2003). Hope this helps.
Why does psychology exists as a separate field from psychiatry?
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All psychiatrists do the job of psychology by counseling. If psychology has role in field then what kind of role it has to play?
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Perhaps it is different in differnt countries, but in the US, psychiatry has evolved to doing mostly diagnostic/medication prescription work and minimal psychotherapy whereas psychologists are continue to provide psychotherapy. This is driven by the economics of practice, i.e. how insurance reimburses practitioners. I would also like to point out that a unique contribution of psychology is the developmetn and administration of psychometric testing for the purpose of quantitative measurement of cognitive and personality status.
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This question is aimed at pinning down the function of what we might call negative feelings, such as pain, sadness, anxiety, guilt, and so on, rather than at trying to pin down how in practice we might managed to alter them. But could it not theoretically be possible to replace a feeling of pain when touching something too hot - that is, a sharp avoidance of some damaging stimuli - with a positive feeling, such as a sudden overwhelming desire to keep the burning part of your hand in good condition? The second type of feeling would motivate you just as equally to avoid damaging your hand as the first but instead of it feeling unpleasant, as pain does, it could instead give you a positive feeling about moving your hand away.
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What a thought provoking question. Yes, unconsciously one can replace a negative felling with a positive one. For example, out of my relationship failure, the desire to run was born. Out of boredom, I started running, which I have maintained till to date. This undoubtedly has got benefits to my health and physical being. The key to this is to be less aware of your desire to replace the unpleasant feeling. The more you are conscious about it, the more difficult to move on and to achieve this.
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Borderline personality disorder
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We have dealing with a lot of public and testing them formally: The fast conclusion is MOST OF US HAS SOMETHING!!!!
Labeling is difficult. And , basically we are not all well adapted and when we are we may be "too": adapted to a sick society. Then: yes, there are some people out there suffering and making others suffer because of "personality disorders". They cannot be completely "cured" because the are people as everybody else, and everybody else is not completely sane!!!!!
I think we should use diagnose as a tool, with no labeling, and considering that almost everybody can improve, at least if not in a definite psychotic level.
Anyway, reducing anxiety and increasing comprehension of the mechanisms of life and world, help.
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Psychology
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If there positive psychology to balance mental health.
What is Narcissism? And if it's bad how does one get rid of it?
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This is what I know: If I love myself, my work and my output and become hungry for other's agreement and acknowledgement of my work I become a narcissist. If I stop waiting for their acknowledgement then there leaves no reason for me to do any work. Help me my fellow researchers, I dont want to live with this disease.
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So it's another gray area. A little narcissism can be constructive and productive, a lot can be destructive. It can be caused by many factors, e.g., insecurity, control issues, libido, greed, etc. Thus one would need to know the nature of a partiular person's condition before attempting to "get rid of it."
How to measure socioeconomic status (SES) as a confounding variable in an online survey for adults?
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What would you recommend as indicators to measure the socioeconomic status (SES)? It's fairly known to use the dimensions (1) education, (2) occupation and (3) income. But how should they be operationalized? As the SES in this case is "only" controlled and not dependend variable, it's important to record it in a valid but economic way... Please share your experience, recommended reads and ideas.
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Before been able to consider SES as potential confounders, the following questions need to be answered: 1. What underlying causal mechanism actually explains the relationship between a condition and its effect on the studied outcome? 2. Are there reasons to believe there is an association between the studied condition and SES? 3. If 1) and 2) are assumed, are we sure that SES are not on the causal pathway between the studied condition and our studied outcome? If this was the case, beware of over-adjustment! 4. Are the rationals for grouping different SES together founded for the studied problem? 5. Are we considering an index of SES as a surrogates of another phenomenon such as "social stress"? If this is the case, had we not better use a validated questionnaire to measure this phenomenon instead of measuring SES? For most of our studies, we use SES because they are easy to collect and are often already available in large databases. This is to my sense a big error. When modeling data using SES, we should carefully choose indicators of SES for them to be specifically adequate to a studied question. Other than that, they are only used as descriptive variables to define participants.
Artificial intelligence VS human intelligence: Are humans really more intelligent than computers?
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For the first time, this question should look irrational. I know this because the answer simply is the human. furthermore. The human has invented computers. This is true, but the human also invented cars, planes, rockets, all are stronger than the inventor. Returning to original question, can we adopt ourselves to process as computers?
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thanks Milin to start the discussion. do not you think that we are still unable to understand the process of intelligence of our brains.
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I am interested in a validated scale to measure intelligence.
The types of intelligence I am referring to would be
A. Emotional intelligence (both trait and ability) as I aim to use it in a study on borderline personality disorder patients with different levels of education.
B. Classical intelligence. As such, I was wondering if there is a test more suitable for this than the IQ test?
I am looking for something that is agreed upon on by (most) of the scientific community and, from what I have seen, the IQ scale does not represent what I am looking for. Also, this study will be done in patients who do not speak English as a native language. They speak Romanian (mostly) as their primary language and English as their 2nd language. As such I would be very interested in questionnaires that have been translated in Romanian already.
Edited at 10:13 PM Friday, 27/09.
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Please find attached the samples of the Number series and the Figural reasoning test from Sternberg's Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT). As for verbal reasoning tests such as analogies, synonyms, and antonyms, you should be able to find them within any comprehensive intelligence test battery.
One additional note, however: the combination of verbal, quantitative, and figural tests should give you a rather comprehensive measure of academic intelligence, but it might well turn out that a less comprehensive measure is still valid regarding the specific purposes of your study. Given that your interest is in the emotional intelligence of BPD patients, you might be particularly keen to separate their EI abilities from their verbal abilities, so the latter should certainly be tested for. Whether you really need to include other aspects of academic intelligence in your assessment, depends on the specific research questions of your study.
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Not extent of use (like length of time used), but rather the speed with which people use electronic mediums: computers, cell phones, text messages, e-mail, social networking, the Internet, whatever level of technology you can think of.
technology electronics computers measurement quantification empirical
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Perhaps answering this might lie in rephrasing the question to what is the rate a society adopts new "technology"? Technology being an advance over the way the fun ction is performed when the new approach of available. Affordability, awareness, ability to know how to use the advance and similar questions all are elements in the time it takes. Many years ago, a colleague tackled this question and found that it took about 25-40 years before new agricultural techniques were used by a large percentage of farmers.
The rapidity of information dissemination to day certainly accelerates adoption. A larger percentage of the population is comfortable with technology would certainly accelerate acceptance. One may argue that technology adoption is different tanything else, but I think how long it has So getting to an answer means an exhausting effort in defining the variables.take for the U.S. to adopt soccer as a national sport, not to be as large as baseball or basket ball, but leagues at all levels.Soccer took about 25 years And adoption must be defined according to a level of use.
Do you perceive that literature could come from scientist, researchers as byproduct while the brain is occupied by scientific thinking?
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I have observed for a long time that when I am being occupied deeply by scientific issues, literature ideas emerges in various forms as writing a poem. my own explanation for that phenomenon is to perceive literature as byproduct of scientific thinking or subconsciousness take a rest to have better scientific thinking, or may be something else. as researchers and scientists, have you ever experienced such a thing?
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I think art is needed for persons who need to transmit their knowledge to everyone. When you can look what is important for the society you need art to transmit it. I look that with study pressure, I have more art ideas, and more special moments of creativity. (In the wake up, in the shower, driving, and when I do manual labor, broom, paint, etc.)
Do you know any animal model for crime?
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I would like to experimentally try to establish a model for crime to test some hypotheses. could any of you have any idea about?
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There is no crime in the nature, there everything is related to survival and adaptation. Crimes must be defined in order to exist. First a certain behaviour is identified as not acceptable, as not conformed with the public order and then some sanctions are attached to it. In fact the crows do not take anything from anybody, because there are no property rights in the nature. To say that 'I own myself' instead of I am myself... Kind of strange isn't it?
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Priming research is multifaceted and criticism cannot be universally applied to all this research. One widely used approach is masked priming. Having studied masking in many experiments for almost forty years and well familiar with relevant literature I can assure that im many cases those who USE masking (incl. in priming studies) do not know all the subtleties and pitfalls common to this paradigm. There are surprisingly many potential sources of artifacts and confounds when one uses masking of the stimuli that are hoped to become subliminal (i.e., not consciously experienced) by the masking procedure. From tens of the possible places where one may overlook these artefacts I mention only few here. 1. Not alltrials in masked presentations lead to equal perceptual experiences of the prime-mask interaction. In some trials masking is severe, in some other masking is not strong; this is despite that physical parameters of stimulation are the same. Thus the effects can be based on trials where masking somewhat fails. 2. In an interaction of successive stimuli masked input has an effect also on how the masking stimulus looks like or influences behavior. Although a preceding stimulus (e.g., prime) may be subliminal itself, it has had an effect on mask appearance whereby mask takes over the role of the source of effect, often through a semi-conscious appearance. 3. Methodologically, it is challenging and without an ideal solution to disentangle perception and immediate memory. Some trials may involve experienced perception of the prime, but also a fast forgetting of it. 4. Mask may change SOME perceptual characteristics of teh prime, but not all; hence primes may have effect indirectly, but still as consciously perceived aspects of stimulation. 5. And so on... In a nutshell, before beginning to use masking as a method it is advisable to carefully and substantially study this field in order to be better prepared to avoid artefacts. And an endnote: in my lab when we have tried to obtain priming effects, we have always failed when true masking has been granted. (This does not mean that a masked stimulus can not influence how fast and how mask itself is perceived.)
Do you agree to use this term "suicidal subconsciousness" to explore and understand adopting negative behaviors?
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I think that the subconsciousness word is the repertoire of higher values, emotions, beauty,...etc. any deviation to that beautiful world may affect on the perception of external world and values as life, beauty,...etc., become less important and predispose to other events like isolation, ...etc. suicide could be the end. so, suicidal subconsciousness precedes committing suicide. what do you, as researchers, philosopher, scientists,...etc., do you think about that.
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In other words, is it a circle like mechanism by which dynamic changes in brain chemistry lead to changes in subconsciousness and vice versa
Stress coping mechanisms: ignorance, facing or running away?
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mostly, all of us are exposed to stress. the way by which we treat with stress situations are varied. I see three major ways to cope with stress including ignorance, facing and running away. do you believe adopting any of these options depends on individual's philosophy , or an integration of performance between subconsciousness and brain organizing centers expressed in terms of brain chemical aspects?
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thanks Sean, valuable interactions and links
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What is the role of pornography upon society? We will discuss, among other issues, the correlation and the impact of pornography with and upon culture and arts in general. The arguments, pro and contra, should bring light upon acceptance and rejection of porno material within different cultures. The effect of legislation in different countries will be discussed as well. The economic impact makes also a major part of the subject. The scientific community is invited with their comments, opinion and contribution. TV/cable networks and Internet, as major carriers of such material represent a great source of income. What is the future of the pornography? Is it uprising or falling / downsizing?
PS) Please do not forget to vote member's comments / posts / participation. This encourages other RG members to participate as well.
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As Biologist I think that also the pornography must have biological basis. Every aspect of our culture have biological basis (far away or near). The religion, the art, the music, but also the economy, the social organization, all of these aspects have a biological basis. The "antropological distorting lens" makes us think that all these behaviors are purely "cultural".
In the specific I think that the pornography could represent also positive aspects for our society for several reasons: consists in a safety valve to relieve pressure in some personalities who would otherwise may need to strong emotions in real life, and through pornography are able to keep under control their instincts.
In addition, from a philosophical point of view, the pornography itself has an element of rebellion, due to the fact of peek into the forbidden, which offers man the opportunity to surpass the prohibition around the sex, to drop the veil "cultural" about the nudity (as one symbol of the forbidden). And then the transgression becomes "on overcoming" of the psychological barriers.
In fact, the pornography is mainly a "scam" that the human animal uses to bring down the tensions that a society always more rigid imposes. And the man is, of course, an animal, and as such has also flesh pulse, physical and emotional beats, that a corset too tight can leave breathless.
Maybe the real problem about the pornography are the collateral effects: exploitation of children, prostitution, abuse, etc. And the money that the affair could generate: where there is money, there's trouble!
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Social psychology
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So there are many factors and effects which explain how people interact with situation. There is an effect which is called "bystander effect". It's closely tied with social responsibility. People are more likely to help others when they when they one by one with someone who need help or when they see how other bystanders help somebody. Also there are such factors as iindividual expirience (you were in such situation as person who need help is) and deanonimity (if somebody in trouble ask you "hey you in black T-shirt hepl me, please!) and so on. You can read about Milgram's experiments, Latane and Darly and many others.
Do you think that microbiology will reshape our understanding of medicine?
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studying microbiology seems to shift our understanding of medicine. the idea beyond this question emerges from the following points: 1- classical roles of pathogens were associated with inflammatory processes and disease are treated with antibiotics in case of bacterial involvement as an example. 2- new nontraditional roles of pathogens have been encountered as the role of H.pylori in gastric ulcer. H.pylori has by been recently associated with stomach cancer and formation of immune complexes that may lead to autoimmune diseases. 3- nowadays, Chlamydia pneumonia is associated with cardiac problems and plaque formation. 4- suicide has also been associated with other pathogens such as Toxoplasma. according to the previous context, microbes in general have nontraditional roles and shift our understanding of medicine and interfere with neuroscience and psychology as well as philosophy of cognition and consciousness and subconsciousness. what do you think about this hypothesis?
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Ecological theory, and in this case, microbial ecology is influencing medicine. A quick search with the terms "biological systems approach" and the "microbiome" work involves systems and community ecology respectively. It indicates a shift from reductionist biomedicine to a higher level integrated approach, a shift that occurred in ecology in the 60s and 70s (Odum; systems ecology). So don't just narrowly focus on microbiology and disease/pathogen species, their genes and toxins, these organisms do not propagate and have their effects in a vacuum.
Is educating patients fine details about their disease of therapeutic potential?
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i have noticed that when patients received good information with deep details, they tend to commit with their physician"s view and adopt better attitude and practice towards their treatment. I would like to share your opinions in this issue. regards
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I think it can help, but also I can see how it can be damaging. It depends on what information you choose and how you interpret them to your patients.
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Education & Economics in the globalization process do go hand in hand and starts with parenting.
The personal basic values are transmitted and formed at home. The education starts at home. It is a social obligation and responsibility while observing the basic human rights – the right to Life, health, education and personal safety and security.
Parenting? It's easy to have children but the responsibility to bring them up, to build the "infrastructure" off all we have and do on Earth, to "construct" the only mean of added value to our Life, the difference between developing ourselves as species as opposed to destroying humanity along with all the rest of Life on Earth, it is huge and perhaps the most important task.
The downing of the MH17 in Ukraine and the ongoing conflicts in Gaza, the never-ending shootings in USA University and school campuses, the acts of terrorism, the self-terror conducting the increasing obesity, missuses of technology and "UNsocial networks", just to mention a few and recent events and behavior, do all of these have anything to do with parenting or ....it is just an asteroid issue hitting our planet, an event beyond our control?
In what direction and at what speed does humanity is going to? Is anything that we need to do now? and how?
Any ideas, solution, opinion, personal examples, suggestions, questions, perhaps will help all of us towards a better world.
My regards to RG members, my consideration to parents and the future of humanity,
Dr. Adrian Toader-Williams
PS) Please do not forget to vote members contributions as to acknowledge abd encourage RG members activity.
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Dear Adrian,
These are the old known factors of today's state of affairs: wrath, avarice, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. These factors can be counterbalanced by chastity, temperance, charity,  diligence, patience,  kindness and  humility. However, if you are a perfect example of the latter factors your child may be more inclined to copy your behavior. Helas, no parent is perfect and parents also engage in frequent struggles in front of the child. However, also a child is no absolute angel, he is not free from conflicts between destructive and construtive behaviors. The child is an autonomous human being with choices -  although immature - of his own. He can later on choose to become what he had experienced or he can rebel. After he went through his own trials and errors and did his own mistakes he may eventually end up with the insight that the parents were not always wrong. Parenting matters.
Best regards
Béatrice
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How can we scientifically explain the fear people have of the unknown? Many times risks are not taken by people because of their unknown consequences and this can be something negative.
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A very brilliant question zografopolos just due to fraudulent behaviors and lack of confidence on other person. Sometimes we are very open to unknown we share each and every thing but after someday we realize we were wrong ..... It also depends on the personality type whether introvert or extrovert. ... Thanx for listing
What is education? THEN What is mathematical education?
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Why is it useful?
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My beloved community college professor from Harvard, Brown, and Oxford, Dr. James A. Vendettuoli, Jr., taught at the beginning and emphasized throughout each class that Education stems from the Latin verbal infinitive, educare, meaning to call forth (that which is already in you). The next thing he taught us was that he would only teach that which is relevant to our lives. And this he did, sending many of the students over his tenure onto the University of Michigan, for myself to study Mathematics and Philosophy. Likewise, mathematical education also should be only that which is relevant to our lives and as such, accurate measurement of space and time for improving the quality of our lives, including education itself, is called forth.
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Are media detrimental to us?
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well I am sure to some point there is. Some of my students tend to argue that the information is easily available online and therefore it has not be "learned" anymore. They just have to look it up. They prefer these "shortcuts" to get to their goal. However, reflexion of the provided information is not a topic to them. There is a nice statement to this from Ann Blair, a history professor at Harvard University:
“But making and using shortcuts skillfully and responsibly requires judgment, too. I hope that such judicium, a central value in education since the Renaissance, will continue to define intellectual work and to spur demand for high-quality information, contextual understanding, and methods for building on previous reading and experience, so that we are not reduced to searching for everything anew.
It's important to remember that information overload is not unique to our time, lest we fall into doomsaying. At the same time, we need to proceed carefully in the transition to electronic media, lest we lose crucial methods of working that rely on and foster thoughtful decision making. Like generations before us, we need all the tools for gathering and assessing information that we can muster—some inherited from the past, others new to the present. Many of our technologies will no doubt rapidly seem obsolete, but, we can hope, not human attention and judgment, which should continue to be the central components of thoughtful information management.”
(Blair 2008, p.4-5)
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When someone is striving for flawlessness we can definitely see some positive aspects of this effort. However, do you think perfectionism can also affect negatively people's lives? And if you think so, in which aspects? Last but not least, can we consider perfectionism something negative rather than positive in the end?
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Perfectionism, from a psychotherapeutic point of view, represents the effect of an underlying issue most likely.
It depends on the type of perfectionism as explained previously.
Although all types of underlying issues present positive effects it depends a lot on the coping mechanisms of the patient.
In short, if perfectionism does not affect the quality of life of the patient then perfectionism does not require intervention, especially because after the age of 40 it is hard to change a person's way of thinking. However in most cases perfectionism does not allow a person to have a balanced life and this can be solved through different psychotherapies.
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I need information on the process or step by step procedure of teaching students behaviour rehearsal
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A typical procedure would involve:
* Introducing the behaviour (example: quietly asking a question)
* Modelling the behaviour for the student (example: have the student stand at the front of the class and pretend to be the teacher while the adult sits in the student's seat and demonstrates how they would ask a question in a polite fashion)
* Discuss the model and ensure the student understands
* Practice the student completing the behaviour
* Discuss with the student how the behaviour felt and what they thought about doing it.
* Ask how confident the student feels on a scale of 1 - 10 about repeating their behaviour in a social situation in the future
* Ask what can be done to increase their confidence
* Implement the change and practice the behaviour again
* Finally, encourage the student to change the behaviour, praise and positively reinforce when it is done with a gradual diminshing of the praise until eventually it becomes a learned habit.
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They are seen as placebo for nootropic agents.
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Eastern country believes in yoga, herbs, and diet style, spirituality, meditation and alternative therapies like acupressure, acupuncture etc., This may be the reason that eastern countries  does not trust nootropic agents for the treatment of behavior.
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Why do physicians assume a person has paranoid schizophrenia before checking TSH levels? High TSH levels in hypothyroidism also cause hallucinations and delusions.
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It might be because for some physicians it is always simpler to put the cause on psychological process than physical ones. Also, I guess that not every physician or consellor knows well about TSH? This has to be studied...
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Is there a contradiction between theory of embodied cognition and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia?
Thank you
Best regards
Diana
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Interesting question that is still under hot debate. There seems to be much support to suggest that abnormalities in sensorimotor control and awareness of action may underlie some psychotic symptoms. In particular, this is relevant to passivity symptoms such as delusions of control and auditory hallucinations, in which the locus of control, or agency of actions, thoughts and intentions are shifted from the self to an external agent. Here are some classic examples from the literature:
I also believe that there may be a link between abnormalities in embodied cognition and the deficits in social cognition seen in schizophrenia:
Do you think that there might be a contradiction between the theory of embodied cognition and the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia? If so, I would be keen to hear more.
Evolution of imagination
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Did the ability to imagine evolved to overcome fear? Any research conducted over same?
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Hypnosis and EMDR with athletes Dr. Matteo SIMONE 21163@tiscali.it INTRODUCTION My intention is to present a model of intervention in sport psychology that I have defined with the acronym O.R.A., using techniques of Gestalt therapy, EMDR protocol adapted to peak performance and Hypnosis Eriksoniana. The O.R.A model was conceived and developed from my working experience as a sport psychologist of elite athletes of various disciplines. ORA in Italian means NOW and the acronym stands for: Obiettivi (Objectives); Risorse (Resources); Autoefficacia (self-efficacy). Being myself an athlete and having had the opportunity to make an experience / internship of about 4 months at a sports center for professional athletes still continuing to follow a few, I could realize that it is important to them essentially a work of defining targets from which to identify the resources needed to achieve them through EMDR. This allows an increase of self-efficacy as one goes to work with the four sources identified by Bandura and that identify past successful experiences, the feelings connected, verbal persuasion and reference models. The work is enhanced by the use EMDR with hypnosis Eriksoniana that allows you to experience a future scenario more vividly, more multi-sensory experience where the athlete may be able to excel in his sport performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS The material used is the protocol for EMDR Resource Development and Installation (RDI - Resource Developement and Installation) while the method is the NOW that allows focusing on the upcoming goals, to do development work of the necessary resources that allow an increase of self-efficacy. Hypnosis is used in Eriksoniana time to identify where past experience has proven to possess the necessary resources and time to address the situation difficult to imagine using the resource installed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION I have used this model integrated with athletes of different disciplines (Martial Arts, Athletics-bottom, Athletic-speed), getting positive feedback because athletes achieved an increased awareness of resources, quality, necessary that he needed to address performance. I also observed that when asked to identify past experiences of success came out more confident of their abilities, they could contact their pleasant sensations and emotions related to review success and felt ready for the upcoming performance. This experience has resulted in an increase in the resources of self-efficacy in athletes. Also imagine when to face the challenging situation using the resource installed, claiming to be fully successful in their performance, we can say that athletes already experiencing excellent performance in the session feel more confident of being able to overcome. CONCLUSIONS Can I conclude that this method allows to work with athletes in a clear and efficient integration of EMDR and hypnosis are two approaches that very good and powerful. Results are encouraging but controlled studies are needed. REFERENCES Foster, S. (2001). From trauma to triumph: EMDR and advanced performance enhancement strategies. Self-published training materials. San Francisco, CA: Success at Work. Foster, S., & Lendl, J. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Initial applications for enhancing performance in athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7 (Supplement), 63. Leeds, A.M., & Shapiro, F. (2000). EMDR and resource installation: Principles and procedures for enhancing current functioning and resolving traumatic experiences. In J. Carlson & L. Sperry (Eds.). Brief therapy strategies with individuals and couples. Phoenix, AZ: Zeig/Tucker. Unestahl, L.E. (1982). Better sport by IMT—inner mental training. Orebro, Sweden: Veje.
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If they do, what are reasons of such an overlap? If not, how do they differ?
(Thanks for any reference to psychological research on the eventual overlap.)
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I think that there is a growing field of datas about the relationship that exist between shyness and introversion. Moreover, the concept self-esteem seems to be a mediator of this relation. But, I think that it is important to define what kind of self-esteem best account for this relation. Indeed, is it a "self self esteem" or a "social self esteem" or both ?
Some elements could be found between shyness and self-esteem in this reference : Shyness: introversion or neuroticism? BRIGGS, S. R. In Journal of research in personality, 1988, Vol. 22, Issue 3 p290-307
I talk about these elements as I found a relation between "internalization of emotions" (and factors such as alexithymia or empathy sensitivity), social self-esteem, and social phobia.
Best regards,
Arnaud
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It is a fact that living with regrets is something very difficult.. Many people suggest that it is important to forget about some things and pretend that they never happened, in order to be calm. However, sometimes regrets help us realize the truth about some situations and teach us in the quickest way to change and avoid making the same mistakes.
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I don't believe that regrets always come from feeling guilty. It could be self-disappointment, or loss of an opportunity. I am aware of the general definition of "regret," but want to be mindful of how other individuals might define regret based on their personal experience. People have had the experience of saying, "While I regret [insert event], I don't feel guilt or shame. In fact, I have not learned to [insert new positive behavior].
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I find in my research different behavior between boys and girls with this style. I have'nt found yet research about it.
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Do you have an age group (or other area) of particular interest? Some articles that may helpful to start...
Costa, N., & Weems, C. (2005). Maternal and child anxiety: Do attachment beliefs or children's perceptions of maternal control mediate their association. Social Development, 14(4), 574-590.
Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., Huume, M., Bamelis, L., & Muris, P. (2006). On the links between attachment style, parent rearing behaviors, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(3), 319-332.