Science topic

Learning - Science topic

Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Questions related to Learning
Incremental learning
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I wonder if anyone can give me a hint of what's available in terms of online incremental learning combined with online feature selection. Regards Patrik
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Have a look: Instance based dynamic feature selection for network traffic...
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It seems to me, that we are on the very verge of some great change. The world is heating up and each technological and scientific leap that we make ushers in the next. This is the time of the ouroboros. The snake has swallowed its tail, and the world is changing faster than our brief lives can accommodate. What might technology provide, that might open up our eyes and our minds so, that we may see and understand what our endeavors are revealing about the universe around us, and the possibilities that our conscious existence has to offer in the new era that is coming.
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I do think that technology can create a leap of creativity, and maybe also a leap on cognition and consciousness. Technology devices has smartphones, tablets, intelligent televisions and computers provided with internet acces allow us to be connected potencially with millions of human beings and tons of information 24 hours a day, seven days a week. This is, for sure, the first time in all the human history that this grade of instant conexion between human beings is taking place. And I do think that this situation can produce a leap in creativity and a fast individual and collective change in consciousness.
Another way of increasing creativity is creating safe and creative contexts where people can interact in a different way compared with the real life and expand their minds. This is the case of art festivals as the Burning Man. A couple of years ago I wrote a paper about the relationship between this kind of chaotic enviroment, the building of a support community and creativity, based on the ideas of the complexity sciences (chaos, self organization, massive interaction between elements etc), especifically linking those ideas with the Burning man Festival. You can find the paper on my researchgate page (unfortunately is only available in spanish for the moment).
Regarding this themes, tomorrow Columbia University’s Department of Religion and Institute for Religion, Culture and Public Life is presenting a very interesting forum tomorrow, called "THE FOUNDERS SPEAK: BURNING MAN, TECHNOLOGY, RELIGION AND THE FUTURE ", featuring featuring panelists Larry Harvey (founder of Burning Man), John Perry Barlow (founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation) and Peter Hirshberg (disruptive cultures and technology expert). You can find the information here: http://www.burningmanproject.org/event/the-founders-speak-burning-man-technology-religion-and-the-future-new-york-ny#.UorJfydTddh.
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Are posters better for learning than oral presentations, reading papers, and control (doing nothing)? E.g., if there is a test on a topic at the end of the semester, how do the different groups do on it? It would have to be randomly assigned, of course, since better students might prefer a particular method.
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Dear Colin,
I think this can easily done using the randomized block design. Blocking is by the student ability. You may categories the student ability by low, medium and high based on the students last semester CGPA. You can randomly assign the each category of students to different methods of pedagogy including the control group.
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When learning vocabulary for the TOEFL (or similar) tests. What is the best way to approach this? How should new words be introduced to the learner? There are so many words to be learned. What is a useful way of grouping the words to make the memory load easier? Are there any specific repetition methods out there? I.e. studies that show how often something needs to be repeated or at what time a already learned word should be repeated to be kept in memory?
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Hi Kathrin,
I would say that a key component in vocabulary learning is "recycling". Each language learner should certainly find his own way and his own procedure but checking the meaning of the word the following day the word is introduced, a week later, and then a month later, seems to me a good way to check if vocabulary has been interiorized. This is what I advise to my students and I get positive feedback. Then each student should change this frequency accoring to his own needs/results.
Best wishes,
Rubén
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Most teachers at some point in their education take a course about "theories or models" of learning. Do teachers typically apply or reference any of the theories "covered" in an education or psychology course in their day to day teaching?
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Vinay, I'm not inclined to classify teachers into so few groups.
I do wonder what we would find if we asked teachers: "What is your theory of learning? And how is that reflected in your day to day teaching?" I also wonder how often a teacher questions his/her own theory of learning and on what basis/" In my experience really good teachers are acutely aware of who and who is not learning in a classroom and they make adjustments to increase the amount of learning.
I am concerned that we are allowing "test results" rather than teacher expertise and observation to determine whether learning is occurring and what to do if it is not.
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It has often been shown that, after training or practicing, our sensitivity to certain perceptual variables (e.g. pitches in music) improves. That is, observers are better at discriminating two similar perceptual variables (e.g. two pitches with similar physical frequencies) after training.
My question is whether the improvement in these perceptual discrimination tasks is due to a change in perception or due to something else?
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Dear Zhi Li,
Perception is a sensory input mechanism that forms conception. The new concept changes perception.
What is your opinion of learning style adaptation in e-learning systems?
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Some argue that learning style is a very important factor in learning. Still, there are strong debates about learning style validity, applicability and stability in e-learning. Research in this area is still active. What do you think of adapting instructional material to learning style in e-learning systems? Do we have to provide more evidence of its applicability in enhancing learning in future research?
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I had done work in this regard. At CDAC, we implemented a framework for adaptive instruction (focussing on customising the instruction) for different learner profiles. I had taken learning style as one of the profile entries. There is a lot of work on LS, suggesting a lot of interest and perhaps conviction that it can help. But there are very little practical success stories to showcase. One reason, in my view, is that we are driving the notion of LS too far. For psychological purposes and to enable a deeper understanding of the learner, this kind of compartmentalisation may be good. But, at the end, we are again dividing the learners into some water-tight compartments, to which they do not belong fully. There is general agreement that most learners exhibit aspects of almost all compartments (in whatever model you choose). What does this mean? 1. Learning styles (if at all, you follow the compartments) is only preferential under certain conditions. A picture is not always preferable to a visual learner than other media -- it depends on the nature of the topic, the quality of the picture and so on. 2. Rather than coarse compartments, we could look at the relevant contributing aspects, matchig the resources to the learner behaviour, his/her past reactions to similar resources, and so on. An open fuzzy matching between learner properties with the resource properties.
Can anyone give an example of application of neural network in expert system?
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In what kind of learning expert system is the neural network used?
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Application of neural networks in expert system can be classification of objects. based on shapes, colors it can be classification of images, fingerprints etc. you can use unsupervised learning algorithms for your work like SOM and LVQ
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See ALFF differences between ADHD and control groups, the effect of Methylphenidate on both ADHD and control group in clinical trials, and the success of GLYX-13.
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this review could give you a scholar overview of the topic: Harvey & Yee, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2013, 12: 866-
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Some types of cognitive tasks considered to be fulfilled in only one way. In reality, for example, when you ask somebody to count down successively subtracting 7 from 100, one can imagine the row of figures, another can do it by "-10+3", the third one can do the task in column etc. But the result cannot indicate the way of decision-making. Something about cognitive styles could be helpful. Can anyone give me an advice about some effective tests?
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I've been working on a theory of cognitive styles since 1986 – the current result is at cognitivestyles.com. You probably want to look at the sections 1a Lateral Frontopolar, down to 1f Aspects of Depression.
Decisions are made by the lateral frontopolar on the left in the light of values in the medial frontopolar, reaching back into the dorsolateral on the left which interacts with the superior parietal in both hemispheres under monitoring by the inferior frontal on the left.
Soon, PNAS, Predicting free choices for abstract intentions, 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3625266/ confirms that calculations are initiated in the medial frontopolar/precuneus prior to consciousness and then performed in the angular gyrus about 4 sec later. The architecture for this decision-making has been distilled from a review of 380 recent neurological papers and is available at cognitivestyles.com (1a Lateral Frontopolar to 1f Aspects of Depression).
Arithmetic will probably be done, as you suggest, in differing ways by different cognitive styles. An important paper is Clauss, Jacqueline, Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, Expectation and temperament moderate amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex responses to fear faces, 2011 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3049952/ . Clauss speaks of an inhibited temperament, comprising 15% of the population, in which the amygdala does not habituate as normal. The architecture at cognitivestyles.com suggests that there are six more variants of humanity for a total of seven (7 times 15% equals 105%, consistent with an extension of Clauss’s estimate of 15% for the one variant). Each style will have its distinct way of doing arithmetic; which can presumably be measured and tested.
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I would be grateful to receive your opinion, comments or suggestions on my research proposal which I outline in my publication titled "Learner Autonomy and Voice in Tertiary Language Education in Oman". Thanks.
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Autonomy, or learner choice, plays an important role in motivation.  Higher motivation  translates into better learning, over the long term.
So I am an advocate of providing choice to students, within broad borders.
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Most psychology undergraduates who have taken intro or cognition or memory in the recent past, present, and future (at least) will know that there have been 'seminal' studies done demonstrating that listening to music with lyrics while studying strongly affects memory (recall), while listening to music without lyrics moderately affects memory (recall), and that recall for stimuli is best when studying in silence is best (I don't have the reference at hand but can find it if need be). How is recall affected if the language is a foreign language as opposed to a native language?
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Hi, Carly, I suggest you google Tim Murphey and the stick-in-your-head effect, or the work out of the UK on earworms. I believe both are directly related to your work (and mine), Good luck!
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During my studying at universities I have noticed that only a few instructors assess students background before they proceed to lectures. They did it in the form of bob-graded Intro Exam. Has anyone thought about this type of assessment and what is your perception of it? Should it be done? Why?
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There are (at least) two different ways I have implemented pretesting, and I suspect that the effectiveness varies dramatically depending on the course. First, there is pretesting for background knowledge in a course so that you can make some judgment about what you can or cannot assume your students know. I have used this kind of pretesting in graduate experimental design and analysis courses (aka, advanced stats for grad students) and have then tailored the lectures to include the appropriate level of background info. This type has also offered some insights into how to individualize parts of the course (identifying people who might need certain kinds of additional guidance).
Another form of pretesting that might be even more effective for broader use is the online polling of students at the start of a lecture so that I can gauge where we are starting and were we need to get to. This type of on-going pretesting can be used as motivation (if students were supposed to read in advance, then you get a measure of how likely it is that they have done so), but it can also be used as part of a dynamic presentation by targeting areas of potential misunderstanding. This does require being prepared to adjust the teaching on the fly, but I think current technology makes that very doable.
Overall, I am a big believer in the interactive classroom, and I think snapshot quizzes or problems can be effective for keeping things interesting and on track.
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Sometimes it is really hard to decide what type of exam reflects students' conceptual knowledge best. From one point of view, in-class exams assess students' ability to think in fast and efficient way; on the other hand, take home exams can reveal deeper understanding of the topic through more sophisticated problems. What is your experience in this area?
Thanks!
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One needs a balance. In-class tests ensure that the students have done the work themselves, and mimics the practice in the profession where the engineer has to quickly make on-site, logical decisions. The questions can be framed to probe understanding of the principles.
Take-home projects with little limits on time and resources simulate deeper, creative professional practice by doing a complete project, given most resources. The students have to demonstrate their understanding of the system.
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I would like to investigate students' motivation with use of the MSLQ-questionnaire, however I am not able to find a full version (81 questions) of this questionnaire in Dutch? Could you help me out?
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I have a Dutch version of the MSLQ, but it has not been translated and back-translated via the official procedure. If you're still interested, please let me know!
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How do you know if a learning intervention implemented within an organisation has had any impact? What aspects of pre-program design, program delivery and post-program evaluation can be undertaken to study the value derived from the learning program? (looking beyond Kirkpatrick and Brinkerhoff)...
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LIke John, I think this still seems a bit vague. Does the program already have a theory of change or logic model in place? What outcome or change do they seek? What does the literature say already about program design and organizational impacts? For instance, I research out-of-school time programs in community-based organizations. There is a wealth of literature that suggestions many things make a quality program (e.g. staffing, program structure, climate). For this research I looked at three units of analysis -- program participants, the program itself, and the organization. Each of these have detailed aspects I'm looking at - some of which both Benod and Sergio mentioned in their posts.
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We have suggested that the large size (0.4 to 1.0 mm) allows structural integrity and resistance to damage. Overlapping columns in which only the outermost neurons are synchronized with gamma frequency oscillations has been suggested to allow adequate information volume. Is that viable?
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Frederic, thanks for the response. Let’s use this as an opportunity to compare theories. I will try to address aspects briefly covered by my theory and perhaps you could cover the same aspects from your perspective. The original 2006 article I wrote is available on my contribution page and it has details the 2012 article did not repeat. I will not cite the articles supporting my statements since these are included in those two published articles. If the cortical column is the level at which cortical processing and memory occur, let’s discuss how this fits with other levels of investigation. With the thousands of neuroscience-related articles a year being published in multiple journals, it is possible to find discussions from molecules to modules as keys to memory and processing.
When all is said and done, and there is conclusive evidence as to how our brains code and process information related to higher cortical functions, it appears likely that there will be only one level involved. This is based on the assumption that in evolution, the most efficient and effective solutions are those that remain. Thus I believe simpler is going to win out over complex as a coding strategy in the cortex since it is less costly in terms of energy expenditure and simpler also decreases the likelihood of dysfunction and damage susceptibility. If true, then all of the complex computational theories of cortical functioning will prove to be a function of human ingenuity as opposed to what I think is a basic binary coding system. I will briefly discuss how a columnar bit would fit with some of the different levels of assessment. This includes single cell recording, receptors, imaging, EEG, and modules/locations. The attached brief article discusses hippocampal and thalamic influences on cortical memory storage, which was also discussed in more detail in the 2012 article.
As I have noted in the articles, not all neurons within the area of the column need to be involved. Cell firing rate in the gamma frequency range allows dynamic column formation. Only the outermost neurons of the column are theorized to be synchronized by gamma frequency input which allows a large (0.4 to 1.0 mm) area of representation which would be highly resistant to damage. However, overlapping columns means that within that 0.4 to 1.0 mm area, the borders of a large number of columns exist. If single cell recordings are done at the cortical level and it is found that there is activation with two distinct stimuli, then it depends on where in the column the neuron is located and the complexity of the column’s representation as to what that activity means. For example, the stimuli could lead to two different overlapping columns activating which share the neuron being recorded. An alternative is that the two stimuli activate columns that feed into a single higher-order column where the recorded cell is located. Even if one stimulus is presented numerous times and the recorded neuron activates, the pattern of the neuron firing rate would vary depending if it is on the boundary of the column or on the interior. If on the boundary, it is part of the information bit of that column and should maintain the same gamma frequency rate each time it is activated. If on the interior, the neuron will be asynchronous in relation to the boundary neurons and the firing rate would slow with repeated stimulus presentations.
It is known that glutamatergic NMDA receptors are involved with gamma frequency activity. This means they would be associated with EEG waveforms in the gamma range. These receptors are voltage dependent which would be affected by higher rates of cell firing (i.e., increased neurotransmitter release into synapses from upstream neurons leading to hypopolarization via influx of calcium ions of the downstream neurons). GABA is implicated as the neurotransmitter involved in limiting the column-sized spread of activity at the gamma frequency range. As I noted in my 2006 and 2013 article it appears that increased metabolic activity as measured by fMRI occurs with “new learning” but decreases over time with improved performance indicative of learning. I suggested the initial generalized activity allows general activation (noise) around a column, with there being a strong inhibitory surround defining the column boundary (signal). Once a columnar circuit becomes consolidated (i.e., upstream columns reliably activate downstream columns due to strengthened synaptic connections among columns), there is no longer a need to have general activation and fMRI no longer shows any signs of increase metabolic activity.
In relation to “modules,” these do not exist. The columnar theory indicates such areas as the fusiform face area, parahippocampal place area, motion detection areas, object recognition, etc., are simply the locations of the columns representing the highest level of integration in that specific information stream which originates in the primary sensory receiving area. Association memories involve the highest level columns in more than one information stream projecting to a common column in the medial temporal lobe cortex. That temporal cortical column represents information from the highly organized information of the columns projecting to it. This common column in turn projects to the hippocampus and involves the hippocapmpo-thalamo-cortical circuit described in the attached paper and the 2012 article.
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We are conducting a meta-analysis on gender differences in school grades and we need your help!
Essentially, we would be most grateful if you could send us any unpublished work that you have conducted on gender differences in school grades. The grades have to be teacher assigned (as opposed to self-reported) to be relevant to our research question. It could be a dissertation, a report, an unpublished manuscript, etc., as long as it has data relevant to gender differences in school grades, regardless of whether this was the question of interest.
If you have anything of relevance, please send electronic material to svoyer@unb.ca
Best regards,
Daniel Voyer and Susan Voyer
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I do not but am very interested in this area. Cannot wait to read it! Good luck.
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Blended learning provides an integrated platform for online and face to face learning, and hence it should have both the merits and demerits of these two approaches.
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The following two paraghraph is copy/paste from my doctoral thesis ;) ..good old days :)
Advantages:
 Less expensive to deliver, affordable and saves time
 Flexibility in terms of availability- anytime anywhere. In other words, e-
learning enables the student to access the materials from anywhere at any
time.
Access to global resources and materials that meet students’ level of
knowledge and interest.
 Self-pacing for slow or quick learners reduces stress and increases
satisfaction and retention.
 E-learning allows more affective interaction between the learners and their
instructors through the use of emails, discussion boards and chat room.
 Learners have the ability to track their progress.
 Learners can also learn through a variety of activities that apply to many
different learning styles that learners have.
 It helps the learners develop knowledge of using the latest technologies
and the Internet.
 The e-learning could improve the quality of teaching and learning as it
supports the face-to-face teaching approaches.
Disadvantages:
These might include little or no “in-person” contact with
the faculty member, feelings of isolations, a difficult learning curve in how to
navigate within the system, problems with the technology, the need for the student
to be actively involved in learning, and increased lead-time required for feedback
regarding assignments. There are also different aspects, especially in the developing countries, such as providing the required funds to purchase new technology, lack of adequate e-learning strategies, training for staff members and most importantly the student resistance to use the elearning systems.
 Lack of a firm framework to encourage students to learn.
 A high level of self-discipline or self-direct is required, learners with low
motivation or bad study habits may fall behind.
 Absence of a learning atmosphere in e-learning systems.
 The distance-learning format minimizes the level of contact, e-learning
lacks interpersonal and direct interaction among students and teachers.
 When compared to the face-to-face learning, the learning process is less
efficient.
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Classification and ranking of labels for automatic document categorization, see an example of what kind of document could match
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You could start with the documents of the MLKD research group:
here there are also other links:
And a recent survey and experimental comparisons on MLL:
Gjorgji Madjarov, Dragi Kocev, Dejan Gjorgjevikj, Saso Dzeroski: An extensive experimental comparison of methods for multi-label learning. Pattern Recognition 45(9): 3084-3104 (2012)
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The DeX are assemblies that when operated show discrepant events dissonance is the spark that lights the interactive engagement.
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I hope you don't mind if I use material from another thread to address your question.
I think that music offers a wonderful way in which to study the process of creativity, both at the level of the individual and also at the social level.
There seems to be more than one dimension to the way in which musical sophistication has evolved over time. We might think of early plain-song and compare it to the more subtle music based upon minor chords that came later.
In this instance the evolution of music seems quite slow and each innovation seems simply to raise the level of complexity and possibilities for more subtle modes of expression - music seems to become more 'fine grained'. One might speculate that there may be a basic physical principle at work - Perhaps there is a process going on that maximizes the channels for the dissipation of energy and it is this that is driving the creative process.
There is another aspect to the musical creativity that is, perhaps, more interesting from a social perspective. The emergence of the'blues' in America was consequent upon there being more than one dominant musical form at the same time - there was a clash between European and African musical forms.
I believe that 'The Blues' emerged as a bridge that was able to unite these different musical styles. Here we may consider the creativity of the individual songwriter - the individual that is defined by differences in his music environment and seeking coherence within the context of a new musical form - and also, taken as a whole, one may be able to argue that the blues is an instance of a 'social creation' :- an answer to the question 'What is implicit in the relationship between European and African music': an instance of social and musical catharsis.
So, music may offer us a way of understanding what it is in the social environment that is the initial need/inspiration for the moment of creativity in the individual. It also has the potential to provide a framework to ask questions such as is an evolving society a creative society? And, what sort of societies create creative people?
Any approach to the study/analysis of creativity at the social level should begin with some theory of mind. I cannot speak from the point of view of other theoretical stances however, the Fractal Catalytic Model offers some insights.
The Fractal Catalytic Model attempts to demonstrate that the life is a very fundamental process and offers us a way by which we may understand the creative process as a catalytic process, both at the level of the individual and at the level of society:
The FCM treats brain development as a very fundamental physical process. It is argued that there is a tendency for the brain to unify aspects of the environment via cognition and behavior. It can only achieve this by utilizing the patterns of implicit spatio/temporal structure in the environment. When stimulus embodies dissonanve the brain cannot achieve coherence.resolution and seems to go into overdrive in order to search for a unifying solution - if one is to be found.
Einstein understood Newton to his marrow.
Einstein understood Maxwell to his marrow.
Newton and Maxwell did not fit together.
Einstein did not fit together.
Relativity was catharsis!
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I've yet to come across a definition of intelligence that satisfies me, maybe this is my fault and not the fault of the definitions. I am curious to hear your take on intelligence.
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I have read so many different definitions of intelligence. There are probably as many definitions of intelligence as there are experts who study it. The one I most like is not much different from the answer given above by Joachim:
Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and interact with one’s environment. Within this framework, intelligence require a number of specific abilities:
1-Ability to adapt to new environment or changes to your current environment
2-Ability to acquire and use knowledge
3-Ability to reason
4-Ability to evaluate and judge
5-Ability for original and productive thought.
The word environment has a wider meaning that include a person's immediate surrounding including people around, working place or even the environment of the earth, such as landscape, terrain etc.
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A decade ago, graduate teaching involved more of a self-motivated drive towards knowledge acquiring. Today students are presented with a plethora of data beyond what is taught in the classrooms. Does this influence the way students view contemporary teaching methods?
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I am not certain that a decade ago graduate teaching was characterised by a self-motivated drive towards knowledge acquisition. From my perspective, there have always been a range of student attitudes towards knowledge acquisition with some students very self-motivated and others only doing the bare minimum to succeed in the course. I think a difference in the last decade has certainly been the access to information these students have. This challenges the way that education is (or at least should be delivered) as we are no longer the gatekeepers of knowledge. Therefore, the emphasis should be on assisting students to develop competencies in knowledge management, critical reflection etc rather than knowledge retainers. We also need to overcome the urge to merely providing large quantities of resources as a substitute to knowledge of how to select and use resources to develop conceptual knowledge.
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We are using leading edge technology methods of immersive simulation interactive video storybooks for building capacity development of individuals in our business. What methods can be used to determine the impact of this intervention for reporting to top management on the success of the project and to identify what can be done to ensure sustainability.
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First, it depends on what exactly you want to achieve and how you define "impact". A popular model to do so in education is the so-called Kirkpatrick model (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006) that distinguishes different levels of outcomes (or impacts). As a next step, evaluation/assessment methods have to be matched to the different outcome expectations. The basic level is participants' satisfaction with the learning intervention (usually evaluated by simple "happy sheet" questionnaires). The second level is comprised of learning in the sense of acquiring knowledge and skills (done by assessments that match the learning goals such as knowledge tests, role-plays, test simulations etc.). Futher up the ladder are "impact" meaning usually longer-lasting transfer into the learners' workplaces. This is hard to assess directly. Usually performance evaluations by superiors or expert ratings of work results are applied (this level probably meets the core of your question).
Finally, the level of "results" hints at actual contributions to the business. This is extremely challenging to assess, especially if you want to have concrete figures. Today, instead of applying ROI to training/education, the term ROE (return on expectations) is often used. This means that multiple expectations are formulated concerning a training/education measure (e.g. business-related skills but also attitudes towards learning etc.). If you manage to do a systematic evaluation up to the "impact" level, you certainly have done well.
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I am preparing a research project in Ireland related to homschooling and would like the expertise / to lonk in with others who are looking at the same / similar area.
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Thank you Ian.... Does seem rather quiet.... Looks like I will own a monopoly! Thanks again.
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I’ve read a few papers discussing the effects of grading using normative criteria (on the curve) vs. using specific learning criteria mostly in K-12 setting. I’m interested in reading more and especially papers in undergraduate and STEM settings. Thanks.
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Well, buried in a huge report, as best I recall, there is some stuff on the relationship of grades on persistence of women in undergraduate engineering majors. I do not believe we inquired about the campus grading policies in our study, but you are welcome to wade through the report for yourself. It's in my profile. It's called "Final Report of the Women's Experiences in College Engineering (WECE) Project." I am not sure what page it is on, but it's listed as a "book," the only one. It's far and away the most downloaded thing from my profile, though I don't know why.
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I am currently looking at various methods like transfer spectral clustering, self-taught clustering, etc and was wondering if someone who has some expertise with these methods could provide some more intuition to these methods.
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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Time token method is a cooperative learning method.
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Hello Sir BouJaoude,
Thank you for the valuable information!
Sincerely,
prof Paes
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Do you think it can measure students' performance effectively?
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Formative-assessment is an alternative form of assessment that can be used to engage students and provide stakeholders continuous feedback about the learning process.
Regarding the challenges, I agree that peer-assessment is criticized by the students accountability to provide quality assessment and biased evaluation. However, in a study we have conducted we found that a training session where the students were asked to prepare reference answers which will be presented to them during the peer-assessment process to support them in evaluating the others answers. We also asked them to use the tool to annotate candidate answers with color-based highlighting the correct, incorrect, and irrelevant parts of the answer to justify there evaluation. what we found that the student like the approach and we also tackled the problem of accountability and biased assessment. See this paper for more information
In another study we used integrated peer-assessment to support task-awareness and groups production function in co-writing activities. interestingly, we found that with self-assessment "How much do i think that my contribution is taking the group towards the final goal" and with peer-assessment "how much do you think that your peer contribution is talking the group work towards the final goal " helped group members to maintain task awareness and to avoid problems such as free-rider problem. See this [http://shootingcupoche.com/publication/236258867_Enhancing_Wikis_with_Visualization_Tools_to_Support_Groups_Production_Function_and_to_Maintain_Task_and_Social_Awareness]
another interesting approach is using rubric-based assessment for groups peer-assessment, in a tool we have developed for co-writing groups where using rubrics to peer-assess other groups and thus to [learn others topics + provide feedback] = feedforward approach.
For engagement of learners see this:
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I am interested in knowledge transfer processes and would like to study whether knowledge absorptive capacity can be increased by manipulating instructional design using cognitive load effects.
Could anyone share or guide me about the relationship between cognitive load and knowledge absorptive capacity, please?
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This is an interesting and highly current topic for educational research Sarunya, but I feel the advice to narrow the scope of your inquiry is quite valid. Reading your original query, the thing that struck me most was the need to operationally define the phrase "knowledge absorptive capacity" in clear, concrete terms. Does this phrase correspond in some way to working memory capacity? Or is it more aligned with the ability to abstract (and later recall) information from long-term memory? It will be difficult to progress your interest until such aspects of the inquiry are clarified. Certainly all the best with it...Tony Yeigh/SCU
Anybody know if new methods (FUNCAT or BONCAT) to study new protein synthesis can be restricted to subcelular compartments or glial cells?
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New methods to specifically study local protein synthesis have been discovered, such as BONCAT and FUNCAT. These methods are really interesting to monitories protein synthesis in dendrites, however does anyone know if we can monitorise protein synthesis in a specific subcellular compartment (for example the mitochondria) or to study if there is specific protein synthesis in other type of cells of the brain (such as astrocytes or microglia)? Is there any method to specifically target these sites with the techniques that I mentioned?
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 Here is an email included to a person who can give you an informed answer to your  question: Glória Queiroz: gloria@ff.up.pt Journal of Neuroinflammation 2014, 11:141http://www.jneuroinflammation.com/content/11/1/141Microglia P2Y6 receptors mediate nitric oxiderelease and astrocyte apoptosis. Clara Quintas et al.
To what extent can the assumed learning affordances of iPads be taken for granted given the lack of empirical evidence?
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Quote: "...what emerged is no clear indication that the iPad has some inherent learning affordances that were prevalent among the majority of participating students. Instead, what was identified is a patchwork of uses and often-conflicting perceptions about the use of iPads for SBL. Thus, the claim that the iPad has considerable potential to enhance learning cannot be supported in the context of the bottom-up approach adapted in this research..."
What is the difference between adaptive expertise, expertise research, and far transfer?
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Adaptive expertise is defined as the ability to perform high on routine task and to perform on a high level also on unfamiliar tasks. 'Traditional' expertise research does not consider performance on unfamiliar tasks. Far transfer is the ability to transfer what has been learning in task A to task B, where task A and B are very different.
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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In considering the issue of fun and learning (how schools might take the fun out of learning), one teacher writes the following.
“….
I wonder if it’s the point at which we start to frame the school as a factory, and the learners as workers, that the real damage starts to be done? Some of the ways this can happen are very explicit. Today on BBC Click, for example, I saw a wall display headed “Our best work”. I see a lot of displays and notices around schools, and am surprised how many use the language of a very hierarchical, unequal workplace, even in primary schools. These artefacts are evidence of learning, not factory products, and signs should reflect that. Maybe if we were to consciously avoid using factory metaphors things might improve?”
When I was doing my teacher training, the metaphor we were offered for education (based if I remember correctly on philosophers such as R. S. Peters) was one of initiation – initiation into disciplinary ways of thinking, into ways of writing, into sports, into appreciation of art, music and literature and trying these for ourselves, and so on. Then came the eighties and a new language began to dominate that reflects technological, engineering and manufacturing metaphors for the educational process. Here are some examples of the form(s) of language that seems to me to be underpinned by these types of metaphors – our product is our students, quality indicators, specified and measurable outcomes, standards, developing our students, moving our teachers forward, producing a workforce for the future, students are a resource, and so on (how many more can you add?).
This language is pervasive – I find it difficult to avoid using myself after 30 odd years of working in an environment dominated by it. Indeed, one reason for asking the question is that I see this language used by people on RG who are grappling with issues of how to ensure education is not dehumanizing, controlling and is truly engaging and liberating for students. Are they, like me, using it through habit? However, I have even seen it specifically argued that the engineering metaphor can be used to these sorts of ends, so perhaps we are just not using the metaphors to best effect
So are there better metaphors, and resulting language for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors? Or can these be better distinguished so that the good features of them prevail? Do we return to initiation metaphors? Or do we look for some new metaphors that better serve our values?
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It is worth remembering that the messages inferred from the metaphors we use are 'in the eyes of the beholder'. Students draw their own conclusions despite our best efforts. I personally use a range of metaphors, with a focus on participation rather than performance. My key message whichever metaphor I use for any student is one of personal satisfaction in doing a good job. I was for a time, a professional dancer and the greatest pleasure was not the performance, though pleasurable, but the rehearsal, the striving to be always better than I was the time before, so I try to incorporate that into my teaching. The industrial/job filling metaphor is useful in many students eyes as it is the reality for them at later stages of schooling. Trying to give them a range of metaphors is useful. Industrial, social, participative, self worth so students can move themseleves through these metaphors as they need in their self talk.
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Knowledge is stored in long-term memory (LTM). What are the alternatives?
Where is the LTM located? Where else could the knowledge be stored? What does it mean to store knowledge: to keep it static in LTM, as it was when it was learned?
Information is stored. Could we say the same for knowledge? What is stored finally?
Do you believe that cognition is distributed? Then, if knowledge is distributed, where is it stored?
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You raised questions that I also always wondered about. I agree with the former comments in large parts. In my point of view questions like "where is the long-term memory" localized?" or "What is stored finally?" are arbitrary questions we ask, but which probably do not correlate well with what is happening in the brain over time. Imagine all the fascinating compensation mechanisms after large (cortical) brain damages. Imagine our ability for life-long learning and the reconsolidation of our knowledge. A good summary of how our long-term memory might change by any reactivation/remembering and incorporating new experiences in a "new" LTM (on synaptic and systems level) is given by Yadin Dudai (see here for free pdf: http://www.weizmann.ac.il/neurobiology/labs/dudai/uploads/files/Consolidation_Ann_Rev_2012_.pdf). I enjoyed the paper and I'm sure you will do so as well.
Neither LTM, nor knowledge is probably even close to be static. To find the ways the brain keep it dynamic is one big topic in the neurosciences.
Best,
-Max
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Science curricula is still largely being implemented in the traditional 'chalk and talk' way. The actual curricula focuses on inquiry-based strategies which, therefore, is what is taught in teachers' college science education curricula. Lip service has been given to integrating science with technology. A more relevant science curriculum could theoretically be implemented by integrating science with not only technology, but other subject areas such as mathematics, social studies and engineering.
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A short response: science taught well is already integrated with at least mathematics, language development and social studies. I invented the idea of 'task based' curriculum about 15 years ago so I could integrate science with what I would call the tools of science, ie mathematics etc in a natural way. In my courses, students (13 to 17 year olds) are allocated 'jobs' like Build an air pressure rocket that will fly as high as possible and report on your findings. To do this well students have to learn a number of physics and maths concepts, then apply them in a design process, then construct a report in an appropriate format. Integration is natural and doesn't get in the way of science teaching.
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Information and abstracts available via http://www.isodp2013.org
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The Australian Donate Life Network and The Transplantation Society of Australia and New-Zealand are looking forward to hosting everyone in Sydney for the 12th Congress of the International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement.
they are planning scientific and educational programs to present the issues, ideas and innovations in organ donation and procurement in meaningful, detailed and accessible ways, to stimulate debate and discussion and to hear the best ideas from across the world. If you are involved in organ donation this is the one meeting you cant afford to miss!
And of course we are proud to have our beautiful city and countryside as the backdrop. We hope that you will take the time to discover or enjoy again the hospitality and my raid attractions offered. We hope you will discover why we chose to live here in Australia and especially in Sydney which you will find is one of the most friendly and popular places in the world.The ISODP's leadership continues to discuss implementation strategies for the association's strategic plan developed to focus and promote its aims and objectives. The main areas of engagement include:
Increase donation internationally by establishing a process to engage in continuous improvement in donation and plan congresses and meetings to increase donation globally;
Enhance available resources to improve donation practices by using shared information and creating meaningful associations; and,
Establish an integrated network of donation professionals to align with other organizations and associations and enhance the ISODP membership.
Günter Kirste and Kimberly Young deserve special recognition for formulating the strategic plan.
In 2010, the ISODP and TTS, with the collaboration of Astellas, launched the Transplant Coordinators Scholarships in order to enhance international training opportunities. Several scholarships have been awarded and a second round of reviews are in the final stages and will be announced at the TTS Congress in Berlin.
The Australian DonateLife Network and The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand (TSANZ) look forward to hosting everyone in Sydney on November 21-24, 2013 for the 12th Congress of the International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement. ISODP wishes Dr. Jeremy Chapman and his team success in the planning and execution of this congress.
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How to take time in your advantage?
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Time would simply be an advantage in leading or making us remembering the topic/ subject better. It aids one's memory; the more one learns the more - over time - one remembers.
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What can be achieved via M-learning (mobile learning)? Familiarity with a term, understanding of a concept and mastering a skill are just some examples. Should one give some indications to students about M-learning outcomes? Most research is focusing on how to facilitate M-learning and very little is known about what to expect from that alone.
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@Sylvia, no, not at all! There is no difference between adults M-learning and students M-learning! These smart pocket devices forced to explore and learn outside of the house, away from the office....
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I just wondered if it is something about being a science teacher teacher rather than a teacher of any other subject? I would be very grateful of any research data that shows positive and negative sides to these questions and indeed evidence of successes in the field.
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Jaleed
Indeed very much of what passes for science is 'make believe' and good science is indeed show business. There is no reason at all why science should not be portrayed artistically, dramatically or even comically. The fact that much of science is communicated in incoherent coded language does not make it any more authoritative or increase its veracity. Science is one of the philosophies, not the exclusive domain of the 'scientist'
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In which evaluation skills, we should focus on teacher training college
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#1 Passion and enthusiasm that will rub off on the university students and provide the drive to provide quality feedback.
#2 The technical or subject knowledge to be able to identify deep insights appearing in university students' assessments.
#3 Ability to ask questions that cannot be answered by rote learning.
Influence of problem-based learning in EBP-continuing medical education on professional development in postgraduate healthcare providers?
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At the moment I am researching the influence of problem-based learning as method in EBP-continuing medical education on professional development and lifelong learning in postgraduate health care providers. Does anyone have literature suggestions?
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TLRP - The Teaching Learning Research Programme in the UK did some work on this area: The effectiveness of Problem Based Learning 1: a pilot systematic review and meta-analysis www.tlrp.org/pub/documents/no8_newman.pdf‎ and www.tlrp.org/pub/documents/no9_newman.pdf‎ THere may a full systematic review as well do by EPPI at the London Here is an Australian systematic Review Problem-based learning in academic health education. A systematic literature review http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/handle/10072/33247 These may not be specific enough for your needs, however
Can someone recommend literature on work-based competence for students?
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At the moment, my colleagues and me are working at a program to improve the transition from school to university (and, later on, the transition from university to work life). For this, we try to focus on two competence fields. First, "classical" study-based competencies, such as strategies for literature search, presentation skills, learning strategies should be focused. Second, we want to connect the curriculum with work-related competencies. What would you suggest to read on the subject "work-related competencies"? The buzzword "employability" did not help very much so far. [To specify my request, we mainly have students in health care-related disciplines (health psychology, medical education, nursing science, speech therapy, physiotherapy etc.)]
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Christine, for several years I was part of a research group (on curriculum reforms) that developed a “situated approach” to the notion of competence, viewing competence as “the selection, mobilization and coordination of a group of resources in order to deal effectively with a situation.” Two of our papers on the subject were published by UNESCO-IBE. You might be interested: “Revisiting the concept of competence as an organizing principle for programs of study” (Jonnaert et al., 2006) << http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/COPs/Pages_documents/Competencies/ORE_English.pdf >> “From competence in the curriculum to competence in action” (Jonnaert et al., 2007) http://reforma.fen.uchile.cl/PapersReforma/fulltext.pdf
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If epistemological beliefs or conceptions of knowledge develop as a result of interplay between students' social, cultural and educational experience then how can we identify the effect of each contributor separately in development of epistemological beliefs/knowledge conceptions? Is there any inventory or model which explains the development of epistemological conceptions at secondary level to explain the role of these factors?
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Mr. Ali,
To be honest, I think it is impossible to seperate and emperically measure (positivism) the effect of each of your named experiences.  All of these experiences and others such as mass media, religion, historical ephocs, patriarchy, heterosexuality, and family to name a few all do have an impact on epistemology to varying degrees.  I would suggest looking into "interest convergence" theory found in Feminist Theory and Critical Race Theory.  I would also look into cultural capital and domination as to whom has the power of ascription as to what is or is not "knowledge".
Philosophers such as Descartes, Hume, Lock, Kant, and Kirckagaard.
One artical may be of help, Adorno,T. & Horkheirmer, M. The problem of Truth.
 I would encourage a look at Morrow, R. & Brown, D. (1994) Critical Theory and Methodology (pg. 41-158), van Dijk, T., (2000). Ideology a Multidisciplineary Approach, (pg.15-154), Foucault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge & Power/Knowledge (1977).
As we know "knowledge" or what counts as knowledge has changed over history in both the physical and the social worlds. Knowledge of phenomena as explanation is a hudgely contested issue which includes power relatioships.
I hope this helps,
Douglas
Does anyone have a recommendation regarding resources and current research that examines EEG studies and educational phenomena?
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Specifically, analysis of individuals watching videos of teaching and learning scenarios involving students and teachers?
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Hi Xavier not much has been done in this field, in the way i Think you want to perform research. Most of EEG research is about studying Event Potentials (Event Related Potentials or Evoked Potentials) which consists of showing multiple and repeated stimulus to a learner. These stimulus are usually very short in time (less than one second) and the results will display the electrical activation of an electrode within that second after the stimulus was shown to the subject. Analysis is about meaning all these "one second". Because of artefacts brought by the head movements and eye blinks, these protocols involve many stimulus (often over 200/conditions), to make sur you have enough stimulus reactions without artifacts wOf course this not what you want to di Another recent trend is to perform CONTINUOUS data gathering. This is very complex : neurosciences can interpret what is happening for the first 800ms after a stimulus or 800ms before an answer/reaction, but undertsanding/interpreting the brain activity over minutes is quite challenging. I am personnaly funded in that type of work. I am trying to gather continuous data while students are resolving online physics problems (12 problems over 30 minutes). The first challenge is to generate a task with markers that will synchronized in your EEG data. These markers coul be diffrenet sections of your video. Then, you will need to get rid of noise and artefacts. You will filter interesting frequencies. You will want to perform new algorithms, called ICA, where you will be able to "clean" your data from eye blinks and head movements. Then analysis will be different depending your research questions. From my perspective, i decided to use recent reserach performed in NEUROERGONOMY where researchers are gathering EEG to study engagement and attention of workers (plane pilots, truck drivers). Work from Mikulka (2002), Freeman (2005), Pope (1995), Gevins (2012), B-Alert, Cirett Galan (2012) might interest you. I also published in JoC on that topic.
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A learning environment is composed of different systems which are interacting with each others. How can systems approach be applied towards gaining an understanding of the design of learning systems?
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I've used Checkland's Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) to interpret the system(s)-in-focus from the numerous perspectives of stakeholders and provide the starting point for viable analysis and design.
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I´m trying to perform an evaluative assertion analysis from asynchronous communication logs, in an online module. Although the principles of the technique are fairly easy to comprehend, I´m having trouble finding published works that deal with this topic. Moreover, I would appreciate any helpful insight from colleagues who are comfortable with this type of methodology.
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I have observed that in some countries, students are less keen than in others to learn computer programming.
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From my modest experience in teaching computer science, but extensive experience in receiving, it I believe that the major challenge in conveying programming is that it is merely a tool for most people, which in addition requires some effort to comprehend. Nevertheless it is also rather intriguing once you master it, and (assuming that people signed up for the class wishes to do that) focus should be put on as fast as possible to have the students experience some level of expertise. Thus in many words an inductive teaching approach is very suitable for programming classes I think. Traditionally the "Hello world" application is well intended, but at least from my experience (I was trained in the rather old school bottom up fashion) too much reading and classroom theory followed from there. In recent teaching experience with a 3 weeks intensive introductory course in Matlab, most of the theoretical teaching (which effectively was approximately 10% of the course) was used on describing the assignment and the fundamental problems that the students had to solve. Despite the large class (150+), very different-
backgrounds and levels of programming skills (mostly none), everybody was engaged on the course - which the style also requires. It is my experience that (in comparison with most of the previous courses I received in the more traditional form) this was a very effective approach in terms of learning outcome, as well as to keep students engaged until the reached some level of expertise, form which on programming becomes more enjoyable. To be more concrete, I think that using high level drag and drop tools available in abundance nowadays, is a great outset for the initially exposing students to programming, as it lets them very quickly create something rather complex with the skills that they already possess, and then work form there. Within experimental psychology, PsychoPy is an excellent example of such open source software tool, which has a high level interface that lets students create ready to run experiments with very little instructions and no programming experience.
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There is very little research into children curiosity. Often studies contradict and yet isn't curiosity an essential element on learning and developing. So what do you understand it to be made of? How do you measure it? Do you have experience in this area as this is of great interest to me and I would love to collaborate on some research.
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I do think very small children who can walk and cannot be made so civilised to sit in chairs when visiting as guests to a friend or relation's house, these toddlers attempt to explore every room etc. in their house and if find a thing which they have not seen in their home try to examine it. In this process of spatial exploration and examination of something new many valuables are damaged. Though parents feel ashamed and hosts have a sense of loss but assure the guests it is normal.
These are ways in which toddlers explore and attempt to know. When they start talking, and hold things stably they are generally everything colourful and natural, even babies find an ad or scene colourful on TV screen they are attracted. Meanwhile they start fighting with their elders siblings and this determine their place in family or household (a sense of hierarchy- who has authority on whom and is expected to obey, a step towards development of discipline.) When in park or garden they are attracted everything natural from a worm to tree. Most of children including so inquisitive that they want to anything and everything. Since being children we (me and wife) found it difficult to give satisfactory answers. So, consulting several several senior parents and counselors we got a book on what questions children generally ask and how to give satisfactory answers to children. It is my personal experience as well as observation not based on profound research.
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I would like to hear some thoughts on the following statement 'one has to be a reflective teacher in order to faciltate relfective learning effectively'
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Hi Peggy, one of my colleagues did a stunning presentation (yesterday) on her experience with reflective learning. E-mail me at lubbejc1@unisa.ac.za and I'll forward you her particulars.
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Phosphorylation of mitochondrial CREB is affected with toxicants.
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, InsyaAllah this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
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The Understanding by Design® framework (UbD) offers a planning process and structure to guide curriculum, assessment, and instruction for innovative teaching and resulting studying in the classroom. Do you use this approach for e-Learning or technology-enhanced learning?
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i do not use UbD framework because I do not know how it works. can somebody please explain in detail this framework.
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I am looking for specific literature to understand what happens with the calcium levels during early LTP phase and Late- LTP phase. It is very well known Calcium influx is necessary for LTP induction but what happens during the maintenance phase of LTP or late- LTP phase, is my question. Are the calcium levels brought to normal levels during maintenance and if yes, then how?
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, InsyaAllah this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
Debriefing?
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Are you using, or doing research into, simulation/games (& serious games) and debriefing? If so, pls be in touch: crookall.simulation@googlemail.com. Pls also consider submitting an article to "Simulation & Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal" http://sg.sagepub.com/, simulation.gaming@gmail.com. Thanks, David
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30 Dear Zol Many thanks indeed for your most useful reply.  Are we together on likedin?  Shouldn't we be?  It would be an honour for me.  Thanks, david
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I am researching online courses and what features are needed to promote effective learning and to engage the students
The features I am looking at are things such as the topic, students say that an interesting topic is needed but how can we predict what will be interesting? If the topic is constrained by the needs of the course how can we make it more interesting? How can we even define interesting? Should the questions be short and allow a flexible interpretation or longer and more focused. If there is a certain level of knowledge required how can we encourage students to engage with that knowledge. Should the gaining knowledge be prior to the discussion or during. Even the quickest of surveys of the questions on this site shows that there are many styles of questions and the number of responses to each question can vary greatly. I am sure there are a number of other features that need to be considered.
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The influence of Information Communication Technology (ICT) of “now day’s education” is obvious and evident. Therefore, the impact on the learning/teaching process (in almost all fields and levels of education) is enormous.
No matter what you think with the term online courses, they could be part of e Learning systems, or Distance education courses, etc. So, you may consider the influence of the "simple" equation: eEducation = eLearning + eTeaching on promoting effective learning and to engaging the students in accepting the knowledge.
That means the online courses have to be planned with the proper pedagogical approach, as well as they have to be quite interesting for the user, i.e. student. Also, an adequate way of assessment and evaluation of the acquired knowledge have to be predicted.
Therefore, the answer to the question is, the good online course is very, very expensive, and the developing time is very consuming. In my more than thirty research experience in field of eEducation, I have seen very small of good online courses which promote effective learning and to engage the students to accept knowledge better.
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I am training rats in a YES/NO task based on a sensory stimulus. I have read about d' and A' indices (Talwar and Gernstein, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 105:1784-00, 1999). But I can not figure out how data points (hit and false-alarm rates of different sessions) will look like on a ROC graph during learning... and.. What should be the criterion to be sure about a rat absolutely learned the task?
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I would look for any of Andrew Yonelinas' (at UC-Irvine) work examining ROC analyses in human learning and memory and Howard Eichenbaum's (at Boston University) work using ROC analyses for rodent learning and memory. Both are considered at the top of their respective fields, particularly with respect to using ROC curves to understand different aspects (e.g., dual process) of learning and memory. Hope this helps!
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Instructional computer programs (or the usage of computers in education) are being developed since the early ‘70s. Rapid development of Information Communication Technology, introduction of computers into schools, and daily use of computers by people of different vocation, education and age, has made education a very important field to researchers. Their main goals have been to develop programs that can teach humans and to achieve individualization of the educational process.
The methods and techniques of Artificial Intelligence have been successfully used in these systems, since the end of last century. Hierarchical modeling, interoperable and reusable software components, and ontology are modeling techniques that have only recently penetrated into the eLearning. In addition, these Artificial Intelligence methods are used in "new field” I called it "eEducation", a new approach to education with the help of Information and Communication Technologies, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence.
And, of course the "new wave": mLerning and uLearning are "knocking on the heavens door", such as Bob Dylan sings.
Your thoughts on:
Could we described "eEducation" = "eLearning" + "eTeaching", by this “simple” equation? Alternatively, do we need more "+"?
Are we all (researchers, teachers and students) have succeeded in eEducation (eLearning) so far? Do "users" of eEducation (eLearning) systems are "better" than traditional students are, in terms of learning achievements?
Do we have right pedagogy (teaching methods/strategies) for eEducation (eLearning)?
Do we have right learning strategies (models/theories) for eEducation (eLearning)?
What about mLearning, uLearning?
At the end, what is the future of e/m/u/Education (e/m/u/Learning)?
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I would say that in answer to your three questions that the answer would be no to all three but that it was the second question that is the problem. Some of the respondents have mentioned the evolution of e-education but in many ways it is the evolution of the technology that allows the educators to use methods that are more like the ones used in traditional face-to-face lessons. The biggest difference is the way that the students experience the course materials. In traditional lessons the experience is shared by all the students but in online courses each student experiences the course individually. There is quite a large amount of research on the personality types and online courses. It suggests that online courses suit some personality types more than others.In a traditional classroom setting most tutors are able to adapt to the materials and their style to suit the students but online courses are not able to be adapted as quickly. A student does not need to participate in a classroom discussion to experience it or affect it but if a student does not participate in an online discussion then they effectively do not exist. Humans are by nature social but can online courses be social to the same level even with video conferencing and social media like Facebook and twitter?
Whether the course content is disseminated through synchronous audio/video web conferencing, synchronous discussions such as instant messaging or through asynchronous discussions (my own area of interest) the student will most probably be sitting at a computer separated from the other students in space and often time. Traditional course can be lecture, seminar or tutorial but online courses appear to be either lecture or tutorial. Organising the technology to enable a seminar style lesson that allows the same interaction with the same immediacy is difficult and probably beyond the technical ability of most students and many tutors.
How we teach online is not the same as face-to-face but exactly how is the subject of much debate including this one but recognising that it is not the technology that needs to evolve. First, we need to recognise that the way that students experience the course materials and the learning itself is not the same and will never be the same without the same "Holodeck" equipment only available on Star Trek. As educators, we need to change the way we teach but exactly how I don't know...
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We are trying to establish what existing research has been on the conceptual and theoretical frameworks for understanding the dynamics of mobile learning
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Michael, there's quite a useful forthcoming publication:
Zane Berg & Lin Muilenburg (Eds) (2013). Handbook of Mobile Learning. Routledge
In another publication that will also be published in May I have written a chapter on Mobile Education:
Peter Bruck & Madanmohan Rao (Eds) (2013). Global Mobile: Applications and Innovations for the Worldwide Mobile Ecosystem
Within the standards development world, SC36 have produced a couple of Technical Reports in recent years on Nomadicity & Mobile Learning:
ISO/IEC TS 29140-1:2011
Information technology for learning, education and training -- Nomadicity and mobile technologies -- Part 1: Nomadicity reference model
ISO/IEC TS 29140-2:2011
Information technology for learning, education and training -- Nomadicity and mobile technologies -- Part 2: Learner information model for mobile learning
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I'm working on self-regulated learning, and self-efficacy is a key concept in most of the SRL models. I've been searching for a recent meta-analysis on the relationship between self-efficacy and academic outcomes / performance, but Multon et al (1991) seems to be the last dedicated secondary research on the topic. There are others that include self-efficacy among other predictors of academic performance, but they don't elaborate on potential moderators specific to SE, like type of measurement, level of generality etc. If you are familiar with any published or ongoing work on this topic, please let me know.
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Thank you, Professor Sheeran for you answer. It is very helpful.
Radu
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I would appreciate some ideas in order to state and not suggest that a particular strategy is effective
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Why do we assume that 'learning gains' can be attributed, in whole or in part, to a particular 'learning strategy'? The underlying metaphor or model appears to be something akin to physics, particularly mechanics, in which each action has an effect, hence 'cause-and-effect' as the core mechanism in learning. But human beings are not mechanical agents, at least not totally, though sometimes they do act like that.
I prefer a metaphor akin to chemistry, in which multiple reagents react in a chemical soup, approaching, perhaps never reaching equilibrium. So learning is influenced by multiple factors whose relative weighting or significance changes dynamically in relation to the others. I am not aware of an analogue to 'cause-and-effect' that sums this up, apart from 'maintaining complexity'. Every attempt to reduce complexity in teaching and learning misses out significant influences, in my view.
Furthermore, a 'learning strategy' is an observer's description of a flow of actions in response to felt (and sometimes unrecognised) influences made up of desires, dispositions, propensities and habits in a mixture of affective, cognitive and enactive contributions. There is rarely a consistent 'strategy' over time.
The analysis becomes even more complicated if the notion of 'learning' is inspected closely. When, for example, does learning take place? I suggest not in classrooms, nor when reading a book or watching a film or engaging in some task. It might be useful to think of learning takes place during sleep, when the brain chooses to forget some impressions, thereby strengthening the likelihood of fresh actions to come to the fore in future situations.
We look at learners and decide they have learned something when something changes ... but as others have pointed out, tests don't really do this, as they are artificial probes which predict little about what actions a person will have come to the fore in the future (I don't say 'come to mind' because they sometimes come directly to body, that is actions, or to emotions, that is affect).
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Everybody experiences autodidacticism at some point in life.
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From my ambitious view-point, the aim of a true didactics must be to create autodidactic men, that is to say, after some guided period of time the pupil must be able to continue learning as a self-taught man. In other words, the main task of a teacher consists of becoming himself unnecessary for his pupils.
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Mathematical Abilities.
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There is abig relation between slowlearning &workingmemory
the slowlearning had a weak memory >
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Tablets, video-conferencing, web based tools, and mobile robots, new technologies that can provide an "immersive" telepresence experience in distance education (double-robotics video shows some examples of telepresence - could it be used into distance learning applications?). What we could expect in the next few years?
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Hello. The link you mention is very interesting.
I agree this approach will have a great impact in some specific situations. One of particular interest for the researchers community would be tele-presence in conferences. I'm convinced this would be a very good way to increase participation rates while maintaining reduced costs for participants, since they would not require to spend a lot of budget in travelling (sometimes is just not affordable).
By the looks of the referred product, there are emerging Business Models that can start looking for interesting applications
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Other than e-texts, the easy distractibility and unengaged thinking encouraged by real-time access to emails, Face book, twitter, texting, social media, movies, music and games on the same screen-reader poses a grave concern to children. This tempting range of attention-extinguishing demands delivered to a single screen alters neuro-cognitive processing and is capable of permanently changing the way children read and think. Although the Web tantalizes children with a prime view of the burgeoning cyber world, it would be unrealistic to expect children to be selective in the content they choose to explore in-depth or to exercise control in reading thoughtfully rather than skimming superficially. Whatever we do to manage this information superabundance, the cyber world resists thoughtful reasoning. The only viable solution is to master, rather than be lorded over by, superfast information portals. Even adults, let alone children, will find disciplined restraint difficult.
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Technology is bringing phenomenal change in our social behavior.
Adopting to online reading is one such change, which fueled the prominence of online publishing.
However I personally assume, print format will continue to stay relevant for learning. I make this assumption on the basis of behavior observed in continuity of use of PC/Laptop, though Mobile device offers all [albeit more], features and facilities available on a PC. I extend my argument to draw assumption from another behavioral aspect of online shopping versus shopping in store, while e-commerce has become mainstream but retail stores haven’t lost their relevance.
In summary, I believe online format will grow but print format will remain relevant too.
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Neural Networks very loosely imitate and are inspired by the human brain and as such have some the strengths of the human brain like discrimination/pattern recognition and some of the weaknesses like forgetting and not being able to multiply 2n digits efficient
y. Neural Networks are used in Machine Learning a subset of AI and in AI itself in many different applications.
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It really depends on what type of data you may use. As with any formal system, if you provide more and more for a system to use to construct its analysis, the more likely you can miss outlier cases (in more general cases). Using 'too much' training data can really be the case of not using the right parameters, and maybe using too much of the same type of data. For instance, I wouldn't just feed an ANN the exact same looking data for everything, balance out the cases so that less likely cases it may try to catch can be 'roughly' considered. It is a flaw of any ANN is the input given, and the problem domain it can be applied to. Since ANN can consider a lot, but should be used carefully when it comes to lots of different situations. Independence of problems can be a big part of this. This is not discussed possibly as much due to just people not understanding the limitations of ANN. People think of them when they don't understand them as well as 'the greatest thing since sliced bread', when they don't yield much more power than some other methods, much like any field of algorithmic research. People find their power in expert systems, and predicting input such as handwriting especially. Usually people get in trouble when they expect them to be like 'us', when computation is not us or our brains. Computation is by computational models, and if we are even to consider that we would have a lot of work ahead of ourselves before we can say more but it looks a little unlikely due to the limitations even of approximations in formal systems. This is why it is not discussed amongst experts as much since they understand this while maybe non-computer science audiences may see it as this 'glorious' thing. Machine learning is a very fascinating field, but it is not best thought of as this 'human brain' replication concept, which is not what scientists should be after since we know mathematics has limitations.
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Why do lecturers avoid coming to learn how to use the library even when they do not know how to? Library is not only about stacking books, there is more to it than meets the eyes.
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User education is not a thing to be offered in one day, it is a thing which need Libraries and Librarians to conduct it at least twice a month. This is because , Libraries are doing many activities and have got many rules and guidance on how to use library as well as searching for different materials to facilitate easy access of a document. So giving training through lectures, seminars, study tours and even making a visit to the students classes or to the community in general is a very important thing to do. And the result of this is to make Librarians not so busy as users may search information by themselves. 
Thanks
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I have been working with Dr. Randy Isaacson for some time on teaching college students to be better at simple knowledge monitoring (in some models the foundation of metacognition). You can find a description of how we incorporate knowledge monitoring into a course curriculum in the following article. http://cgi.stanford.edu/~dept-ctl/tomprof/posting.php?ID=1048
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Has anyone measured stress in dogs?
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I've measured stress using cortisol levels pre & post under different conditions. There are several good articles on salivary coritsol out there, many of which also include HR and HRV. I've attached the results of a small pilot I did using salivary cortisol and guardian evaluations of the human-animal bond. The references will include those studies that you'll be most interested in and my discussion might give you another topic to consider when you're examining agility dogs.
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Can we use Neural network to identify the learner style or behaviour of the learner in e-learning environment. Further this learner style used in delivery of adaptive instruction. If we can use the neural network then any suggestion regarding to the parameter considered during training.
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I think that depends on the learning styles model …
Is this case http://paginas.fe.up.pt/~prodei/DSIE08/papers/35.pdf of Kolb’s model and neural networks of any interest ?
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Can anyone suggest relatively recent works?
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Dear friend
The easiest way is searching the related document by typing the keywords into google scholar. You will find some related articles.
If yet to find the articles, do not hesitate to let me know. InsyaALLAH I will help you in detail.
Good luck. Dr Zol Bahri - Universiti Malaysia Perlis
Self-regulatory learning behaviours
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Can anyone recommend empirical research papers on self-regulatory learning behaviours (activities, practices) of adult learners in the workplace? I am interested in self-regulatory practices in informal workplace learning contexts (ie learning that takes place through everyday work) rather than organised learning such as formal courses, apprenticeship/internships, etc.
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To my knowledge, the work of Michael Eraut is most popular in this context. I think his most famous article is "Informal learning in the workplace" (2004) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/158037042000225245 Another author who has published a lot is Stephen Billett, mainly on "Workplace Pedagogy", speaking always of informal learning. Smith (2003) also provides a nice overview: http://rer.sagepub.com/content/73/1/53.short Hope that helps!
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What I am particularly interested in are short stories &/or video resources that succinctly demonstrate or explain an innovative use of mobile technology for learning -- I am using "mobile" here to mean any portable device using digital technology. It doesn't have to be connected to the Internet. An example is the SMILE project at Stanford University:
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For the past three years, I have been testing and researching student use of mobile devices to complete course assignments. My most recent post regarding tips for mobile video can be found on the Chronicle of Higher Ed's "ProfHacker" site: http://bit.ly/yaros_video
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I am particularly interested in scales and measures of team or unit learning in organizations. If anyone can point me in the right direction, it is much appreciated.
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Hi Alf, below are a few scales you might find useful in your research:
Quality Improvement Group Survey
Wilkens, R., & London, M. (2006). Relationships between climate, process, and performance in continuous quality improvement groups. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(3), 510-523.
Perceived support for innovation scale
Siegel, S. M., & Kaemmerer, W. F. (1978). Measuring the perceived support for innovation in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(5), 553–562. 
Team innovation scale
Burpitt, W. J., & Bigoness, W. J. (1997). Leadership and Innovation among Teams: The Impact of Empowerment. Small Group Research, 28(3), 414–423. 
Kirton adaption-innovation inventory (KAI)
Kirton, M. (1976). Adaptors and innovators: A description and measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61(5), 622–629. 
The work environment inventory
Amabile, T. M., & Gryskiewicz, N. (1989). The Creative Environment Scales: The Work Environment Inventory. Creativity Research Journal, 2(4), 231–254.
Absorptive capacity scale
Flatten, T. C., Engelen, A., Zahra, S. a., & Brettel, M. (2011). A measure of absorptive capacity: Scale development and validation. European Management Journal, 29(2), 98–116. 
Teamwork Quality Scale
Hoegl, M., & Gemuenden, H. G. (2001). Teamwork quality and the success of innovative projects: A theoretical concept and empirical evidence. Organization Science, 12(4), 435-449.
Interprofessional team collaboration scale
Mellin, E. a, Bronstein, L., Anderson-Butcher, D., Amorose, A. J., Ball, A., & Green, J. (2010). Measuring interprofessional team collaboration in expanded school mental health: Model refinement and scale development. Journal of interprofessional care, 24(5), 514–23.
Problem-solving team behaviours (BOS)
Taggar, S., & Brown, T. C. (2001). Problem-Solving Team Behaviors: Development and Validation of BOS and a Hierarchical Factor Structure. Small Group Research, 32(6), 698–726.
Team player inventory (TPI)
Kline, T. (1999). The team player inventory: Reliability and validity of a measure of predisposition toward organizational team-working environments. Journal for specialists in Group Work, 24(1), 102–112.
Collective orientation scale
Driskell, J., Salas, E., & Hughes, S. (2010). Collective orientation and team performance: Development of an individual differences measure. The Journal of the Human Factors, 52(2), 316–328.
Team reflexivity scale
Schippers, M. C., Den Hartog, D. N., & Koopman, P. L. (2007). Reflexivity in Teams: A Measure and Correlates. Applied Psychology:An International Review, 56(2), 189–211.
Team Climate Inventory
Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: Development and validation of the team climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19(3), 235-258.
Individual Expectations for Teamwork Measure
Eby, L. T., Meade, A. W., Parisi, A. G., & Douthitt, S. S. (1999). The development of an individual-level teamwork expectations measure and the application of a within-group agreement statistic to assess shared expectations for teamwork. Organizational Research Methods, 2(4), 366-394.
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I love action research (specifically in human relations/education). I have always observed, read, thought, then felt compelled to test by putting the ideas into action and making more observations, analyses etc. As a scientist (chemist) originally, this process in education where I now work seems to me to be akin to the scientific method. Am I right/wrong or is it just different, yielding different outcomes from so called 'pure' research.
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Action research is for teachers like us to improve our practice, to teach more effectively (the plus).  It's still research because it's a deliberate and honest attempt to improve our teaching.  The minuses are due to the fact that we who carry it out are interested parties in the research and this has led to criticisms of the validity of the research process, 'with accusations of inevitable researcher bias in data gathering and analysis'.  There are journals that publish action research like (Canadian J of action research) in this link, but I don't know of such journals in my country.  So, Mark, you can publish action research.
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Study proves classroom design really does matter.
The study is : "A holistic, multi-level analysis identifying the impact of classroom design on pupils’ learning"
Are there any studies for the workplace?
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Yes. There are lots of related literature and studies on workplace design and productivity and holistic impact.
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Any tests that allow us to assess the above without MRI use even?
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You may want to take a look at the reference below to see if it might fit your needs. In the study, the investigators used a virtual environment to test memory for object location under two situations: one that involved movement of the subject between encoding and retrieval and the other that did not. The testing was done in a patient with localized bilateral hippocampal damage and the authors conclude that this test may provide "a well-controlled test that is extremely sensitive to hippocampal pathology" and that that "it might detect much milder hippocampal pathology, such as that shown early in Alzheimer’s disease or preterm children."
Reference:
Hippocampus. 2002;12(6):811-20.
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I'm new to the field and trying to learn more about this topic, as well as the important jargon connected to it.
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Hi Lily,
When creative writing and storytelling instruction is contextualized to students' current knowledge and daily life experiences, students have an opportunity to experience meaningful learning (David Ausubel) and/or a transformative experience (Kevin J. Pugh). When students' enter into such experiences, negative interest toward the learning of instructional content can be change into a positive interest (Jack & Lin, 2014). This change in students' interest toward learning instructional content has the potential to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and motivation in learning.
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There seems to be a dysfunctional gap between learning to succeed within society and learning in order to become a capable and fully functioning adult..
Or are we suffering a particular dysfunction where many people are not being taught well enough, nor are they learning anything. It is argued that by many, they are not being taught at all. People learn in different ways and at different rates. Some people do not learn at school but learn from others within their communities or at other types of learning situations.
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Not everything was well in the past. Remember Socrates' words 6000 years ago: "The children now love luxury. They have bad manners, contempt for authority; they show disrespect for elders and love chatter in place of exercise.". Aren't we saying the same thing Socrates said so long ago?
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I feel that most researchers treat craving/cue-reactivity as an associative mechanism, but it could be described through operant mechanisms. I seem to remember Ken Perkins discussing this at SRNT a couple of years ago, but can't find a good write up by him or others in the field.
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Here are copies of the reports. Let me know if you need anything else because I wrote one of my papers on operant/conditional learning. I've attached the Everitt and Robbins (2005) article because I think it does an excellent job explaining the two. I have the others as well, but since you can (apparently) only post one file at a time and I'm not sure of permissive rights, I'll wait until for further notice to make sure we are talking about the same thing.
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At the School of Architecture of the University of Santiago we are developing strategies to integrate environmental phenomena in 1st year students' design process . Students explore phenomena like natural lighting, air flow, convective currents and acoustics in their actual physical models, rather than using software only. If somebody is doing these sort of experiments, we would be grateful to know about it.
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I believe Ricardo is looking for some experimentation tools that are not software-based, similar that the one we used in the training course we provided for architecture students from four different universities in Chile. http://lowcarbonarchitecture.com/esp/?p=228
The main objective of the course was to provide the students with basic building aerodynamics literacy. We started with a lecture of building aerodynamics concepts and their influence on natural ventilation and wind energy generation. We shared with the UTFSM staff some plans to construct a very simple 2D wind tunnel. In this tunnel students were able to visualize the wind regime around simple configurations and compare their findings with the literature.
A design problem was then proposed to the students where they had to design an entrance portion of a house that provided both a wind deflector system and a wind speed enhancer.
Students started by testing 2D shapes in the 2D wind tunnel in order to find out whether the deflecting and enhancing phenomena were achieved. Different design approaches were studied. Then, they were asked to produce a 3D model. The 3D model was later tested on the open circuit wind tunnel of the university and, similarly, their design decisions were informed by their findings.
Finally students produced 1:5 and 1:3 scale models to be field tested. The students gained a good understanding of the aerodynamic phenomena which makes it easier for them to engage with the use of CFD software at later stages.
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Is there a variable that is a common factor in determination of disability?
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Dear Max,
thanks for your contact.
It is not my research focus. If you can, click in link bellow to you know our projects. Maybe we can do something together.
Best Regards.
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Learning environments created by third parties, are they based on any design principle or are they based on requirements of Universities/educational establishments ?
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Hi Uday,
I know from Moodle that they have an instructional framework (see http://docs.moodle.org/25/en/Pedagogy, they follow a socialconstructivist approach).
This is a heuristic approach, the don't connect to Instruction Design Guidelines like the Morrison/Ross/Kemp Model. Elias (2010) evaluated, if Moodle shows universal design principles: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/869/1575
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I have seen much research on attitudes, implementation challenges and technical issues around interactive whiteboards (IWB). I do not find this satisfactory from the point of view of learning and cognitive psychology. Can anyone direct me to research which looks at what happens in terms of learning when interactive whiteboard technology is used in the process. I could imagine that the way that mental models are constructed would be different when the IWB technology is used.
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My collegue Gabriele Graube and me conducted a longitudinal study on interactive whiteboards from 2007 to 2009, researching the change of learning habits and teaching/learningculture in a fully-equipped middleschool in Germany. Therefore, we questioned both teachers and students. Could this help you further?
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Glass is only the beginning of hands free devices. What are the potential benefits, disruptions, and negative implications of using such a device?
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Some of the discussions on this site have as many as 200+ comments and others have less than 10 but why? What generates this higher level of response? Should each comment be given a reply or should the discussion be allowed to continue without any input from the tutor?
I have did some initial research on participation on Yahoo available here, I have done some research into the level and type of participation in a higher education setting but it has not been published yet. I would like to know what others have found when facilitating online discussions.
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My specific interest in this question is its application to the classroom. As Steve points out "the level of interaction is in direct proportion tot he self-interest of the individual." In the classroom, the self-interest of the student should be grades. Therefore, in my online classes I grade heavily for participation in the discussion. My syllabus requires students to enter several discussions to the discussion board (db) or suffer a lower grade. So far, it is working and discussions are amazingly creative and thought provoking.
As Michael Moore (2010) pointed out with his Transactional Distance Theory, the success or failure of distance education (DE) depends on the level of interaction.
Moore, M. G. (2010). The theory of transactional distance. In The Handbook of Distance Education (pp. 1-21). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University.
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I know about Community of Practice (CoP) and Story telling, but it seems that there are nine of them. Can someone help me?
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Jon Mason, you have made a good point in your last paragraph. I think we should be careful to avoid conflating two distinctions: on the one hand, there is the distinction between formal and informal learning; the other distinction is between explicit (conscious, reflective) and implicit learning (what we “pick up”, so to speak, without deliberate attention to it; e.g. how children acquire their first language). Although we tend to associate explicit learning with formal settings (schooling), your example of speed limits shows that much explicit learning can take place in informal contexts. Similarly, schooling largely targets explicit learning, but much implicit learning also takes place in school (e.g. the whole socialization and enculturation process – “how to play the game” – that kids absorb in school). In the classroom (a formal setting), teaching/learning activities can vary along the explicit-implicit continuum: think about the difference between listening to an explanation of a grammar rule and then doing an exercise on it (learning is highly explicit), versus engaging in a role-play or simulation (learning is largely implicit).
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I'm starting exploratory research on potential or actual roles for medical librarians working within undergraduate medical programs.
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Hi Rebecca,
In India there are several Dissertations on this & its allied issues.  You can search the site shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/
Further, as I understand several articles on similar topic have been published in ILA Bulletin & IASLIC Bulletin.
In case you need any further information , you can contact me.
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Which variables can be measured in a 7th grade science class. The learning environment is blended learning and the moodle learning management system is going to be used.
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It much depends on what kind of activities you are planning to have online.
If your course is based on collaborative activities (i.e., students have a task to carry out in small groups, like finding together the solution of a problem, or finding/reading some materials and working out a text together) than the best thing to evaluate is participation, i.e. how much they interact with the group mates (without trying to overwhelm the rest of the group nor trying to take advantage of the work made by the others without getting much involved), if their contributions are focused on the assigned task, if they contribute in any way to the group good functioning for example by helping to set up a good climate, to respect deadlines, not to lose group members on the way, not to lose the discussion thread. Delivering a correct product on time is obviously still a valuable element to be considered besides participation.
On the other hand, if you are organizing collaborative work on the web and are just using the Moodle platform to store materials, assign tasks and remember deadlines, then just apply your usual evaluation method, because the learning activity is not actually taking place online; you will understand from the work done by the students if they took into consideration the materials, tasks, deadlines, etc. you posted in the online space.
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Homework is unconditionally accepted as a powerful tool for helping students with learning, progressing, growing. However, what is the actual gain students get from it in the end? Can we differentiate between learning occurring from the tasks done while in the lesson from those occurring while doing the homework?
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A study of the impact of homework (but not very interesting from the educational point of view) is
Eren, O. and Henderson, D. J. (2008), The impact of homework on student achievement. The Econometrics Journal, 11: 326–348.
For a review on homework in the US in 1987-2003 see http://rer.sagepub.com/content/76/1/1.full.pdf
By the same author see also
Homework for all - In moderation. Educational Leadership, 58(7), 2001, 34-38.
From other authors:
Trautwein, U. & Lüdtke, O (2007). Students' self-reported effort and time on homework in six school subjects: Between-students differences and within-student variation.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 432-444.
U. Trautwein (2007). The homework–achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort.
Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 372–388
Against homework:
Kralovec, E. & Buell, J. (20019. End homework now. Educational Leadership, 58(7), 2001, 39-42.
More interesting are in my opinion the papers which put into relation homework with the practice or development of kills of self-regulated learning, like:
P.H. Winne, &A. F. Hadwin (1998). Studying as elf-regulated learning. IN D.J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice. LEA Pub.
B. J. Zimmerman & A. Kitsantas (2005). Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-eYcacy and perceived responsibility beliefs. Contemporary Educational Psychology 30, 397–417.
I hope this can help!
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Evolution is to be included as part of the National Curriculum In England from 2014.
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I am sorry but I must be missing something... I discussed evolution with my daughter when she was five years old and she appears to have the cognitive ability to understand. Maybe the language used by some teachers may not explain the concept in the terms the children need to grasp the basics before going on to the higher level concepts. I have not tried to explain the mechanisms of evolution as I understand them. There are a number of myths and misconceptions mainly stemming from confusion with other creation myths
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A study by Allen and Seaman (2012) in which they analyse the opinions of faculty members on online courses compared face to face courses and they found that 65% thought they were inferior and only 5% thought they were superior. I have now completed a degree by both methods and was wondering what the researchers here thought about this question.
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I think we need to accept that the world has changed and moved on from the traditional face to face learning. I will therefore disagree with any notions that portray online learning outright as inferior.
In comparing the two modes of learning, it will be unfair therefore to discuss them in a general sense. I am of the opinion it depends on the subject and area of learning. In the age of video conferencing, most oral presentations and discussions can still take place in the virtual world just as in physical face to face. However, with specific areas of learning that require a 'hands on' physical contact like in physiotherapy, some aspects of the medical field, traditional classroom teacher training, etc, some part of the learning may have to take place in a traditional way.
With technological advances and changes in the way we live our lives, online learning may become more dominant.
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Sub question: Who agrees with Gardner Campbell? ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kIzA4ItynYw&feature=share)
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
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Kozma (1991) wrote an important paper where he analysed the interconnections between media and learning. http://robertkozma.com/images/kozma_rer.pdf
In 1994 he also wrote “If we move from "Do media influence learning?" and "In what ways can we use the capabilities of media to influence learning for particular students, tasks, and situations?"
Are Kozma's considerations still valid, twenty years after?
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I think in 21th century also Kozmas"s considerations remain cutting-edge
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There is a current debate over the issue of raising intelligence (IQ or g in psychometric terms). Some argue that improving the functioning of capacity functions, such as executive control or working memory, transfers to inferential and problem solving processes measured by intelligence tasts. Others believe that these gains are transcient and weak and that only expertise and experience can improve intellectual functioning. Where shall education concentrate? On capacity functions or inference and problem solving? Shall intelligence be a direct focus of education or an expected outcome?
The document uploaded in Publications under the title "Knowing and raising intelligence" is for a booklet addressed to teachers. Feedback on it vis-a-vis the questions above would be greatly appreciated.
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There seems to be a confusion here between absolute and relative measures of intelligence. As a child gets older, scores on mental tasks improve (ie raw scores on WISC tests). IQs are relative scores, giving the standing of the child relative to other children. If IQs increased by 2 points per year of schooling, all that would mean is that the test was not marked correctly, that the mean IQ for each age had not been set to 100. Behavior genetic studies clearly show that the effects of common environment (schooling, SES, etc) are largest in early childhood but wash out, probably completely, by adulthood. If anyone knows of any proven long-term effect of schooling on intelligence, could they please provide a reference? There are several well-known celebrities with very high IQs (eg Joanna Lumley, a street boy who won a Nobel Prize) who managed fine with very little schooling.
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Higher education
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There is quite a bit of work in that area, you can also look at work of Trigwell, Prosser, Gibbs and Biggs all have written on this subject. There is a Finnish paper on investigation of this type of question using the Approaches to Teaching Inventory and I have also written a paper in this area looking at data collected in the Faculty of Science and Technology at Uppsala University.
Refs:
Pears et al.
Gibbs and Coffey
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This question is close to my research interest, but not central - but I am recovering from a mild stroke, and am being confronted ontologically as distinct from epistemologically with this question. The social theorist I use (Margaret Archer) uses a sophisticated understanding of emergence out of relations between the practical and natural realms - but as a social theorist, leaves the 'mind' 'brain' relations - properly - to those whose discipline it is. This is not a question for the sake of therapy: but a therapeutic reality which has raised a question for my understanding of 'learning'
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Read about constuctionism by papert
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In online courses and discussions of this type, how can instructors and teachers increase the level of interactivity to create a sense of community?
The literature suggests that learning collaboratively is more effective but in online courses the students are in a virtual community that requires them to interact through asynchronous discussions. How can the tutor promote that interaction and make the discussions more effective?
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@Gary: I feel we have to reward the desired behaviour. To do this we need to force the students to co-operate in the community. We can do this by rewarding them with marks when they do so. Think like RG SCORE!
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Do you know what is the difference in these terms?
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The difference between both can also be described in terms of the revised Bloom's taxonomy: rote learning mainly covers recalling and recognizing factual knowledge. In meaningful learning, also the other knowledge dimensions (procedural, conceptual, and partly meta-cognitive) and more cognitive processes (understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create) are involved. A good overview of this difference can be found in this article:
Mayer, R. E. (2002). Rote Versus Meaningful Learning. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 226–232. (I found it on google scholar at: http://rt3region7.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/file/view/8+Perspectives+on+RBT.pdf)