Science topics: Public HealthHealth
Science topic

Health - Science topic

The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Questions related to Health
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An interdisciplinary subject with deep and extended implications. Discussions, ideas and any references should be productive in the long run.
What about the food stored in the International Space Stations (ISS) where the cosmic radiation is extremely high. What transformations is the food exposed to?
I believe the exposed food to the cosmic rays, upon its consumption, present a significant additional danger to astronauts. The direct effect of cosmic rays upon astronauts it's an already major concern.
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I believe that you're asking two separate questions - first, will food be affected from the exposure to cosmic radiation and second what are the health issues associated with radioactive materials in food.
With respect to the first question, the effects from exposure to external radiation to food are quite low. There have been many studies performed on the effects of radio-sterilization on food (from external radiation). To make a long story short, effects were similar to that which occurred during normal food cooking. The extent isn't important here primarily because sterilization occurs at an exposure level on the order of thousands of rads - which is a lethal exposure level to humans. Therefore, while astronauts are exposed to higher radiation levels than us, they definitely aren't exposed to lethal levels.
As for radioactive materials in food, we constantly are ingesting such materials. A perfect example is radioactive K-40. About 0.017% (if I remember correctly) of potassium is radioactive potassium-40. With a few calculations, one would find that an average banana has about 900 decays per minute of K-40; I find that really interesting because we consider a lab contaminated if it has 500 decays per minute of beta-gamma isotopes over a 100 cm2 area. I could imaging that the high energy cosimic radiation could be energetic enough to cause a neutron or proton to be ejected from an atom in food (which could make that atom radioactive), but you wouldn't be able to notice a statistically valid difference in the quantity of radioactive material present before and after.
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I have a DHS dataset (from uSAID) for Indonesia in Stata format. Does anyone have experience in analysing such a dataset? I would like to write a paper about the relation between water accessibility with water borne disease.
I would love to invite any member who had previous experience to work on a joint publication.
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Dear Smita
Thank you for your response and interest.
Can I ask you what statistics software you are using? I use R mostly but I just got a Stata software license.
Let me get back to you, currently I am finishing another paper.
Cheers,
Erwin
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Hiya - I am looking for a research instiute or dept, or even just some studies which look at work and return to work when experiencing mental and physical health comorbid health condtions. Any help gratefully recieved.
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Thank you - its in development stages so is still very broad, we're a research organistion (owned bya  university) so its not necessarily an academic project. It will likely be an overview of mental-physical healthcomorbidities and their effect on employment, incorprating the employer perspective. Will keep you posted.. I have a little while to work out the direction! I suspect though that I will be guided into doing a similar piece of work to what my organistion has done previously (see attached), but we'll see. I was keen to look at the patterns of onset of multiple conditions and the role that work plays.
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Who can tell me which Mycoplasma strains may be involved in human cancer?
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Please see the link below, Role of Bacteria in Oncogenesis
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People with the most means – whose needs for health care are often less – consume the most care, whereas those with the least means and greatest health problems consume the least. Public spending on health services most often benefits the rich more than the poor in high- and low-income countries alike.
How to do the balancing act?
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The easiest, but most often wrong answer, is targeting, which requires "more tests of the poor" and all. Rather the simple principle voiced by our colleague Julian Tudor Hart: "If everybody is insured, nobody needs insurance." The just distribution of health services, "according to need and not according to wealth", may not be fully achieved by universal coverage/ Juilan Tudor Harts's principle, but it helps. As in the Nordic countries, - see if I can make a link to a Lancet Comment.
And it probably helps for health professionals to be aware of the inherent forces in "Inverse care law", still a Julian Tudor Hart-coined phrase.
As a GP and a researcer, my concern over some years has been to avoid the the effects of the Inverse care law in primary care. Actually, it doesn'l look so bad in Norway, - use of GP services seem to be distributed roughly accpording to need. 
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National health strategy in different countries and its applications
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Dear @Mohamed, any strategies exists in Serbia regarding public health, youth health, ...etc. The following paper will give You some more information regarding this issue since Serbia is in transition!
Under paragraph 4, last link, all the strategies are given regarding health and social affairs!
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Physical education teachers play a key role in promoting health-seeking behaviors. However, teachers will successfully serve the role of a health promoter only if they themselves display a positive attitude towards their own health. I am looking for information about health behaviors (e.g. physical activity, proper nutrition habits, prophylactic behavior, health practices) undertaken by physical education teachers.
I would be glad to receive some references as well.
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This research is good .It is often like what I hear from some medics who say many take care of the health of others and overwork themselves and put their health in jeopardy.Apart from coaches who participate with their athletes, many physical education teachers and lecturers in Nigeria are due to poor enabling environment often are preachers and not doers of what they preach
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I am interested in learning more about critical realism, particularly in the health context. Can anyone suggest resources that they recommend or use?
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Now that you have narrowed it down to the question of analytical dualism, I can give you some more focused advice.
Start with Alastair Mutch's 2007 paper on Mutual Constitution. He gives a really good summary of Archer's Morphogenetic Theory. This will break the ice.
Then go to Archer's 1995 work and study it in depth. This is the key theory work here. you will want to focus on ch 5-9 to get the theory down. After that look at Dave Elder-Vass' 2010 book on the causal power of social structures. This will fill in the gap on the emergence of causal power. This will give you the theory.
When you get to the question of "ok, so what do I do with this?" Check out my paper on applying Archer's theory. It is not only a shameless plug, but also the only paper that I have seen that give concrete advice for applying it. You will want to add Danermark's and Sayer's books for general backfill on methodology. 
As you go along you may want to fill in with some of the other works. 
I am happy to help you as much as you need. Since you are in Australia, you might want to look up Philip Dobson. He has done some real on the ground application of CR to studies in the IS field. 
Hope this helps!
Regard,
Mike
Mutch, A. 2007. "Concerns with "Mutual Constitution": A Critical Realist Commentary," in Issues and Trends in Technology and Human Interaction, B.C. Stahl (ed.). Hershey, PA: IRM Press, pp. 230-244.
Archer, M. S. 1995. Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach, (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elder-Vass, D. 2010. The Causal Power of Social Structures Emergence, Structure and Agency. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cuellar, M. J. 2010. "Using Realist Social Theory to Explain Project Outcomes," International Journal on IT Project Management (1:4), pp. 38-51.
Sayer, A. 1992. Method in Social Science a Realist Approach, (2nd ed.). London: Rutledge.
Danermark, B., Ekstrom, M., Jakobsen, L., and Karlsson, J. C. 2002. Explaining Society Critical Realism in the Social Sciences, (1st ed.). London: Routledge.
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Accumulating evidence suggests frequent consumption of select foods rich in certain flavonoids is important for optimal health
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Ajwa dates are one of the most expensive dates in its raw form in Saudi Arabia. One kg cost about 80/SR. Its look is unique and taste is superb. Dates are also rich in natural fibers. Modern medicine has shown that they are effective in preventing abdominal cancer. They also surpass other fruits in the sheer variety of their constituents. They contain oil, calcium, sulfur, iron, potassium, phosphorous, manganese, copper and magnesium.The dates are highly nutritious, full of sugar (60%), and small quantities of fat (2%), proteins (2%), and minerals (2%). In other words, one date satisfies the minimum requirements of a balanced and healthy diet. Because Ajwa date is fiber rich and for digestion of fiber more bile will be used, because bile contains salts of cholesterol ring, hence step by step Ajwa dates will consume extra cholesterol mainly biliary as well as bad cholesterol LDL streaming in the blood.
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In particular lipid testing, moving machines around (transport) etc.
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Recently I used one,  in field, with transporation by plane e and boat - a difficult access area - using a portable powerplant. The results were sactisfactory. 
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Diseases of the teeth and the oral cavity can cause diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and a variety of others. Scientific studies have been linked in recent years, infections of the oral cavity with infective endocarditis, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke.
Correlation between oral and general health have been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Dental Federation (FDI), which have a mutual agreement on cooperation oral health declared an integral part of health.
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people  can get accumulation of bacteria and calculus leading to infection and bad breadth .
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Artificial sweetners and sugar free foods are quite a star these days. What is your opinion on such products against sugar or natural sweetners?
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Personally I do not like artificial sweeteners. Prefer to use less sugar as a means of cutting the calories. Best in my opinion is reduce the carbohydrate intake.
Here is a good scientific advice on what to do and not to do to control the sugar intake for weight loss.
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More particularly I am interested in an invention which relates to a spring locking clip and associated plunger which can be used to convert a plastic hypodermic syringe barrel into a single-use, difficult to reuse, inexpensive syringe made from already medically approved material. I am also interested in obtaining information pertaining to similar inventions. I sincerely appreciate your input, I look forward to hearing from you all, thanks!
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As a nurse, I give Lovenox injections all the time to patients either for DVT prophylaxis or for treatment. I like the safety feature of the syringe because after I've administered the medication, I can activate the safety feature by pushing on the plunger to propel the chamber inside the syringe that would cover the needle completely. I believe that this addresses the rising incidence of needle-stick injury among healthcare workers especially nurses. Attached is a document provided by Sanofi, the manufacturer of Lovenox. 
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Health care workers.
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It is an interesting question - there is not a screening that I have come across.
To develop an appropriate and efficacious screening there would need to be considerable thought regarding questions such as: who would conduct the screening, where (in what context), when (at what point in actual or potential staff entering the field, the practice setting, etc.), and who would be screened (all workers, or only those who display some behaviour that flags screening, or only in contexts there are likely to be undetected cases).
We need to be mindful of the risk of false positives and the impact such a label would have on the staff member. We need to be mindful also of the probable (low) volume of cases and the cost-benefit analysis of using (limited) resources for a syndrome unlikely to be present in most settings or staff teams.
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I feel it is very difficult to manage time in research as it is non-ending job. As a researcher, one has number of responsibilities including time for self and family. It is not necessary that research output is proportional to the time you spend in research. I have seen numbers of researchers who work very hard, but their research output is not visible. Sometimes, we are so much involved in science that we forgot about our health. Health is another important issue, if you are tired you can not think much. I am asking this question to find out from other colleagues how they are managing their time. According to you, what is best way to manage time, in order to keep the balance of most of things in life? At end of day we have to live a happy life.
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Dear friend,
There are so many things you need to look at.
I shall give some brief pointers to help you my dear friend.
1. you need to be smart enough to utilize the resources around you.
2. you do specific work at specific time. [ puntual]
3. You need to gauge the work before you start-
4. Eat good quality food for good health.- your wife will do that. sos dont worry. read some good food articles on net- get some idea.
5. dO REGULAR exercise.- be healthy
6. Read that article ''http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~robins/YouAndYourResearch.html)'' but its sure its not going to help you. Nice to read but wont be enough to manage research for a newbie. [well that talk was for big brain [genius] people at BELL LABS -] IF you are a genius, then its fine.
7. Be consistent and continuous in research work. - be regular- don't leave the touch.
8. You need to love research just like you love your wife- [each having importance at its own place-so have disjoint time sets;........ wife for happiness and research for career growth......]
9. Keep yourself updated about latest papers published .....
10. when you get bored or frustrated , then close ur research for some time and go for two day holiday trip [ say any hill station with ur family]. Refresh your mind , thats really needed.
THere are other things too.. BUT for the time being its enough.
Hope this will help you.
Take care friend.
Best regards,
INDRAJIT MANDAL
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Is it good enough using ICD-10 or SNOMED-CT? Or any other HIE's standard?
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The key to producing shareable data is to agree the set of concepts to be represented. Once that is done SNOMED CT's structure of preferred terms and synonyms is capable of producing a language independent representation of those concepts. However, I'm not aware of any domain in which the existing SNOMED CT content is capable of accurately representing all of the necessary and sufficient concepts required in that domain so modification of content will be required. This modification will likely be a combination of new term creation, reassignment of preferred term and synonym status and correction of hierarchical errors.
Sharing of comprehensive health data is a task beyond the scope of ICD-10.
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Seawater can have different effects on skin/ human body as compared to normal water bath. How better/adverse that can prove to be?
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Sea bathing has become one of the most popular hobbies these days. William Buchan wrote in 1701, in his book 'Domestic Medicine', that he advocated the practice of sea bathing as it was thought to have medicinal benefits. The ocean contains all the vital elements, vitamins, mineral salts, trace elements, and amino acids (which is, by the way, a really good reason for using sea salt in our diet, as opposed to 'table' salt). Sea water is bacteriostatic and the cleansing and healing properties of saline have been recognized for many years. Naturopaths believe that bathing in sea water acts directly on chronic health disorders. They believe that cool sea water calms down overwrought nerves, tranquillizing the whole body. By the same token, they believe that warm sea water, during the summer months improves circulation and relaxes muscles. The high salt content also provides natural buoyancy, which also helps with relaxation. It is also considered that the magnesium content of sea water is sufficiently strong to have a nutritional and calming effect on our nerves, which would explain why we find sea water bathing so relaxing. It is easy to see why it would be thought that the motion of the waves in the sea help to massage the body and assist in the removal of toxins.
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Is it better than the classical models (TPB; HBM) that, in my opinion, are better to describe why a given behavior occurs, rather than indicate how to change it? If you know a "better" behavior change model, please let me know.
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Thank you very much for your helpful advice !
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I am putting together a workshop on stigma and health. I particularly like the work of Scambler and Parker & Aggleton. Does anyone have any other suggestions?
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                    CAS 892 – Stigma Communication, Fall Semester 2015
                   (meets Tuesday morning from 9:10-12:00 in 177 Com Arts)
Taught by Professor Mary Bresnahan    Email: bresnah1@msu.edu
 Bresnahan’s recent publications on Stigma:
Anderson, J., Bresnahan, M., & Musatics, C. (2014). Combating Weight-Based Cyberbullying on Facebook with the Dissenter Effect. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 281-286.
Bresnahan, M. J., Silk, K., & Zhuang, J.  (2013). You did this to yourself! Stigma associated with lung cancer.  Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1-30.
Anderson, J., & Bresnahan, M.  (2012): Communicating stigma about body size, Health  Communication, 28, 1-13. doi:10.1080/10410236.2012.706792
Zhuang, J., & Bresnahan, M.J.  (2012). HIV/AIDS stigmatization on Chinese Internet discussion forums:   Content analysis approach to HIV/AIDS stigma. Chinese Journal of Communication, 5, 227-242.
Bresnahan, M. I., & Zhuang, J. (2010). Towards a theory of stigma.  Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 231-             243. doi:10.1348/135910709X457946.
Goal of Course
Increasingly, scholars in a number of disciplines (Communication, Social Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Health, & Medicine) have focused on understanding the process of stigma from the dual perspectives of stigmatizers and the stigmatized. Stigma research has taken on a special status apart from stereotyping and prejudice studies.  The goal of this seminar on stigma is to explore theory, measurement and experience of stigma from multiple perspectives.  The following course announcement includes a list of topics that will be covered.
Final Project
The final assignment (due date) will be a 12-15 page (double-spaced, 12 pt. font) grant proposal. You should treat this project like an NIH predoctoral fellowship application (although the literature review will be somewhat longer and the study descriptions will be more detailed for this project).  In this empirical proposal, you will select a stigma research topic and develop theory-driven novel research hypotheses. You will then propose at least one empirical study to test your hypotheses. You will both present this proposal to the class and then turn in the final paper during exam week. More guidelines will be available.
Tentative Topics that will be covered in this Seminar
Week 1: What is stigma?
Week 2: Approaches & Dimensions of stigma, Communication of Stigma
Week 3: Measurement of Stigma
Week 4: What causes people to stigmatize?         
Week 5: Stigma as power differential
Week 6: Consequences of Stigma
Week 7: Hidden Stigmatized Conditions: Whether to conceal or reveal?
Week 8: Stigma by Association
Week 9: Stigma and Health, HBV Stigma, Infertility Stigma
Week 10: Stigma and Bullying
Week 11: Rejection Sensitivity
Week 12: Fighting back:  Reclaiming stigmatized identity, Overcoming Stigma
Week 13: Obesity Stigma
Week 14: Environmental Stigma
Week 15: Presentation of student research proposals to class
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Diabetes Mellitus is one of the key health factor which has crippled India for a long time. Although as days pass by there are more advanced medicines and techniques to effectively neutralise its ill effects on overall mortality/morbidity of an individual it still remains one of the highest killers in the sub continent along with smoking. What are the factors taken by other countries be it from government or otherwise to raise awareness or campaign for cheaper effective controls -
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Dear Sandeepan, we all know health is wealth. Diabetes a disease of life style or a disease of inheritance. This has to be answered by one and all. You have raised technology to neutralize its ill effects on mortality and morbidity which means there will be more diabetics than before albeit healthy.
The first question an insurance company can ask is have you got diabetes because of wrong life style which has triggered a change in the genetic component thus rendering a person diabetic.
the second question is whether the food which is consumed by millions of people world wide is sprayed by preservatives, pesticides, etc.
third question why is a person in a rural area affected by diabetes when he has nothing of the features that people in the city have.
prevention of diabetes is better than control,
eat healthy and live healthy. do not eat more than you need.
What are the other new findings of how chemical pollution increases the risk for diseases?
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New scientific evidence on this issue is very important and needed.
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If no link is proven then there is no basis for action, including continuing to look for a link. If the link is proven and in a way that demonstrates an ability to control the link it is necessary to take action. The problem is studies like the one you cited. No link was found, yet the authors claim significant risk.
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Studies based in Great Britain are most helpful. Any assistance much appreciated.
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Dear Felicia,
this study is very interesting:
Ans it has been made in England.
Best regards,
Alejandro
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Conventional medicine prides itself on being science-based, and shuns alternative medicine for being "unproven," however, many of the non-communicable diseases have been taken care of successfully by alternative medicine. Conventional medicine is still behind and it will send your health into a downward spiral.
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If people think that alternative medicine is rubbish because it has not undergone bench mark trials than I say, stop eating because true 'alternative medicine' has been around for centuries, is mostly food based and many of our pharmacueticals are based on 'alternative medicines' eg lipator.
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I want to know if promoting self-determination in the specific area of health could facilitate the development of self-determination in other areas of everyday life in people with intellectual disabilities
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The following research may provide some answers to your question: 
1. Carrington, S., Lennox, N., O'Callaghan, M., McPherson, L., & Selva, G. (2013). Promoting Self-Determination for Better Health and Wellbeing for Adolescents who have an Intellectual Disability. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 1-22.
The focus of this paper is on an Australian research project that evaluated the effectiveness of a resource called the Ask Health Diary, which is used in the school curriculum to promote self-determination for better health and wellbeing for adolescents who have an intellectual disability. The findings indicate that the Ask Health Diary provides a sound curriculum framework for teachers, adolescents and parents/carers to work together to promote self-determination and better health outcomes for young people who have an intellectual disability.
2.McDougall, J., Evans, J., & Baldwin, P. (2010). The importance of self-determination to perceived quality of life for youth and young adults with chronic conditions and disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 31(4), 252-260.
This study examined the relationship between self-determination and perceived quality of life for youth and young adults with chronic conditions and disabilities over time. Findings suggest that there may be a relationship between self-determination and specific subdomains of perceived quality of life for youth and young adults with chronic conditions and disabilities that extends over time. Studies using larger international samples followed over a longer period of time are required to substantiate these findings.
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Smart Health is a new paradigm for the provision of healthcare within smart cities. The idea has been proposed in this article. 
One of the main limitations of Smart Health is the need for rich context-aware environments. For example, in a Smart City we need access to the data gathered by sensors, but in many cases there are very few sensors available.
Which sensors do you believe could be more important for healthcare within a Smart City? Humidity, Temperature, Pollution ... ?
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Noise and air pollution seem to be obvious candidates when it comes to environmental monitoring for health purposes. One example I know of is Barcelona, which uses SmartCitizen Kit (http://www.smartcitizen.me/) together with the Sentilo platform (http://www.sentilo.io/wordpress/) to gather a number of physical values, including the ones mentioned above. Further details can be found in the linked resources below. Unfortunately, there is no concrete description of how this sensor data is used for public policy or decision making in the field of health (at least as of now).
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We've had smoking, STDs/AIDs, obesity etc as the 'next' or current global health epidemic. What might be the next one - either currently simmering away in the background - or a new one just around the corner?
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Hi Michael, Andre and Ian,
Many thanks for the articulate reponses. There is certainly nothing that I would challenge here myself. Certainly, diabetes and its related 'metabolic syndrome' are high on the list - and fast climbing. Infectious diseases are always well represented. I had a thesis student recently, who did a very good study around associated antibiotic resistance, biofilms and persisters - and some view the abuse and over-prescription of antibiotics as a global epidemic - especially from the damage that it does to the environment - which is not something that I had considered previously.
Yes - increasing intolerance to environmental exposures and increasing rates of asthma certainly has a place.
I hadn't considered sleep - but it makes perfect sense - especially related to increasing accidents, depressive states etc.
A further area that I have researched previously is around osteoporosis. It, and it's pre-curser of osteopenia are often described as a 'silent' epidemic - but rates are rapidly increasing and healthcare costs burgeoning.
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I'm looking for validated scales that measure the level of annoyance and reactance to the health messages/notifications from an online health coaching service.  
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My paper on the: 'Evaluation of a tactic to engage hard-to-reach patients during the exercise referral process'. Looks at how patients initially reacted badly to messages from their health professionals about their obesity. But does not use a scale as it is a qualitative paper.
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I'm trying to determine the effect on productivity on workers subjected to 85dBA+ ambient noise for an 8 hour period. I know that noise effects productivity and other performance/health factors, but can't determine by how much
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As the question is one that the Human Relations school will certainly have dealt with at some point, I would search the journal of that name and expect to find something.
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Are there any studies, surveys or statistics available to answer this question? The same would be interesting for aquaculture.
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You can try to seek the data from USDA: http://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline and FAO : http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/desktop/default.apx for legumes consumption, production from EU and all the world, then you can find the proportion of EU legumes production consumed by human (world consumption)
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To study the time loss for type 2 diabetes patients, can any one suggest the methods to estimate it from social perspective, even some patients considered as a workers , others are unemployed or housewife 
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Thanx for the question, Samer.
The question would have to be fragmented to many areas like time spent attending doctor/medical care, missing house work/work, time spent by others on the patient (=loss of patient's time), etc.
Once decided, aspects of such fragments need be put in to research questionnaire.
This is just a start!!! Von Voyage!
Regards
Suresh
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Hi, I want to predict the salary of people working in financial market and I know their age, health-insurance level and marital condition and so on. However, the sample that have a salary above 250000$ per year is not ample enough compared with those who have a salary below. So the performance of the high salary is very poor, although the performance on the whole is good.  Can you provide me some method to improve the the accuracy of the high salary? Thank you very much!
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Hello Chen!
There are several methods to improve the performance on machine-learning algorithms for imbalanced classes. Unfortunately there is no one algorithm that can work correctly for each method and dataset as they all have pros and cons (no free lunch).
I am attaching a presentation that I created some time ago. This presentation contains some of the methods that are used most often. They are fairly easy to implement (specially the sampling ones) so it would be a good idea to test several of them to see which one gives better results.
I hope it helps you with your application!
Have a nice day!
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I have the scoring manual for the SF-12 v1 from 1998, but I have been told there is an error in the scoring for at least 1 of the items in the manual. Does anyone have information on which item, what the error is, and what the correction is?
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Gretchen, 
I can't help you with your answer but, I can help to get more than 25 people to view your question. If you place your mouse arrow over the "TOPICS", you will see how many people are following those topics and will see this question.
You should add: Research methods, qualitative research methods, quantitative research methods, Health. In short, more broad topics.
Hope that helps
Why are energy deficit diets still so widely prescribed when they patently do not work?
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From a quick Google search one can find evidence that these diets fail in the long term, and often in the short term. Why are they still so widely prescribed over perhaps, changing the quality and not the quantity of diet? http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916886/
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Patient compliance to energy deficit diets was very good in the short term periods and unreliable on the long term periods. patients tend to regain the weight after stopping the diets.  The new approach is by using counseling strategy that includes motivational interviewing and several theories like: 1. Transtheoretical Model of behavior Change a. (precontemplation, comtemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) Lapse and relapse b. 5 A’s c. Readiness Ruler d. Confidence to change survey 2. Health Belief Model 3. Social Cognitive Theory in addition to DARN (Desire, Ability, Reason, and Needs) where we locate change talks and sustain talks.  motivational interviewing techniques now is less beneficial on the short term (patients lose 3 kg instead of 5 kg) and successful on the long term. 
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I will use this to gather information about per-physical health condition of a new recruits for military services.
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Dear Stephen
It was very informative and useful. Thanks
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People occasionally have a feeling of difficulty in swallowing or like something being stuck in the throat. When this happens, it is a matter of seconds? It feels like breath getting stopped until one succeeds in clearing the choking. Recently one of my relatives died because of food having stuck up probably in wind pipe. How can this be explained? People start swallowing right from the birth and continue it till death without having the least clue that this could anytime be fatal. What are the causes and possible remedies?
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Respected S. Lal Shrivastava Sir
Swallowing is a complex act of many nerves fine balance which involves (1) Chewing food (2)Moving it into the back of the mouth (3)Moving it down the esophagus
(a) A brain or nerve disorder may change this fine balance in the muscles of the mouth and throat. (multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or stroke, spinal cord injuries, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myasthenia gravis)
(b) Globus hystericus: Stress or anxiety may cause feeling of tightness in the throat, or feel as if something is stuck in the throat.
(c) Problems that involve the esophagus often cause swallowing problems. These may include: An abnormal ring of tissue that forms where the esophagus and stomach meet (called Schatzki's ring), Abnormal spasms of the esophagus muscles, Cancer of the esophagus, Failure of the muscle ring at the bottom of the esophagus to relax (Achalasia), Scarring that narrows the esophagus. This may be due to radiation, chemicals, medicines, chronic swelling, ulcers, or infection., Something stuck in the esophagus, such as a piece of food., Scleroderma, a disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the esophagus, Tumors in the chest that press on the esophagus.
sir following website provides valuable information regarding possible known causes and possible remedies
Kind Regards
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Any Research done on  the effect of CBHI in increasing health access and financial risk protection? Especially in East Africa?
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Why is it innovative?
How does it presumably improve health?
What understanding of health is is grounded on?
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It might be an idea to make this question more precise: most important health technology at what time and for what population. Sanitation was historically most important (see cholera epidemic in London and John Snow) but soap is a great technology against all kinds of skin diseases. In some developing countries these technologies still play a role, as does adequate nourishment including before birth. As for the most important technology to improve health in let's say the G8 countries , it might be techniques and policies to increase the level of exercice and to decrease the BMI. 
Have you seen Iron Sticks on the Road in your Area(20cmLength, 0,5cmWidth, 0,01cmThickness)?
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I'll enclose the Picture of the Sample of Iron Sticks apparently casually distributed along the Streets of the City where I live, and along the Streets of other Cities of the Region where I live [I've seen them there, as well]. I believe they are causally [!] there. In your Opinion, who is disseminating/distributing them, and why? [I have developed few Hypotesis]. Do any of you have had the same Experience in the City where you live, or which you haves visited? Many Thanks in Advance for your Comments. Solarity and Happiness inside/outside to Every1.
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Dear Francesca, This is an excellent thread moving our imagination. I have some guesses: 1. Building material lost as a symptom how to economise materials in order to save our environment. 2. Wandering nomad people lost them. They wanted to prepare some arrow shafts. 3. People with bad intentions wanted to destroy wheels of automobiles. 4. Metal collecting people stole them but some have been lost. 5. Martians want to test human imagination. 6. A test how people calling themselves scientists waste their time voluntarily.
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I need to know how is health seeking behavior is different from help-seeking behavior? the literature i am reviewing reveals that both the terms are interchangeable. I have some confusions in understanding the both terms. is it behavior of healthy people to maintain their health or ill people to recover from that illness? why the word 'help' is interchangeable with health? is there any particular meaning behind this ? your valuable answers will be the great help for me to understand and use these terms in my research project. regards. 
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Dear pasand,
Health seeking behaviour is a term exclusively to be used in terms to explain the pattern of health care utilization among any population group. However, in many a studies it has also been followed that help seeking behaviour is equivalent to health seeking behaviour without prior justification or clarity, with an implied concept in the minds of researcher being that, since the study itself is in the circumference of the healthcare, it undoubtedly relates to health seeking, so no matter what term they use (Help seeking or health seeking behaviour), they intend to mean the same. 
I would also like to compliment the suggestion by Niina that you give an operative definition to what health seeking behaviour means in your research per se. thereby you can always keep yourself away from the ambiguity. 
I also would go along with Salih Al Hasnawi that you refer more literature and conclude for yourself based on the need for your project.
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Knowledge and practice of healthy listyle among universitary students.
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Dear Moya
If you have not finished this work, look at my page, my PhD thesis was on this subject. I am a new member of Research Gate.
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In operations management, business organizations offer either product or service. Can we consider healthy practices as non-product medicine?
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Healthy practices is the pathway for success. It is both, a product and a service
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Some excerpts from the enclosed link:
"Lychee is a small fruit with a sweet smell and taste, which is available in the summer. It is a small fruit packed with healthy nutrients. It has rough skin outside while contains juicy flesh inside. It is used as medicine in China"
Why Lychee fruit is healthy?
  1. Lychee contains good amount of antioxidant Vitamin C, Vitamin B-complex and phytonutrient flavonoids.
  2. Lychee is a rich source of nutrient that is required for the production of blood. It provides manganese, magnesium, copper, iron and folate that are required for the formation of RBC.
  3. Lychee contains good amount of fiber and Vitamin B-complex which increase metabolism fat, protein and carbohydrate. Fiber rich foods has proved to suppress appetite and increase metabolism.
  4. Lychee contains high amount of antioxidants which is effective to prevent early ageing.
  5. Lychee contains high amount of antioxidant Vitamin C. Lychee also contains a good amount of potassium. Potassium is required to maintain sodium level. Also high potassium is required to maintain fluid level i.e. Balance electrolyte. Thus it helps to maintain high blood pressure and it reduces the risk of stroke and heart attack. Also it contains minerals like manganese, magnesium, iron, copper and folate that maintain blood pressure.
  6. Lychee is rich source antioxidants Vitamin C. Antioxidants are effective to protect from free radicals and oxidative stress. So it protects from degenerative disease and prevents arthritis.
  7. Lychee is also effective to protect from asthma.
  8. Lychee contains high amount of dietary fiber which proves best nutrient that promote cardiovascular health.
Your views are welcome! Thanks - Sundar
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The health benefits of Lychee can be summarized as follows:
- Lychee fruit contains 66 calories per 100 g, comparable to that in the table-grapes. It has no saturated fats or cholesterol, but composes of good amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants.
- Research studies suggest that oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol, is found abundantly in lychee fruit. Oligonol is thought to have anti-oxidant and anti-influenza virus actions. In addition, it helps improve blood flow in organs, reduce weight, and protect skin from harmful UV rays. (Takuya Sakurai (Kyorin University, Japan), Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 72(2), 463-476, 2008).
- Litchi, like citrus fruits, is an excellent source of vitamin C; 100 g fresh fruits provide 71.5 mg or 119% of daily-recommended value. Studies suggest that consumption of fruits rich in vitamin C helps the human body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals.
- Further, it is a very good source of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, niacin, and folates. These vitamins are essential since they function by acting as co-factors to help the body metabolize carbohydrates, protein, and fats.
- Litchi also carries a very good amount of minerals like potassium and copper. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids help control heart rate and blood pressure; thus, it offers protection against stroke and coronary heart diseases. Copper is required in the production of red blood cells.
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I am looking for a valid survey that tests for the awareness of health benefits of physical activity behaviour - who can help? Thanks so much for ideas! Katja
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Dear colleague
I do not know, what are you searching exactly, but I attached some recently papers concerning your question
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I am looking for research papers and reviews which cover nuclear receptor CAR and their application in health and diseases.
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Dear Sakshi:
There is no dearth of references on the subject. Surfing different sites would help you. However, a few relatively recent references are given below:
Xiaojuan Chai, Su Zeng, and Wen Xie. 2013. Nuclear receptors PXR and CAR: implications for drug metabolism regulation, pharmacogenomics and beyond. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. March, Vol. 9, No. 3 , Pages 253-266 (doi:10.1517/17425255.2013.754010)
Thierry Claudela, Gernot Zollnera, Martin Wagnera, Michael Traunerb. 2011. Role of nuclear receptors for bile acid metabolism, bile secretion, cholestasis, and gallstone disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease. Volume 1812, Issue 8, August, Pages 867–878. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.12.021
Ruiqing Yao, Akihito Yasuoka mail, Asuka Kamei, Shota Ushiama, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Tomohiro Rogi, Hiroshi Shibata, Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka. Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Alleviation of Alcoholic Fatty Liver by Polyphenols Contained in Alcoholic Beverages PLoS ONE 9(2): e87142. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0087142.
David O. Carpenter. 2013. Effects of Persistent and Bioactive Organic Pollutants on Human Health. Environ Health Perspect 116:761—768.
Hollie I. Swanson, Taira Wada, Wen Xie, Barbara Renga, Angela Zampella, Eleonora Distrutti, Stefano Fiorucci, Bo Kong, Ann M. Thomas, Grace L. Guo, Ramesh Narayanan, Muralimohan Yepuru, James T. Dalton, and John Y. L. Chiang. 2013. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Lipid Dysfunction and Obesity-Related Diseases. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. vol. 41 no. 1 1-11.
Susanne Vogeler, Tamara S Galloway, Brett P Lyons and Tim P Bean. 2014. The nuclear receptor gene family in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, contains a novel subfamily group. BMC Genomics, 15:369 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-369.
Godfrey S. Bbosa, David Kitya, John Odda, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng. 2013. Aflatoxins metabolism, effects on epigenetic mechanisms and their role in carcinogenesis. Health Vol.5 No.10A, October 31.
Chunyan Yang, Qianrong Li and Yong Li. 2014. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products. Mar. Drugs, 12, 601-635; doi:10.3390/md12020601.
Harmit S Ranhotra. 2013. Orphan nuclear receptors: current perspectives. Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research 6: 15–25.
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Yoga, or what passes off as Yoga in the western world, is a $30 billion industry in the United States.. People of all ages contort themselves into positions like 'downward dog' and believe that they are doing Yoga. Due to the limitations and failures of modern allopathic health systems, increasingly people are turning to alternative and complementary eastern health systems in the hope of a cure for their mental and physical ailments. Capitalist tendencies are quick to capitalize on this ignorance/demand and quick to offer a number of services and goods(gadgets) to fool the consumer even further.
All the Yoga texts state that Yoga is a mental process to achieve equanimity, mental poise, stillness of the mind, 'Chitta vriddhi nirodaha'. 'Asana' is mental balance and stability in whatever you do in life, not a physical pose to hold for a convenient time, or at a convenient place(studio). How come its so far away from the truth when it comes to western understanding & practice of Yoga? What has been "Lost in Translation"? If individuals continue to choose the 'juicier' parts of Yoga philosophy(for example the health benefits) and twist it to suit their own convenience in the name of 'freedom' (due to the munificence of the original seers who sought no exclusive rights and patents) and ignore the ethical, spiritual, human, environmental and disciplinary parts, is there a danger of Yoga losing its meaning? By only taking the parts we want, isn't the very purpose of Yoga lost? Why bother calling it Yoga at all and add to the deepening confusion everywhere? Should the charade of the emperor's new clothes continue or an attempt made to define the science for what it actually is?
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David:
1. Yoga is not ancient Indian philosophy. It does not belong to anyone, or to Hinduism. It is the heritage of all mankind who have arose from a single source. The geographical, cultural, political and demographical entity known as India now, received it & practiced it to preserve the science of Yoga faithfully. Other inheritors lost it, while India preserved it as a sacred science, recognizing its essentiality. But all mankind are the inheritors. You have the same right as anyone from India has over Yoga. This is probably difficult for Americans to comprehend in the times of cutthroat copyrights, intellectual property rights and patents. The ancient seers of Yoga never claimed patents(not even signing their names, preferring to remain anonymous)and gave the science to all the children of mankind, saying that they themselves received it, proclaiming 'Loka Samastha Sukhinoh Bhavanthu"! May All Worlds be Happy! This is long before any religion even came into the picture.
Yoga is 'open source', but please don't misinterpret and use it to misguide humanity to make your own living. Using wisely, responsibly, remaining true to its actual content is a way of showing respect to the 'original' giver.
2. It is not based on the Patanjali Yoga Sutras. Patanjali is a seer who organised & codified the science into sutras, terse aphorsims, in the recent past, recognising that in the age of Kali, man's limited intelligence is liable to lose the science altogether. It is not even known if he is a human being as he is usually depicted with the lower half of his body coiled like a snake(pic). The snake is a representation of Time in Yoga. He is also known as the Lord of Time. In the Bhagavad Gita(circa 3200 BC), Krishna states that the ancient science was lost many times in the hoary past and every time He descends to deliver the same science to Man to subjugate evil. The science of Yoga is the original 'Operations manual' of man. It is the 'Science of Man'. We descended from a source and the way back to the source is Yoga. The path and the goal is Yoga. 
Hatha Yoga Pradipika is a recent (15th century )abridged work that lays emphasis on the physical posture part so that the main goal of Yoga is achieved without bodily interference.
3. I would rather not comment on the level of absurdity Yoga has been misinterpreted by commercial interests in America. Cherry-picking is both harmful and counterproductive. What would happen if the government let people cherry pick the American constitution and interpret it according to their own comfort zone?
4. There's no mud slinging going on here, only concern that the 'adulterated ' version may become 'mainstream' and the truth lost forever. Blowback effect ?
5.On the contrary, this is an attempt to prevent people from getting hurt by clearing the air. Are you stating that the "Ignorance is Bliss" mode, status quo, is Ok? Am I throwing a spanner in the well oiled sham?
Regards
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it seems that predictive and counterfactual approaches are two main approaches which can be used for health impact assessment of air pollution. what are the differences between two approaches?  
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The counter-factual approach  has been developed in the statistical and epidemiological literature in recent decades and insists on the assumption that the effects on individuals are well defined while in the predictive approach - it is assumed that A causes B - using a method of prediction that is consistently correct and can be proved that B will happen if A is done and will not happen if A is not done.
Greater details are available at
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I hope to use the imaging to assess the health of urban trees.
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Its fairly easy to get a good quality SLR digital camera and have the IR filter removed.  Life Pixel is a company that does this at a low cost for Nikon and Canon cameras.  http://www.lifepixel.com/tutorials/infrared-diy-tutorials
Depending on the camera you buy, you could get a 36 MegaPixel image in infrared, which would be extremely high resolution.  Since Nikon released the D810, you can pick up a used D800 pretty cheap, and then have it converted to IR.
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Health professions education is relatively newer concept in Pakistan. I need these three terms to be clarified and differentiated by examples to help in my practice.
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The EPAs, as mentioned in a previous answer, appear to be well received. They have the potential to bridge the gap between the school or national knowledge objectives; for example, in psychiatry, Association of Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP) learning objectives and the ACGME milestones for psychiatry (links below). Residency training directors could potentially screen the candidates based on documentation of their ability to perform EPAs, as documented in letters or core course/elective comments. The burden is on medical schools to assess EPAs in year 4 of training (here in US - where med school is a 4 year program).
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My personal interest in this follows an increase in publicity and advocation of "sustainable urban gardening", i.e. using discarded materials such as old tires to create subsistence container gardens in traditionally impoverished high-population density areas or those recovering from natural disasters. While the ability to grow enough nourishing food to sustain life is certainly superior to malnourishment and starvation, I worry about the potential for chronic health risks resulting from increased oral exposure to whatever the decomposition products of tires may be (i.e. PAHs, butadiene, phthalates, metals?). And where food is more easy to obtain, I'm concerned that the potential health risks may begin to outweigh the marginal health benefits. Thoughts? Exposure is not my field of expertise, but I'm curious: has anyone looked for the presence of tire decomposition products in vegetables grown in/near tires? Thank you for your time!
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Not sure about effects of sunlight, but toxicants leach out in fresh water from the tire surface. Zinc is added to tires in the manufacturing process, but there are a host of organic compounds that leach out as well, only some of which have been identified.
Hartwell, S.I., D.M. Jordahl and C.O. Dawson. 2000. The Effect of Salinity on Tire Leachate Toxicity. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 121:119-131.
Hartwell, S.I., D.M. Jordahl, C.O. Dawson and A.S. Ives. 1998. Toxicity of Scrap Tire Artificial Reef Leachates in Estuarine Salinities: Are Tires Acceptable for Artificial Reefs? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 127:796-806.
Anthony, D.H.J., A. Latawiec, S. I. Hartwell and D. M. Jordahl. 1996. A Spectrometric and Chromatographic Chemical Comparison of Solvent Extracts of Whole Tire Leachate and of Shredded Tire Leachates Obtained at Varying Salinity. Environ. Canada, National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ont., Canada, 95-112. 41pp.
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Health care and health service priorities are complex - particularly at the global level. Different countries and different communities (national and international) have different resources, different political systems, and different priorities. Which are the most important?
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This challenging question was apparently asked 5 years ago, but is even more topical today.
Financial, economic and physical resources are finite, so how can patients, national governments and private health and medical insurers continue without insurance premiums increasing continuously?
The gap where patients pay for the difference between the actual cost and the cover by the national health plan, if it exists, and the health insurer, seems to be increasing dramatically over time.
Managing health and medical costs is one of the most important decisions for national/regional/state/city governments everywhere, along with education and retirement pensions.
Global warming, climate change and environmental degradation are national and international challenges.
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Do the virtual social networks have an impact on socializing or rather on alienation? To be discussed here are the psychological impact upon Internet users, as result of extensive use and the public health issues (from obesity to mental status) are also to be analyzed. The impact upon the education quality and school absenteeism, lack of sleep and improper nutrition may be connected also to the use of virtual social networks such as Facebook, and applications such as messenger, Skype, video chatting, etc.. Are there any proposed solutions? What is the overall impact on economics?
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Thanks Mr. Adiran for raising this important issue. To my understanding social networks are a tool which can be utilised positively to bridge the social and communication gaps between the peoples, nations, societies and communities. Ideally social networks are a great source of promoting peace and love, transferring knowledge, exchanging ideas and enhancing the level of awareness about societal problems. But at the same time, enormous negative impacts are obvious. I personally believe that the networks are promoting alienation, selfishness and individualism. We see many friends on-line but don't care or try to poke them. Because the networks are a great source of other amusements which supersede the love for old friends and results in wastage of time, which is crucial for all ages especially the teenagers with immature minds. The youngsters have been found searching date partners at the expense of their study time, health and wealth. Although the networks are a great source of promoting business yet I don't see positive impact of the net works on the global economy in toto. However if we are able to control use of social net works at micro and macro level (which seems impossible), then we can derive great benefits from these networks.
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As part of my ongoing research I am investigating the benefits and disadvantages of canine human inter-relationships. Specifically I am reviewing the short period of between an hour and three weeks in duration, in an outside environment whereby the dogs are working alongside the person.
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Humans and dogs have been companions since the human civilization began. Dog is considered as most faithful animal by people. It is also extremely loving, watchman and caretaker of the family and the house. It has been observed that children brought up in company of of the dog show better overall development, emotional quotient and are generally more happy. The dog is also a great companion for the aged, neglected and chronically ill. Phylo-genetically speaking, the dog genome is quite similar to that of humans and clinico-pathologically most clinical chemistry and hematological values in dogs and people are greatly similar. The dogs share the the environment and food and even several diseases with people, therefore they can be used as ready made or natural animal models in biomedical research and preclinical drug testing. Some of the diseases, particularly canine skin diseases are zoonotic to man.
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I have been unable to locate USDA forms because the websites are down right now. Do the federal research and funding forms exist in another location where they would be accessible right now?
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Blake, you can use http://www.usa.gov/Topics/Reference-Shelf/forms.shtml. If the particular form is not on the front page, you can type it in usa.gov's search and pull up almost any SF form including locations where you can find available forms. Hope this helps.
Interaction analysis systems?
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To analyze communication and power issues during medical encounters (patient - GP) I'm looking for efficient interaction analysis systems. Any suggestions?
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I'd look into Critical Discourse Analysis then, it's definitely a solid approach. Lots of articles come up in a simple google scholar search (even with doctor-patient communication as a key term). CDA may be what you are looking for.
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I would like to have your opinion
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Still the statement is rather ambiguous. If you mean ranking the three issues by their priority, I am sure that good parents should first of all feed their child and protect it from health risks (and, generally speaking, to try and rise it healthy) and only afterwards to plan its education. The worst is to overload it with learning to a measure making the latter a health risk factor - a mistake of parents and educators we observe too often. It is when education comes before health indeed, and it is too bad for both.
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"Health is an ever evolving state of mind, body and relationships perceived by an individual, a family, a group or a community for self in a particular time, space and context" Suresh Vatsyayann 1995
What do you think is missed out and, or wrongly included in this definition?
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They don't contradict you in terms of health being something that is ever-evolving and that is has a number of dimensions or types of health stretching beyond the physical. However, some of the definitions are more specific than yours and they don't emphasize the individual perception, it is only one part of the question.
Your definition seems closer to the term of wellness - an integration of the body, spirit and mind (although mental and social health are included in the health definition). Looking at the history of the term wellness, there are also cultural and religious aspects attached to its meaning and use. It seems broader than health, there are far more connotations of spirituality, positive psychology, positive lifestyle change, happiness, pleasure and beauty, a focus on stress, food and diet. However, over the past 30 years it was widely used in marketing and therefore negative connotations displaced the original ones.
It is interesting to explore the history of the term and its original use. According to Miller (2005), Oxford English Dictionary Iinguists traced its first written record to a 1654 diary entry by the Scot Archibald Johnston - wealnesse was used as an antonym of illness. 
See Miller, James (2005): Wellness: The History and Development of a Concept (accessible via a number of sources on the Internet)
I think that the main difference between health and wellness is that the former is neutral, it does not depart from any of the dimensions, it considers them all, while the latter departs from the spiritual, the manifestation of an illness in dimensions other than the physical, i.e. there is a direction and a bias (on positive values); it also looks at lifestyle, the mind and philosophy in a very broad sense.  
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Here are some papers that can help you:
 Infant risk and safety in the context of maternal substance use.Tsantefski, Menka; Humphreys, Cathy; Jackson, Alun C.. Children and Youth Services Review (Oct 29, 2013).
Surviving oppression under the rock: New York drug laws and the lived experiences of African American women in distressed households. Windsor, Liliane Cambraia. ProQuest Information & Learning, 2009. AAI3320402.
Implementation and evaluation of brief depression and anxiety screening in clients contacting a drug and alcohol service. Thomas, Anna Christina; Staiger, Petra Karin; McCabe, Marita. Drug and Alcohol Review31.3 (May 2012): 303-310.
Circadian dysregulation, zolpidem dependence, and withdrawal seizure in a resident physician performing shift work.Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Barry, Alan S.; Weiss, Roger D.. The American Journal on Addictions21.6 (Nov-Dec 2012): 576-577.
 
Making lemonade out of lemons: A case report and literature review of external pressure as an intervention with pregnant and parenting substance-using women. Davis, Katherine J.; Yonkers, Kimberly A.. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry73.1 (Jan 2012): 51-56.
 
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I want to know why 18% of insured children are not enrolled in SBHCs by their parents.
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Because they already have a primary care provider that has a relationship with the family and siblings. Or their insurance does not cover that School Based Health Center Care.
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Few studies have been conducted linking job satisfaction with psychological health among Nigerian Nurses. We are interested in working in this area and would be happy if colleagues working in this area could share information about standard instruments that could be used.
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I don't have a tool myself, but a well known researcher on the subject of nurses job satisfaction is Elizabeth Curtis PhD at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
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During general investigations I often encounter new hypotheses or even theories that are far from my main research area. I wonder what to do with them. Try to forget them, write them somewhere to work on sometime in in future, study about them to be able to write an essay or editorial or present in a congress.
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I think that this is a real issue in research. I have found that locating ideas in a framework for extended research allows me to compartmentalise that element of my work. I enjoy the idea of collaborative practice and this aspect of using research ideas therefore lends itself to this. What I find useful is to share my ideas with colleagues in a forum and to work with them on producing a poster presentation, journal article or presentation within our subject/ research clusters. This has several advantages, as I am working on my doctorate which by definition is somewhat isolating, I can relax a little, learn from colleagues how they write, become more critical of my own work and become less worried about communicating my ideas.
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Social structure shapes how we manage healthy behavior (e.g., having access to healthy food). On the other hand, individuals need to put their own effort in being healthy (e.g., eating nutritious food, avoiding fast food etc.). Which of these factors has more influence?
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Society is built up on popular norms and customs. If one look at any particular society, the common traits of people in that society can give a better overview of the society.
For example, a society where people often discuss things in groups, celebrate festivals together, help each other our in tough situations, that society provides a support for every individual in that society. The psychological support along with taking care of the neighbor in rough times, like in illness, accidents, health troubles, by any means, by counseling, monetary support, etc. makes a person to handle the situations with a notion that he/she has support of few people.
The psychological well being of a person and his/her interactions with other people is a dominant factor in development and decision making process of any person.
The best example is, Word of Mouth Communication. It has been researched and proved by various scientists, that a person give a significant weight to recommendations of others, their behavior and decisions, while making any decision. This influence of others on a decision making process of an individual is the reason, social factors are reflection of well being of a person that individual choices.
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Two indices known to be health indicators.
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  ِDear Dr. Kurhekar,
BMI, or body mass index, is a statistical measurement of a person’s body weight that is based on both weight and height. It is used to determine what a person’s ideal weight is. In comparison, BMR refers to a person’s Basal Metabolic Rate, or the number of calories a person would burn in a day even if he or she did nothing but sit or lie in one place.
Regards,
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I am working on my MS Thesis and for evaluating purpose I require Medical discharge summary reports (Anonymous Patients).
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In my professional practice to secure medical discharge summary reports needs ethical consideration for patient rights and confidentiality.
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How can we change youth eating behaviour (eating habits) toward healthy one? What are the barriers? Why people can not put knowledge into practice?
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The barriers may be, fast life, working culture, stress, effortless availability of ready to eat foods, psychological reasons for overeating or addiction for unhealthy, high calorie food stuffs.
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This paper is focused on how to utilise psychological theory on behaviour change to implement evidence based practice in health care. How might this approach be used to change behaviour in other areas of policy research, such as travel behaviour?
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Thank you for your input Yusef. When I said 'areas' I meant more different domains, such as transport, energy efficiency, rather than geographic context. However, I think it is just as important to know whether insights are culturally transferable, so thank you!
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Http://www.prsgroup.com/ check this data site also
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I am currently collecting stories about TB experiences from Indigenous Peoples in my area. We will use the data collected for qualitative research purposes, but most importantly to find out how story telling (a culturally acceptable method of transferring knowledge within Indigenous Peoples) can be further utilized for health promotion.
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Ron Labonte has made this one of the corner-stones of his community-based work. See: Labonte, R., & Feather, J. (1996). Handbook on using stories in health promotion practice. Ottawa: Health Canada
Labonte, R., Feather, J., & Hills, M. (1999). A story/dialogue method for health promotion knowledge development and evaluation. Health Education Research, 14(1), 39-50.
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The calculations reveal that a person intakes about 5483 kilocalories on one occasion. As the dishes of wazwan are rich in proteins, it is deleterious for patients with chronic renal diseases(3) and chronic liver disease. Keeping the quantum of calories in view, the wazwan is likely to interfere with the management of glycaemic control of diabetes and weight management of obesity.
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The digestion system vary individually, obesity, Diabetes is not at all a cause of heavy meal, it depends upon the physical work the calories must burnt after doing any physical activities. in sedimentary life style without any physical work the heavy meal can cause a digestive problem, obesity, diabetes and even coronary artery disease(increased uptake of fat diet)
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Using this text to do a small group study I'm asking questions that were brought up by the group and would like other opinions.
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Lanthionine might become an important component in drug development.
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Do these articles have any weight in the academic world?
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I am not familiar with this particular publication.  Is it a journal or a magazine.  A journal publishes articles in order to disseminate research whereas a magazine publishes articles in order to sell copies. Journal articles undergo a review process by selected experts in the field.  Their sources are cited.  Magazines are written for a general audience (although it may be a particular segment of the audience such as people who collect cars).  Magazines use simple language whereas journals will use language specific to the profession for which is it published.
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While there is high quality science journalism available, there is also a great deal of misleading and in some cases dangerous copies. Is this a national or international trend?
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I think there are three factors in play here: 1) lack of time 2) lack of expertise 3) ideology or politics
1) As we know, there is a constant pressure to cut the costs of publishing papers. Therefore, in the name of saving money, there is not enough time to check all the facts and claims thoroughly.
2) Even if there was enough time, many journalists do not have the statistical and other skills to evaluate the reserach results themselves. Therefore, it all comes down to trusting people. Who do the journalists trust to present an objective opinion of a subject without a political or ideological agenda? Sometimes they choose the experts rights and sometimes not.
3) Both the journalists and the experts have some vision of "the perfect world". It is not easy to suppress these subjective views and present only the facts. The result is that the expert tells the journalist something colored with subjective views. The journalist adds his / her own subjective views when he / she cites the expert. The result is often a story with a mixture of facts and subjective views with no easy way to know what is a fact and what is an opinion.
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Eric Oliver has published a book that challenges the health links, but has anything come out since 2009?
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There are other parameters like waist/hip ratio and caliper measurements for body adiposity. Two years ago a new adiposity index based on hip circumference was published -BAI, it correlates with adiposity better than BMI which is quite limited. Sometimes DEXA is also a tool for estimating adiposity. In basic research there is a real good evidence regarding abdominal adipose tissue and of course there are biochemical measurements that accompany anthropometric parameters, like leptin and adiponectin levels, HOMA or other insulin resistance indices etc.
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Problems and Solutions. Issues such as education, housing, social protection, retirement, health care, abuses, financial interests, armed conflicts, economic and ecological crises, water and food scarcity, the limited material natural resources, the energy all are coming together underlining the security and fate of humanity. What can be done?
PS) Please do not forget to vote member's comments / posts / participation. This encourages other RG members to participate as well.
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I never thought of taxation and a redistribution of wealth as robbery. 
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Or should he or she also ensure that these findings find a way to a) non-scientific public and b) the implementing authorities / institutions (a practical reference provided)? I have made it my habit to any scientific contribution to compose another layman's contribution and to publish in order to create the possibility of practical implementation. All non-academic partners are extremely grateful for it. Without access to databases they would probably know nothing about these results and findings. Other ways to make research applicable?
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Important question. When I was in medical school, I was taught that science is an orderly process whereby the scientist asked a question, did an experiment to try to answer it and reported the data and interpretation in a peer-reviewed publication. What a shock to learn painfully that this is not how it works in the real world. In fact it has never worked that way. A classic example is the work of Ignatz Semmelweis who did retrospective and prospective studies that convincingly demonstrated that post-partum sepsis could be largely prevented by the simple intervention of hand-washing before patient examination. Despite this evidence, such hand-washing was not adopted in Semmelweis' lifetime and he was driven to despair by frustration with this process. The research of Thomas Kuhn in Structure of Scienctific Revolutions shows that this type of response to research that forces paradigm change is the rule rather than the exception.
The Secret History of the War on Cancer and The Silent Spring provide chapter and verse on how corporate profit motivation influences and corrupts the scientific process. The bottom line is that if the scientist makes a paradigm changing discovery it is only the beginning. He/she next has to take the ideas into the public arena and defend them against push-back and possibly even personal attacks.
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Regards to mining.
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Also the incidence of occupational hazards among the workforce and may be pitching it against a low or normal risk occupation
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There are some people, already known, with huge economic interests, that want to prevent the wide use of vitamin D, a substance too cheap and non-producing tremendous benefits for the major manufacturers of drugs.
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I think it's up to everyone to recognize, sooner or later, how much there is to benefit from with living closer to our natural designs. With that being said, not everyone can afford to adapt to a lifestyle that would surely improve their physical health in the short and long runs so it seems crucial to encourage supplementation where necessary to some extent. We still don't know if we are actually meant to reach the RDA of everything every single day because a natural diet of fruits and vegetables and such is probably the best indicator of what we are naturally supposed to get. Without sunlight though, the body goes through negative changes like in deficiency states. It's very plausible to assert that there is a dollar to make if you are in the healthcare industry and you are expected to treat a huge array of disorders that are caused by dietary insufficiency but not everyone is going to get better at once anyways. I think supplementation in Vitamin D is going to make some headway though because the FDA has recently adopted a new higher, adequate uptake that will hopefully result in very positive influences on the deficiency states that we have here, prevalently, but not as much so as in Europe. On the other hand, if you forget to recall that Vitamin D toxicity is thought to occur through vitamin K depletion, and that the importance of vitamin K is not as well understood either by most people, that disease will break out due to Vit. D toxicity. You can't go around knowing about vitamin D without knowing you need vitamin K just as bad and you can't know either of those things without knowing fruits and veggies are good and go hand in hand with sunlight in the natural world.
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How illness affects the immune system.
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psycho-social factors make it vulnerable and reduce resistance to certain diseases.
Among people living with HIV, they play an important role in adherence to treatment.
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The performance qualifier is described as what an individual does in his or her
current environment. Since the current environment always includes the overall
societal context, performance can also be understood as "involvement in a life
situation" or "the lived experience" of people in their actual context.
The capacity qualifier describes an individual’s ability to execute a task or an
action. This construct indicates the highest probable level of functioning of a
person in a given domain at a given moment, and to assess the capacity it is said that one would need to have a “standardized environment". But again, it has been mentioned that the capacity qualifier assumes a 'naked person' assessment, that is, the person's capacity without personal assistance or the use of assistive devices.
So what is measured in actual life situations, capacity or performance?
Eg: A patient walks 10 meters in 5 minutes using an AFO and walks 10 meters in 15 minutes without an AFO. What in this case is capacity and performance?
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Dear all,
Thanks for your inputs. I was mainly confused whether to include the role of assistive devices in measuring performance. I think the answer is NO. The difference between capacity and performance is in the environment. Please correct me, if I am wrong.
Special thanks to Melissa Selb for this example:
Case 1/d450.32 (capacity higher than performance): PT assesses a person’s walking ability without the person using any assistive devices in a treatment room. The room’s floor is flat, has no obstacles, temperature/lighting regulated, no noise… thus standardized. Then the PT tests the person’s walking ability, again without any special devices, at the person’s workplace, where the ground is uneven, where small furniture are sometimes in the way of the normal path of walking, machines are noisy…thus current environment. In this case, the person may have more problems walking due to the environmental factors like uneven ground, obstacles, noise…
Case 2/d450.22 (capacity is equal to performance): Same as above with regards to the assessment in treatment room, but in the assessment at the person’s workplace, the person was able to use an assistive device that enabled him/her to overcome the barriers that were posed by the uneven flooring and obstacles.
Case 3/d450.12 (capacity lower than performance): Same as above with regards to the assessment in treatment room, but in the assessment at the person’s workplace, the person’s walking ability was even further facilitated by use of an assistive device as well as removing the obstacles permanently.
Regards
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The doctor said that body really needs a bit of water and healthy food everyday. Is it true that people could survive without eating and still live a normal lifestyle for six days with only a glass of water once a day? Can anybody give suggestion or share their experience based on any approaches and theory of health?
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In Islam, there are an obligation to fasting in Ramadhan and several sunnah from the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Few of these obligation are no eating and drinking during the time period of Fajr (before Subuh Pray Time) until Maghrib (on time of Maghrib Time).
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How to get the best health results from probiotics.
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It depends if the bacteria are enterocoated or not. If enterocoated, any time of day. If not, preferably with the food intake, as pH in the stomach gets less acidic and consequently it will affect less to the probiotic viability.
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It is well known that this amazing linear tripeptide is often referred to as the body's master antioxidant. Once generation of free radicals exceeds the body's capacity to neutralize and eliminate them, oxidative stress occurs, and primary function of glutathione is to alleviate this oxidative stress. Low Glutathione levels are associated with health diseases such as Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, AIDS, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Atherosclerosis, Pregnancy Complications, Cataracts, Asthma, Autism, Bronchitis, Fibromyalgia, Insomnia, Male infertility, Migraines, Osteoporosis, Pain, Poor Eyesight, PMS, Psoriasis, Wrinkles, Low Sex Drive, Chronic Fatigue, Balding and Cirrhosis. So can inhibition of GSH breakdown in stomach or a induction of GSH synthesis be a step towards the fountain of youth?
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Dear Rodgoun,
I am afraid looking for the (or even an) elixir of youth is no more promising now than it was in The Middle Age, but what am sure of is that with enhancing the GSH biosynthesis (e.g. with administering its precursor) one can attenuate toxicity and genotoxicity of some toxics. You may find two examples in "Contributions" of my RGprofile : see papers "Comparative in Vivo Assessment of Some Adverse Bioeffects of Equidimensional Gold and Silver Nanoparticles and the
Attenuation of Nanosilver’s Effects with a Complex of
Innocuous Bioprotectors* and
"Attenuation of Subchronic Formaldehyde Inhalation Toxicity With Oral Administration of Glutamate, Glycine and Methionine*.
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I've argued for over a decade now that it is 'essential' that the terms health promotion and health education are delineated and separated out. Many health practitioners use the terms interchangeably to mean the same thing. Many of those practitioners might view the 'difference' between them as semantics; as not important - especially those working in healthcare and health service-based settings. I, however, have suggested that the only way that health professionals can be seen to be credible with the wider health promotion community, is if we all fully use the exact language and context of health promotion and health education and apply this to clinical practice and other health arenas. Do you agree - or have a differing view?
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Gulay I am afraid I disagree with you, and see health education as being one small component of health promotion. Most health care professionals seem to believe that they are providing health education, when in reality all they are doing is providing health information. Particularly in clinical settings professional seem to think that by providing an individual with a pamphlet on a health topic that this is health promotion! In my view, health information is a minor aspect of health education, for many consumers it may be awareness raising, for a few it may be educational.
To really engage in health education, information needs to be accompanied with a change of perspective and insight into how actions or beliefs need to change. However for health education to result in health promotion, action on this information needs to occur.
Telling an obese person that they need to loose weight and giving them information of health consequences such as diabetes or heart disease is not health promotion. Health promotion occurs when you look beyond an individuals behaviours. While it might be necessary for the obese person to learn cooking skills to improve their diet, it may also be necessary that healthier food options are available for them to buy when they do their grocery shopping. These food options also need to be affordable. This individual may also need a safe neighbourhood to feel comfortable to walk to the shop to get this food, or to undertake the physical activity we all know needs to occur along with a healthy diet to maintain a healthy weight. A number of factors may impact on if actions are adopted to make a change in this individuals life, having a friend to walk with or a neighbourhood walking group, may make the difference between participating in physical activity or not, etc, etc. Health promotion involves working towards creating all of the supports which facilitate adopting or maintaining better health actions.
Sorry to be so long winded, this is a topic I am extremely passionate about :-)
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I see big number of products (including footwear) dedicated to people involved in many different sports and can't find the research on topics in my question.
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I am looking for some references on children's minute ventilation rates and/or heart rates during walking and/or cycling. These values would ideally be of a healthy population.
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A lot of. And for me the main authority in this field is Oded Bar-or, famouse israelian-Canadian scientist.
For instance some of his last books:
Malina, R.M., C. Bouchard, O. Bar-Or. Growth, maturation and activity. 2nd edition. Champaign, Illinois, Human Kinetics, 2004.
Bar-Or, O., T. Rowland. Pediatric Exercise Medicine. From Physiologic Principles to Health Care Application. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2004.
Hebestreit H. & Bar-Or O. (eds): The Child and Adolescent Athlete. Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford, UK, 2007.
As well there are a lot of published papers at 1970-1980 years from all over the World. Such names as Lange Andersson, Shephard R., Cumming, R.Malina, Vavra & Machek, A. Guminskii, and so on, were actual 30-40 years ago. Some facts one can find in my publications (Son'kin V).
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Why doesn't the ministry of education give courses to children in health to educate them to prevent diseases and gives them nursing to intervene and save lives?
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Basic personal health instruction used to be included in Biology textbooks used by French middle school students information in the early 1960s. Information included general hygiene and first aid (e.g., how to bandage a sprained ankle). Information was practical and explanations were easy to understand. For those students who kept their old schoolbooks, the Biology text book served as a family reference. I do not know if these are the sort of topics you had in mind but this may help you develop a modern curriculum.
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I am looking into writing a thesis relating to healthy cities and health impacts.
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You can find local data on obesity and other risk factors for small areas in Australia here. I believe the obesity data are derived from small-area estimation techniques, but if you are interested in locally patterning, this would be an excellent resource.
Also, keep in mind that while the term "rate" is often used loosely it should only be used if you are measuring the number of new cases of obesity over a period of time (e.g., incidence rate of obesity, which is rarely reported). The term is often used loosely to refer to prevalence and other measures of frequency more broadly (I myself have been guilty of using the term loosely). In searching you will have the best luck searching for "obesity prevalence".
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What should be done for improving peoples health literacy?
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I just proposed a descriptive exploratory research study on health consumers information seeking behavior. The study will explore the effects of information technology on Health Consumers’ Information-Seeking Behavior. Also, the study aims to determine the (a) impact of demographics on health information seeking behavior, (b) understanding of health and illness, (c) how do consumers seek health information, (d) what motivates the consumer to seek health information. The study findings will be utilized as bases for recommending Health Literacy Program.
Which food items help in suppressing/inhibiting hunger?
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If some person feels an extraordinary hunger what should he/she do? Which natural food items (low calories) should he/she use to reduce hunger.
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thanks Dr. ahmed and Dr. afaq....@Afaq ahmad can u kindly give me some example of food items which contains complex carbohydrates???
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The psychological reasons why men do not engage in health beliefs.
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I would like to suggest health belief model, constructs in the model, theories on health and illness and health care seeking behavior.
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I want to know if there is any relation between SPO2% and the blood pressure Sys. and Dia.?
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Hello sir here is the most possible answer. 
Attached
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The relationship between emotions and health is currently investigated and analyzed in holistic perspective of human care but also in a logic of economic costs, and more.
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The emotional labor of nursing has been studied worldwide since the early 1990s, having as main reference the studies of Professor Pam Smith, and proves to be very useful for nurses to guide their practice by human and holistic care.
His concept:
Fineman (2008) defines emotional labour as a human process produced at the meeting person-person, which involves intense energy on the part of the professional, in order to present an emotional disposition that leads to transformation of disturbing emotions and promotion of well-being on the other. Emotional labour involves managing negative feelings so that they become a disturbing experience (which minimizes the suffering). It means taking care of customers passing tranquility and calm but also safety, creating an affective and positive environment, so that it can feel safe and confident.
I am investigator in this area of the Emotional Labour in Nursing. In my PhD thesis I define emotional labour in pediatric nursing as "performance in nursing incorporates actions entered in the care process, affective-emotional dimension, which aim to positively transform the experiences of the actors involved in care, with the intention of promoting global well-being" (Diogo, 2012). See http://shootingcupoche.com/profile/Paula_Diogo/contributions/?ev=prf_act
In a brief, we can characterize the emotional labour as strategies to manage the emotions of anather (in the health-disease process) and to manage his own emotions of nurses (health professionals).
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For instance, US, India, Ghana, Mexico, and China are different in how age, gender, education, income and employment are linked to health. What is the benefit of knowing that for policy makers?
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very helpful. thanks. will read and cite them in my papers.
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An interesting situation one commonly encounters. While conversing with many physicians, it inadvertently slips from their ends that they often fall behind on immunizing their children, and even the mode of treatment of illnesses are quite different from what is being practiced on patients e.g drug regimens, investigations etc. What has been your experience?. Doctors advise patients effectively- but do they fall short when it comes to their own kin?
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Not sure it is really different. Re immunization please find an interesting article below. Immunization rate was high, higher in children of pediatricians indeed.
Posfay-Barbe KM et al. How do physicians immunize their own children? Differences among pediatricians and nonpediatricians. Pediatrics. 2005 Nov;116(5):e623-33.
Results
Ninety-two percent of pediatricians followed the official immunization recommendations for their own children. In contrast, after controlling for gender, workplace, type of practice, and year of diploma, nonpediatricians were more likely not to have immunized their children against measles, mumps, hepatitis B, or Haemophilus influenzae type b. They more frequently postponed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.0-10.19) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. Although projected immunization rates were higher than effective rates, 10% of nonpediatricians would still not follow the official immunization recommendations in 2004.
Conclusion
Ninety-three percent of the surveyed physicians agree with the current official vaccination recommendations and would apply them to their own children. However, the observation that 5% of nonpediatricians would not use Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine if they had a child born in 2004 is unexpected and concerning. In contrast, both groups gave additional vaccines than those recommended to their own children. Among physicians in Switzerland interested in immunization, a significant proportion of nonpediatricians decline or delay the immunization of their own children with the recommended MMR- or DTP-based combination vaccines, which indicates that clarification of misconceptions such as fear of "immune overload" has not yet reached important targets among health care providers who thus are unlikely to answer parental concerns adequately
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% of calorie, iron, protein and fat in a balanced diet or the amount of such nutrients in a balanced diet
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The dietary reference values vary from country to country but here is a summary of our UK recommendations.
UK Dietary Recommendations
Total Fat Reduce to no more than 35% of food energy (currently at 35.3%)
Saturated Fat Reduce to no more than 11% of food energy (currently at 13.3%)
Total Carbohydrate Increase to more than 50% of food energy (currently at 48.1%)
Sugars (added) No more than 11% of food energy (currently at 12.7%)
Dietary Fibre (NSP) Increase the average intake of dietary fibre to 18g per day (currently 13.8g per day). Children’s intakes should be less
Fruit & Vegetables Increase to at least 5 portions (400g) of a variety of fruit and vegetables per day (currently 2.8 portions per day)
Alcohol Should not provide more than 5% of energy in the diet.
Women – should not regularly drink more than 2-3 units of alcohol/day
Men – should not regularly drink more than 3-4 units of alcohol/day
Salt Adults – no more than 6g salt a day (2.4g sodium)
1 to 3 years - 2 g salt a day (0.8g sodium)
4 to 6 years - 3g salt a day (1.2g sodium)
7 to 10 years - 5g salt a day (2g sodium)
11 and over - 6g salt a day (2.4g sodium)
For further details this ebsite is very useful: -
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Would food diaries work as a GP prescription?
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The first thing we need to do is understand why the child is eating. Choice of food and binge behavior can signal emotional eating. Any reportage techniques alone will not make a dent in the child's behavior. In fact, reportage techniques and increase bingeing resulting from guilt and self-deprecation and feelings that they are letting the doctor or parents down by their behavior. Underlying depression and anxiety and OCD must be addressed to have any impact.
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Will virtual methods see the demise of the paper questionnaire? If so, what problems might we need to consider when reverting to virtual data collection?
I came across this story whilst researching and thought it was worth using as context for q and a.
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Dear Suzanne,
Of course we will have a paperless office - just a few more forms to sign before it will be delivered.... I think that in practice people have a variety of valid concerns and varying levels of comfort with technology. So both researchers and participants need to have a high enough level of comfort before the transition will be complete. However, I suspect that it is pretty close to occuring. The rise of various companies offering research services have already made it pretty easy to handle most of the concerns of hosting the data; the ubiquity of cell phones in some contexts means that participants have already enough technology to fill out any forms they wish.
When I look at the suggested link I think that there is a little too much emphasis on recreating the paper world. Anonyminity is relatively easier to establish in the online world. There are some concerns with data protection, but they are not overwhelmingly more complicated than forgetting to lock my office cabinet each night. When I really think about technologically enabled data collection I think that static questionnaires are just about the last thing I would re-create in a wired world. Not only should the context be customisable and inclusive (ratings can be replaced by photographs, recordings, etc when needed) but the timing itself should be made to fit. Someone can fill out an ongoing survey that bridges the gap between ESM and our current static forms. We can even collect data from units (families; workgroups etc) that currently don't fit the way things work today.
So .. what problems. I think that once you deal with basic data hygiene and the learning curve associated with new tools, the biggest thing to consider is how you will interpret results from people with whom you have progressively less contact. An example: when you ask how do you do... the answer may reflect an evaluation of state or politeness. In person when can properly judge how a question is interpreted. On a questionnaire we often have problems. But a questionnaire going to someone in the population whom you have not met and have no other information about may be very easily misinterpreted.
Cheers.
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We are finding that family conflict and closeness seem to be more related to girls' substance use (alcohol in particular) than boys. Interested in international research on adolescent gender and factors predicting substance use.
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we did a cross sectional study that may partially inform your question. see
Wood, A.P., Dawe, S., & Gullo, M. (2013). The role of personality, family influences, and prosocial risk-taking behavior on substance use in early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 871-881http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.07.003
let me know if you need a full text sent to you. sharon
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I am interested in furthering the agenda around integrative medicine in Asia Pacific and wondered if there is any documentation of policy approaches to this.
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You might like to visit the National Institute of Complementary Medicine website (Australian) - http://nicm.edu.au/home
NICM’s programs encompass all aspects of the research agenda for complementary medicine, from pure basic research in the laboratory; to clinical trials tailored to address the challenges of testing the efficacy of medicines already in use; to the translation of research evidence into clinical practice and community use. NICM researchers have specific strengths in:
* Traditional medicines, and in particular, Traditional Chinese Medicine
* The use of complementary medicine to achieve enhanced outcomes for people with non-communicable diseases (cancers; cardio-vascular disease; dementia; stroke)
* Complementary medicine for individual and community well-being
* Public policy for complementary medicine, including a particular focus on regulatory reform
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I want to compare UK and Italy, regarding physical, chemical and biological hazards in the built environment.
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Check series of publications by G. Bounanno on private homes and schools in Italy, focus on exposure to airborne particles and sources of partticles in indoor environments.
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I'm looking for a questionnaires to use in a small study to assess Health Seeking Behaviour in a particular community. 
Can anyone help?
Thanx
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Hello Haleema,
There is quite a rich literature on health seeking behavior, I recommend you do a search of the subject on Google Scholar for example. Most researchers have used interviews but a small number have used questionnaires. I attach a review of health seeking behavior in Pakistan, in Table 1 you can look up these studies and check which questionnaires were used. Good luck, Rachel.