Science topics: PsychologyEmotion
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Emotion - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Emotion, and find Emotion experts.
Questions related to Emotion
Link between happiness and improved cognitive abilities
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Can anybody explain link between happiness and improved cognitive abilities and skills on basis of neuroscience (and neurotransmitters)?
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There's some research to support the idea that positive mood enhances the ability to think in certain ways - particularly divergent thought. I think the idea is that when you are happy, you are less tied down to certain types of thought, you are more associative, you make connections that you wouldn't normally. Depressed mood sometimes seems to benefit convergent thought . There is also some suggestion that divergent thought makes people happier as well, so it may be a reciprocal relationship (Akbari Chermahini & Hommel, 2011). Bar (2009) suggested that this might be because divergent thought produces options and reduces the sense of the unknown, which might improve mood. But the mood-creativity (my particular interest is in creativity, so I don't know about things like intelligence, etc) relationship is a tenuous one, and many people have found conflicting results. See for example: Akbari Chermahini, S., & Hommel, B. (2011). Creative mood swings: divergent and convergent thinking affect mood in opposite ways. Psychological Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s00426-011-0358-z Baas, M., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus? Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 779-806. doi:10.1037/a0012815 Bar, M. (2009). A cognitive neuroscience hypothesis of mood and depression. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(11), 456-63. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2009.08.009 Kaufmann, G, & Vosburg, S. K. (1997). “Paradoxical” mood effects on creative problem-solving. Cognition and Emotion, 11(2), 151-170. doi:10.1080/026999397379971
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I am studying the role of induced emotions on task performance in an Indian sample.
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I agree with Nils. The method you choose also depends on how long you want the mood or emotion to last, and whether you want a more general positive versus negative state, or a specific emotional state.
My experience is that watching a movie clip generally is very effective in inducing specific emotions - sadness (e.g. Sophie's Choice), fear (The Shining), happiness (Jungle Book's Baloo singing 'the Bear Necessities') .
I would suggest pilot testing a few methods to determine which works best for an Indian sample, provided you have the time and/or money to do so.
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I cannot figure out the appropriate way to analyze the relative expression of genes in different brain regions with different behaviors. There are papers that have done these analyses, but they do not clearly state whether they used deltaCt's or deltadeltaCt's. Has anyone done these analyses before? I am particularly interested in individual differences in expression.
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As far as i know differences (or ratios) between gene expression level are supposed to be similar no matter which method you choose 2^-dCt or 2^-ddCt. But in second method you have to choose calibrator sample and in the first method you don't have to think about it :)
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For example, could temperamental traits influence positive or negative feelings about future?
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Dear Amelia,
I was referring to the type of imagined future self among people trying to improve something (quitting smoking, losing weight, learning to deal with anger, etc.). That is what I am most familiar with, although it is not my field. I would encourage you to consider what this literature has to say, since they have general findings on variables important to imagining a future self - even potentially a negative one. You might also like to look into predictors of job- and academic performance, which will overlap to an extent with the idea of imagining a future self.
I wish you all the best! I am curious what your exact research question is.
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More specifically, I'm wondering if there is an analogue in mice or rats of the rs53576 variants of the oxytocin receptor gene in humans.
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Anybody?
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Specifically in teenagers.
So far I've only found a job to address the issue specifically but is rather old:
Antel, J., & Cumming, G. R. (1969). Effect of emotional stimulation on exercise heart rate. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health Physical Education and Recreation, 40(1), 6–10. doi:10.1080/10671188.1969.10616635
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Association between heart rate variability and fluctuations in resting-state functional connectivity
Catie Chang, Coraline D. Metzger, Gary H. Glover, Jeff H. Duyn, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Martin Walter
Neuroimage. 2013 March; 68: 93–104
Heart Rate Variability Response to Alcohol, Placebo, and Emotional Picture Cue Challenges: Effects of 0.1 Hz Stimulation
Evgeny G. Vaschillo, Marsha E. Bates, Bronya Vaschillo, Paul Lehrer, Tomoko Udo, Eun Young Mun, Suchismita Ray
Psychophysiology. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 October 26.
Recovery of heart rate variability and ventricular repolarization indices following exercise
Marc K. Lahiri, Alexandru Chicos, Dan Bergner, Jason Ng, Smirti Banthia, Norman C. Wang, Haris Subačius, Alan H. Kadish, Jeffrey J. Goldberger
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013
Autonomic nervous system reactivity to positive and negative mood induction: The role of acute psychological responses and frontal electrocortical activity
Willem J. Kop, Stephen J. Synowski, Miranda E. Newell, Louis A. Schmidt, Shari R. Waldstein, Nathan A. Fox
Biol Psychol. 2011 March; 86(3): 230–238.
Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part I)
Costas I. Karageorghis, David-Lee Priest
Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012 March; 5(1): 44–66.
Heart Rate Recovery after Cognitive Challenge is Preserved with Age
Olga V. Shcheslavskaya, Matthew M. Burg, Paula S. McKinley, Joseph E. Schwartz, William Gerin, Carol D. Ryff, Maxine Weinstein, Teresa E. Seeman, Richard P. Sloan
Psychosom Med. 2010 February; 72(2): 128–133
Here are some papers to get you started. Good luck!
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To experimentally disentangle "awe" from "happiness" and a "neutral emotional state", we would like, ideally, to employ the short video clips used in the mentioned paper (i.e. the 5-min film Gag Reel and the 5-min neutral clip from a math film).
Has anyone come across these film clips or know of a possibility to get access to them?
Thanks a million in advance
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Hi Ekaterina
Interestingly, I used to teach Creative Problem Solving to post-grad students.
Firstly, a "Gag reel" is also called a Blooper reel.
A blooper, also known as an outtake, gag reel, or boner, is a short sequence of a .... On an episode of The Red Skelton Show in the 1950s, a skit involving Red's ...
1. Have Gun Will Travel and Gunsmoke
2. The Red Skelton Show (there are a few different blooper videos on Youtube)
3. Area Under a Curve - Maths (There are several different video via a google search)
Hope this helps.
Jaki
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I am interested in knowing when an emotion is induced in a participant and if the gender plays a role in their task performance or not.
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Dear Kushi
I am very interested in gender differences in emotions.
I suggest you some papers:
1)Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional
stimul(Benedetto Arnone).
2)Women process multisensory emotion expressions more efficiently than men( Collignon)Neuropsychologia 48 (2010) 220–225
3)Salience of emotional displays of danger and contagion in faces is enhanced
when progesterone levels are raised(Conway) Hormones and Behavior 51 (2007) 202–206
I hope I have helped you
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I am currently doing research on emotion and motivation (achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, etc.). Since I am not quite familiar with motivation literature, I want to find motivation experts and others who are interested in this topic. Send me a message if you are interested, and I'll share more about the research details.
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Hi guys, thank you so much for your responses! I am glad that all you guys would like to be part of my research project and offer your help! Special thanks go to those who gave some suggestions on relevant literature. I will sort it out, and find someone that fit the research topic most, and then get back to you later. I am looking forward to working with you on this project, or some other projects in the future! Thanks again!
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I'm looking for the effect of positive psychology on young people who have behavioral disorders. Among these effects, i want to assess the link between family, scool, institution.
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Florence
You must desing more clearly your project. You could, for example, examine social support networks of children with behavioral disorders. But, are these children undergoing some kind of treatment or therapy?
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Like the Bar-on Emotional Questionnaire
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Maybe this research can give an answer on your question. 
Good luck!
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I was wondering whether you might share your experience with skin preparation for facial EMG (measurement of facial expression of emotions). My biggest concerns are: (1) is it necessary to abrade the skin, and (2) how do you practically handle bearded participants? Do you shave them or ask them to shave before the experiment, e.g. during recruitment? I would also appreciate any other tips that will help us run our first facial EMG experiment.
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Hi Lukasz,
Prior to electrodes placement, you must properly prepare the participants’ skin in accordance with SENIAM recommendations (Hermens, Freriks, Disselhorst-Klug and Rau 2000): the skin is rubbed with gauze soaked in alcohol and a conductive gel need to be applied to the electrodes to reduce the impedance of skin-electrode interface below 5 kΩ and thus improve the signal-to-noise ratio.
For bearded participants, there are two solutions: 1) beard is short and you can use the procedure described above; 2) beard is too long and you will have to shave it before skin preparation. As you said, it is necessary to inform participants during recruitment.
I hope it was helpful for you.
Best
Mathieu
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And if yes: how and (hypothetically) why? There are somewhat contradictory findings in this field. I am always rather sceptic about gender differences, though, as I suspect that there is a publication bias towards not reporting or not discussing the non-occurrence of gender differences.
Therefore I would like to know your opinion, the references you would rely on most, etc.
I am interested in gender differences on the most general level, i.e. do men and women already differ regarding the self-reports of valence, arousal, pleasant and unpleasant feelings.
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Yes, the literature is inconsistent in regard to differences between gender. Maybe if you try to specify more your question - in which area you are trying to check if men and women differ.
I have found differences between gender in the way cancer patients deal with diagnosis and treatment. I observed that women patients report more problems-related distress, high level of distress and worse quality of life (the Journal will publish this manuscript probably in 2 months).
In another study, Salander and Hamberg observed that women and men respond differently to the cancer diagnosis. Women developed long and detailed narratives, and their reports were personal and emotional, with an emphasis on social support, while men favored impersonal reports.
Salander, P., & Hamberg, K. (2005). Gender differences in patients’written narratives about being diagnosed with cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 14(8), 684-695. doi:10.1002/pon.895
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I'd like to know what tests are out there apart from the Trier social anxiety test and the cold pressor task. Are there others that elicit negative or positive emotions? Please link any relevant papers.
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Hey-
If you want to elicit a specific mood in your participants (as I would deduce since you mentioned the TSST and cold pressor, which lead to a long lasting emotional feeling state), than mood induction procedures (MIP) may be what you're searching for:
"Various forms of MIPs have been reported in the literature (see Martin, 1990, Westermann et al., 1996 for discussion), with the “Velten” procedure (Velten, 1968) being the most widely used (e.g. Gerrards-Hesse et al., 1994; Westermann et al., 1996). In this procedure statements about positive or negative self-evaluations or somatic states are presented to the participant and he/she is explicitly instructed to try to feel the mood described by the statement. In general, one can distinguish between MIPs ranging from purely automatic mood (like music) induction to highly cognitive, strategic induction procedures (like imagination) and different combinations of these MIPs with differing effectiveness and validity (for meta-analysis see Gerrards-Hesse et al., 1994; Westermann et al., 1996)." Cited from Kohn et al. 2011.
If you're really searching for something that elicits an emotion (as opposed to mood), than IAPS may be a good picture set, which let's you look at emotional reactivtiy.
Oh, and I nearly forgot, in my view a good measure to test changes in affective state is provided by the PANAS (plus ESR) as for example used in Schneider et al., 1992, reference for PANAS is Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Tellegen, A., 1988. Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect - the Panas Scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 54, 1063-1070.
hope this helps
Nils
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Does anyone happen to know literature on how people react to anger towards moral and non-moral violations? For example, why people are more tolerant of other's anger towards moral violations (dishonesty), while less tolerant of other's anger towards non-moral violations (incompetence)?
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I am currently working with colleagues at Bath Spa University carrying out research into promoting children's emotional self-regulation, through the training of educational and community practitioners in Emotion Coaching. We have two projects that adopt an interpersonal neurobiological approach and combine current neuroscientific findings, attachment and relationship theory and educational practice to better understand the physiological and behavioural cues and responses to emotions, such as anger.
Hope this is helpful
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A questionnaire such as PANAS
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Check out the profile of mood states questionnaire.
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Once human beings and animals have learned to categorise things around them, it would seem to me that the next step in cognitive or emotional development is the imposition of preference ordering upon categorised events. Does anyone know of literature in this area? Thanks.
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Yasuku, thanks for your reply. Philosophers, such as Aristotle, have developed categorical systems to account for our understanding of the world. Psychologists such as Piaget have done the same. However, I was wondering what the next stage in the development of our understanding of our world is? It seems to me that we form nominal categories and then order these adjectivally perhaps? I was wondering if there is a literature on this? Do you agree that an ordering of preference or extent comes directly after nomination?
What kind of people make decisions based on Amygdala hijacks or emotion?
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If a person's decisions are based on emotion, are they correct or not? What do you think?
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Hi, The studies have shown that a patient with adamage to amygdala cannot decide for the basic problems such as eating, etc. So even we think that our decision is a rational decision, it is based on our emotionally decision making system. So an optimal decision is based on both rational and emotional decision making.
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I am looking to measure experimentally induced changes in anxiety levels within a short timeframe i.e. 40 mins. I have a range of behavioural measures, but am looking for a suitable self-report measure. I have previously used questionnaires containing Likert-scales, but am concerned about their sensitivity given the timeframe. I would also like to avoid single-item scales.
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I think you might find interesting this very well-done review on different ways to measure state anxiety:
Rossi, V., & Pourtois, G. (2012). Transient state-dependent fluctuations in anxiety measured using STAI, POMS, PANAS or VAS: a comparative review. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 25(6), 603-645.
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Test or tests more appropriate for emotional intelligence (both children and adults).
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Two of the most widely used tests of EI include the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures actual abilities to solve emotionally related tasks and reason about emotional information, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On EQi), which is a self-report measure of perceived emotional intelligence and experiential aspects of emotional functioning. They each measure very different aspects of EI and each account for unique variance in behavioral performance. They are both commercially available tests, so be prepared to pay some money to use them. The Bar-On also has a Youth Version as well. The MSCEIT is based on a model of EI that is widely published in the literature, and there are earlier self-report versions (e.g., Self-Reported Emotional Intelligence Scale-SREIS) that are published in the open literature and would not have costs associated with them. There are, of course, other scales out there, but I think these are some well normed and widely used ones.
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I intend to find out a measurement or several to quantify the emotion regulation ability in the face of the same noxious stimuli. I want to use the ' intensity of unpleasantness ' felt when the stimuli are given as the measurement to describe the subjects' emotion regulation ability. The hypothesis is: after years of training, the trained group would experience less aversive emotion compared to novices when the training related stimuli are given (the stimuli are noxious), showing that they are more efficient in emotion regulation, which results from their training.
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We frequently use two scales when measuring pain for the distinction of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. The subjects need to be trained to distinguish the two but it is working well. Some analgesic manipulations will have more effects on pain unpleasantness without affecting too much pain intensity.
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I'm working on a grant proposal that proposes that substance dependence is likely linked to disruptions in emotionality (both negative and positive--via reward seeking/approach behaviors) and emotion regulation (both implicit and explicit), specifically in terms of cannabis abuse and dependence among teens.
PROBLEM: I'm finding very, very few studies that used anything but self-report to assess this, which is prone to all kinds of biases.
HELP: If you know of any non-self-report in this area, let me know. I'd love to reference something that used a task or physiological measures (HRV, RSA, VT, PEP, GSR, all are a plus) or EMA.
I've finally started uncovering a few, but some of the methods are not that great, most are on other substances or just substance abuse in general, and very, very few are longitudinal leaving whether emotion related deficits are a cause or a consequence of dependence unaddressed.
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Hi Erica
I have attached a paper by Ingjaldsson et al showing that resting vagally-mediated HRV is lower in alcoholics than healthy individuals. Additionally, they show that alcoholic patients show an increase in HRV when given a script that relates to alcohol. These results are in line with the Neurovisceral Integration Model of emotion dysregulation, suggesting that at rest, alcoholics lack the necessary inhibitory control mechanisms, as indexed by HRV, to control maladaptive impulses towards alcohol. Thayer and Lane (2000) suggest that these same inhibitory mechanisms are responsible for emotion regulation and thus, this study suggests that alcoholics also lack emotional control, even in a sober and resting state.
I hope this help!
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As an acting teacher, I have recently decided that images are needed to excite emotion which is needed to strong actions. Does anyone have any opinion and or research on this? I am aware of Damasio, Ramachandran, LeDoux, etc.
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I think that is reductive, in terms of so complex activities which include perception, emotion and cognition, define exactly the “before” and the “after”. What is sure is that the perception is the origin of the sequence. The progression of functional activation depends of a combination of awareness, attention level, earliest recognition, previous experiences, personal interest, familiarity (memory). Is this combination controlled and supervised by “frontal lobes”? Of course if we consider that the frontal lobes are part of a complex and interconnected network including also many other cortical and subcortical areas. Day by day the functional and neurophysiological researches on cerebral functions, and above all on thalamus-cortical system, suggest caution in correlate specific functions to specific areas.
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Music has many bodily effects. This is not trivial.
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RajKamal B.,
thanks for your interesting answer. You uses the string resonance metapher. Well, I like string theory but I have hardly problems to transfer this theory to neurons and their connections. It seems to be more a vague hypothesis than the result of experimental research, so I think your answer opens more questions than it answers.
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Call me idealistic, but I am currently drafting an experiment related to stereotypes and emotions, and was wondering whether there is some sort of data base which contains a variety of validated stimuli which researchers could use for their study. Thanks and cheers!
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Dear Patric,
This site have a list of Stimulus sets: http://www.cogsci.nl/stimulus-sets
Your question make me think, if the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) it may be useful...
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Imagine an experiment on emotions with a participant sitting at a computer desk watching video clips that induce emotions. This person keeps his/her feet on a wii balance board that allows to track if the feet are kept still or are changing position.
I wonder if anyone knows any studies that explored the psychological interpretation of such feet motor activity. A common sense suggests that people move their feet when they are aroused / nervous. Any scientific research to back-up this notion? Are there any other interpretations?
I will be very grateful even for the tiniest hints.
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Here is a study we did on foot involvement in posture.
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I am using the PTGI in my dissertation and am beginning the quantitative analysis of the information to form my tables.
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my pleasure:)
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Hello everyone.
I´m not sure if this concept has been coined already, but I am currently interested in researching the effects of emotion on attention. Specially the effects of our expectations with regards to basic affective and neutral incoming stimuli. And I need to get a feel for the basic tasks and paradigms that are used to measure emotional expectancy, but I can't seem to find anything in that scenario. If anyone knows of a review of any kind, or anything along the lines of expectancy biases that resembles this, I would greatly appreciate it. 
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Hi Julian,
The Predictive Coding Framework is beginning to look at the role of attention, emotion and what could be called expectation (but is perhaps more appropriately called prediction). This paper is a good intorduction to the general direction of the theory:
Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2009). Why the brain talks to itself: Sources of error in emotional prediction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1521), 1335-1341.
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We ran an emotional stroop task with children. Contrary to expectations, reaction times to the positive and negative emotion conditions appears SHORTER than the neutral word conditions. Showing faster correct times. Have others come across this finding?
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Emotion/Attention effects can be a little funny in unselected populations. Can you tell us more about these children (i.e. were they anxious/depressed etc)?
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Hi everyone. Our group are now trying to begin a research on electrodermal activity on the hands measuring emotion and attention on acoustic signals on healthy people. We are a little confused about the literature related with this topic and not enterely sure about the confiability of the measure and tools (mainly psychological) for obtaining a significant correlation. Any help about this problem could be helpful. 
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Dear Siegfried, Roberto,
I agree with your last sentence, but would like to add that to me this seems to be a characteristic of attentional and emotional responses as such. Any measure of these constructs will thus show these trait and state-dependent characteristics.
Please see the book of Boucsein "Electrodermal Activity" for a nice overview - also showing the tremendous complexity of EDA research and findings. In my experience EDA is a useful indicator of arousal, though the specificity to emotional arousal compared to physiological arousal is IMO not clear - that is EDA will give you an indication of the activation of the sympathetic nervous system independent of the cause. To get a better picture, e.g. tying response to cause, you need to incorporate knowledge about the context. In psychophysiology experiment design restricts the possible causes. In applied research you might want to use other sensor modalities to check for events that caused EDA changes. Finally, Gedeon expresses my feeling towards physiological sensors in general - you have to be familiar with the signal, on a theoretical and practical level - SNR and confounding variables are limiting the inferences that you can draw in a specific setting.  Good luck!
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There has recently been great interest in integrating emotions into institutional theory and social theory more generally, providing a counterweight to the growing emphasis on cool cognition over the past couple of decades. How can we do this? What are important kinds of questions? How can we study it methodologically?
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One good source for the connection between emotions and organizations should be Daniel Goleman:  He has written EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, and then subsequently SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE, both available in paperback format.
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The recent Facebook controversy about emotional contagion highlights an important area of research.
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Dear Professor,
Emotional contagion is the tendency for two individuals to emotionally converge. One view developed by Elaine Hatfield et al. is that this can be done through automatic mimicry and synchronization of one's expressions, vocalizations, postures and movements with those of another person. When people unconsciously mimic their companions' expressions of emotion, they come to feel reflections of those companions' emotions. Emotions can be shared across individuals in many different ways both implicitly or explicitly. For instance, conscious reasoning, analysis and imagination have all been found to contribute to the phenomenon. Emotional contagion is important to personal relationships because it fosters emotional synchrony between individuals. Contagion is mainly focus the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people.
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I am trying to obtain a good database that will allow me to investigate how we process emotions from facial expressions according to the angle that the face is presented at, i.e. 0-90degrees.
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Radboud Faces Database may also be good - I have downloaded these but don't have first-hand experience with the set just yet. See http://www.socsci.ru.nl:8180/RaFD2/RaFD?p=main
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No. Why don't we get together and create one.
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I have been using ideas from complexity theory (basins of attraction, butterfly effect, emergence, non-predictability, etc.) as metaphors to help clarify issues of grief and mourning. I would like to be able to move away from only using these ideas a metaphors and begin to use them to model grief and mourning, but don't have a clue as how to go about doing this.
I could list variables that we suspect impact how people grieve (expected or unexpected loss, quality of the relationship, past losses, definitions of the relationship, etc.) but beyond that I haven't a clue.
Any suggestions -- including those saying why this is a fools errand -- would be appreciated.
mgs 7/6/2014: I changed the title because when we look at all the issues a person who has experienced a serious loss (say a woman whose husband has died) must face, those issues include not just things we think of as grief, but more practical issues such as how to live without the deceased (cooking for one, paying taxes, fixing the car....) So since we are attempting to look at all the factors impacting a person's reaction to a loss, we need to include those "restoration-oriented" issues as well.
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Dear Michael Sanger:
While I can't pretend I have any reason to think my familiarity the full spectrum of previous work related to (indirectly or no) your topic, there are a few on my bookshelf that may help. Some general resources include:
Parks et al. (1998). Fundamentals of Neural Network Modeling: Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. MIT Press.
Hunt, E. B. (2007). The Mathematics of Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
even e.g., Gottman, J. M. (2002). The Mathematics of Marriage: Dynamic Nonlinear Models. MIT Press.
The above all represent rather general (nonlinear/complexity-based) modelling of complex behavioral, mood, and cognitive processes. I refer to them mainly to highlight their inadequacies. The real battle with complexity exists in computational life sciences that are vastly simpler than something like "grief". See e.g.:
Nakanishi, S., Kageyama, R., & Watanabe, D. (2009). Systems Biology: The Challenge of Complexity. Springer.
Fuchs, A. (2013). Nonlinear Dynamics In Complex Systems: Theory and Applications for the Life-, Neuro- and Natural Sciences. Springer.
Bianca, C. & Bellomo, N. (2011). Towards A Mathematical Theory of Biological Complexity (Series in Mathematical Biology and Medicine Vol. 11). World Scientific.
Kaneko, K. (2006). Life: an introduction to complex systems biology. Springer.
Dubitzky, W., Southgate, J., & Fuss, H. (2011). Understanding the dynamics of biological systems: lessons learned from integrative systems biology. Springer.
Sendhoff, B., Körner, E., Sporns, O., Ritter, H., & Doya, K. (Eds.). (2009). Creating brain-like intelligence: from basic principles to complex intelligent systems (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence Vol. 5436). Springer.
etc. The above are not intended to be representative or useful, but rather were 1) on my bookshelf and 2) were as far as I wanted to go given that they are not at all what you are looking for. Rather, they are some sources that should point to how limited any complex systems approach to moods/emotional states (or cognitive processes) is. This is simply because our ability to mathematically model complex systems is severely limited and current research is in no small part dedicated to how one should best approach modelling complexity in general (which, for most sciences, is vastly simpler than human emotions & cognitive processes).
Simply put, when our ability to model a single neuron is limited, expecting formals models of grief which offer more than the almost entirely useless foundations for The Mathematics of Marriage and similar ridiculous attempts to formulate nonlinear models of phenomena we lack even a clear physiological basis for which we might realize how little we are able to model the underlying physiology of the moods we wish to model.
This is not to say that a complex systems approach is without any utility. It's simply to point out that the main helpfulness of such an approach is to highlight how far from adequate our capacity to model such complex phenomena is. It is useful in that it shows how limited any formal model of grief/mourning need be.
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I suppose the stroop task which is used in metacognition research can be used also for meta-emotion? Any ideas?
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My understanding:
Meta-emotion is "an organized and structured set of emotions and cognitions about the emotions, both one’s own emotions and the emotions of others. Meta-emotion refers to the idea that whenever we elicit a certain emotion, we also deal with subsequent emotions regarding how we experienced the primary emotion. While some psychologists have examined the influence of meta-emotions on how individuals interpret and deal with their own and others’ emotions, much of the literature regarding meta-emotion has focused on how parental meta-emotion impacts the social-emotional development of their children."
 
Example from emotion-regulation and heart-rate recordings:
Children's emotion regulation: Self-report and physiological response to peer provocation. Hessler, Danielle M.; Fainsilber Katz, Lynn. Developmental Psychology 43.1 (Jan 2007): 27-38. 
.....Seventy-two children in middle childhood (average age = 9 years) participated. Time-locked measures of heart rate reactivity and recovery were obtained in response to provoking comments, and vagal regulation was measured throughout the provocation session. Children who reported greater dysregulation showed increased heart rate reactivity to provocative comments (i.e., steeper heart rate slope) but no difference in heart rate recovery. The context-free but not the context-specific self-report measure was associated with a failure to suppress vagal tone. Implications for ER measurement and children's peer relations are discussed.
 
This review can give you some ideas:
Methodological implications of the affect revolution: A 35-year review of emotion regulation assessment in children. Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 110.2 (Oct 2011): 171-197.
Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed (a) 82.8% of published ER research occurring within the past decade; (b) higher rates of observational methods with infant and toddler/preschool samples, but more use of self-report methodology with middle childhood and adolescent samples; (c) a longer history of published ER research with samples of infants to 5-year-olds, including the use of more longitudinal design, compared with older samples; and (d) a positive association between journal impact ratings and the use of physiological and observational measurement. Review of the measurement tools used to capture ER revealed great diversity in how emotion processes are understood and evaluated
 
Another paper:
Meta-emotions as predictors of drinking to cope: A comparison of competing models. Shaver, Jennifer A.; Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Ham, Lindsay S.. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 27.4 (Dec 2013): 1019-1026.  
Good luck!
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I'm interested in working on cognitive test battery development for measurement of cognitive workload. Are there any good works/studies/organizations for that?
Is there any module on C#/sql or MATLAB/Octave?
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Are you looking for something that you can use to run your tests, or are you looking for guidance on how to develop your own tests?
NIH toolbox may be a good place to start, with lots of classic, well-studied measures: http://www.nihtoolbox.org/Pages/default.aspx
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I'm currently working on my thesis using sLORETA. My region of interest is the anterior insula but unfortunately I'm unable to find a summary of all MNI coordinates that belong to it. Any help is much appreciated.
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Hi Daniel,
You can check that easily with the Talairach Daemon (http://www.talairach.org/daemon.html) and if needed, convert the coordinates (called "foci") to MNI using GingerALE (http://www.brainmap.org/ale/). Check also the icbm2tal page for information (http://www.brainmap.org/icbm2tal/).
All the best,
Anderson
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I am interested to know more about this emotion in general and considering using it as part of my research.
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Hi Kathryn,
Thank you so much for your detailed response. I will certainly look into these papers and go from there.
Kind Regards
Alisdair
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I know this is a fairly basic question but I'm having some difficulty finding anything out there - does the emotion of the perceiver influence how neutral faces are encoded / recognized?
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I think that hypothesis makes sense, but I also have not seen this paper extended, which I've always found surprising.
Ackerman has work showing angry faces induce better CR memory, due to the potential threat they pose.
Research also shows that sad mood increase attention to details and thus one might suspect sad moods to increase face memory, but this may only be for SR targets since CR targets may be perceived as offering fewer affiliative affordances.
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I am a research master student in Linguistics at Utrecht University,The Netherlands and I am conducting a research project about (intercultural) emotion recognition ability.
Could I ask you to participate in this fun research (it will take around 15 minutes) that I am conducting under Prof. Jean-Marc Dewaele's supervision (Birkbeck College, University of London)?
It is a follow up of a survey in which participants were asked to guess the emotion (and rate the intensity of the emotion) displayed by an actress in a couple of short video-recordings in English. In the present version, the video-recordings have been replaced by audio-recordings. Besides this, you will be asked to answer some questions about your sociolinguistic background. You will also be asked to take a short lexical test in English, as well as a quick personality test.
We are looking for BOTH NATIVE AND NONNATIVE speakers of English; all levels of proficiency are welcome.
Please do *not* participate in the present survey if you have already filled in the previous version of this questionnaire some weeks/months ago (you would recognize it easily).
Many thanks in advance!
PS: Do not hesitate to share this survey, send it to colleagues, friends, students, relatives, etc. Nonlinguists are also more than welcome to participate!
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Thank you for sharing your thoughts about this.
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I am searching for national versions of Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-14, Keyes) and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule 20-item version for measuring general affect (PANAS Watson & Tellegen). We plan to use them in our new study and it would be a great help to have it all.
I would require versions in: Italian, Dutch, Estonian, Latvian, Hungarian, Malay, Russian (for MHC only), Romanian, German (for MHC), Serbian, Czech, Slovak, Japanese, Korean, Portugal.
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MHS-Short Form:
Please contact Dr. Keyes (ckeyes@emory.edu) if you require the MHC-SF in a language other than English, or would like to translate and validate the MHC-SF in your country and culture.
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We have just recently succeeded in employing a computer-based version of the Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM) scales with a quite large and diverse population of children. Now I would be interested in whether you think children generally use the SAMs differently compared to adults. And if yes: in what respect?
I have found only few papers using the SAMs with children and usually intensive training for children was reported - does anyone have more experiences with using SAMs with children?
To give a little more detail about what we did: We collected arousal and valence ratings on a 5-point SAM-scale. We also do have data available from an undergrad-sample rating the same pictures.
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Dear Aenne,
Congratulations on your research on emotions in children.
My experience with this scale is low, even lower than yours. However, I have applied other scales and can share that acceptance of children exceeded the expectations of my team as they easily understand the puppets or faces and respond as if they had to do a fun exercise.
It's just a contribution ...
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It seems that some people can't stop themselves from crying when the see somebody in distress. What evolutionary benefits may crying provide?
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Crying may support to relieve your internal pain and you will feel fresh.
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Dimensional personality models (also mood) were used in music emotion research by Jonna Vuoskoski et al. (http://users.ox.ac.uk/~musf0093/publications.html) - is someone extending this work to soundscapes? Soundscape research has used e.g. the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity index, however this describes a specific trait, and not an individual's personality as a whole. There are several models for assessing soundscape quality.
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Interesting question. I worked in a semiconductor company making audio ICs for 3D audio. I discovered that national or ethnic origin had a huge impact on preferences. For example western European ethnicity Americans (born here) clearly preferred one specific algorithm. I being in that category also felt it was more precise an true to the objective (making one hear sounds behind them from two TV speakers in front of them.) On the other hand the Japanese had a completely opposite take. The preferred algorithm B. And the MOS was a near dichotomy. Seemed like a political party line vote, but there was no skin in the game to bias it. I chalked it up to the phonemes and sounds we recognize in our languages and possibly physiology of head shape and brain processing differences. The cultures are very different. The eastern context is much higher than the west, they are more self aware. So personality or emotion adds another possibility to the mix.
Are human feelings, emotions, and moods merely a matter of chemistry?
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Brain chemistry and the level of chemical substances (neurotransmitters) like dopamine, serotonin, and nor-adrenaline have been found linked with the feeling of happiness, pleasure, or alternatively depression and schizophrenia (depending on their secretion and abundance in certain brain area). Likewise, our brain often secretes morphine-like substances (endorphins), and has also cannabis-like substances (cannabinoids). This chemistry-based system appears to be the target for addicted and illicit drugs (Marijuana- Morphine- Cocaine) which shoot-up/manipulate our brain's emotional centers. The question is whether our feelings and emotions are merely chemistry? What causes this chemistry to build-up or decline? Can emotions be based on other mechanisms and yet to be known determinants? What is your impression and thoughts on this issue?
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All emotions have intellectual content. "Pure" emotion (chemistry-based emotion) - emotion without any intellectual or rational basis - is impossible.
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Most of research on emotion has been confined only on intra-individual aspects. Now researchers have tried to focus on collective emotion which acts as precursor to initiate various aspects of behaviours.
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Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology, coined by Carl Jung. It is proposed to be a part of the unconscious mind, expressed in humanity and all life forms with nervous systems, and describes how the structure of the psyche autonomously organizes experience. Jung distinguished the collective unconscious from the personal unconscious, in that the personal unconscious is a personal reservoir of experience unique to each individual, while the collective unconscious collects and organizes those personal experiences in a similar way with each member of a particular species. For Jung, “My thesis then, is as follows: in addition to our immediate consciousness, which is of a thoroughly personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche (even if we tack on the personal unconscious as an appendix), there exists a second psychic system of a collective, universal, and impersonal nature which is identical in all individuals. This collective unconscious does not develop individually but is inherited. It consists of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite form to certain psychic contents.” (:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_unconscious) . However, we also have a collective conscious or collective conscience (Fr conscience collective) as a set of shared beliefs, ideas and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.The term was introduced by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his Division of Labour in Society in 1893. The French word conscience can be translated into English as "conscious" or "conscience" (conscience morale), or even "perception"or "awareness", and commentators and translators of Durkheim disagree on which is most appropriate, or whether the translation should depend on the context. Some prefer to treat the word 'conscience' as an untranslatable foreign word or technical term, without its normal English meaning.In general, it does not refer to the specifically moral conscience, but to a shared understanding of social norms. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_consciousness)
As for "collective", for Durkheim it is "collective" simply in the sense that it is common to many individuals. In other words common standardized tests are valid for the group it is aimed at testing. It would not be a problem to establish that " as a general rule" people behave, react, feel, think like this in this situation. For example during 5 years of war 1940-1944 in Finland men when located near the fire line were subject to intense bombardements started to show a range of common emotions such as a helplessness appearing variously as panic or being scared, or flight, an inability to reason, sleep, walk or talk. These emotions were interpreted as signs of cowardness (sometimes punished with death) then later as shell shock, dissociation and now as C-PSTD. PTSD can be assessed in many ways.
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According to the Socionomics Theory "Social Mood" is a driver of political, economic and social events. So far Socionomics tried to assess social mood of people through different indicators (e.g. stock market prices, popular Disney genres, skirt length, etc.), which all measure mood indirectly. My idea would be to analyze large corpora of text material (e.g. twitter, social media messages, newspapers, etc.) using different techniques to measure mood more directly.
One approach is to perform sentiment analysis using "emotion dictionaries" (e.g. affective norms for english words [ANEW]), which I understand as a form of quantitative content analysis on sentence/phrase-level (using n-grams). These dictionaries are based on the (average) evaluations of the emotional content of individual words by humans using the semantic differential (rating of words on three major dimensions: valence, arousal, dominance).
Now my question would be whether there are any other approaches to assess sentiment and/or emotions from text material? What theories do exist on the representation of mood/sentiment/emotions in language (my personal interest would be on Englisch and German in particular)?
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In a comparatively recent strand of Systemic Functional Linguistics called Appraisal Theory, Jim Martin and Peter White have developed a rigorous and detailed linguistic framework for the identification and classification of value expressions in language - including among these emotion terms, i.e. affective values. See:
J.R. Marin and P. White 2005. The Language of
Evaluation: Appraisal in English. Palgrave.
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Several theories within the nursing discipline refer to the emotional dimension of careging and research is growing in this field. Do you think that practice follows research in this area? Are we adequately trained to use emotion management as a therapeutic instrument?
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In my opinion the nursing education is not simply to raise awareness of rules and procedures, but to help learning how to get in touch with the cognitive and emotional processes present in places of care and that are started by caring of the patient.
We teachers should think of a training of health professionals that recognized the ethical and epistemological roots of nursing, putting at the center of caring enhancement of human relationship between nurse and patient.
The evolution of scientific knowledge takes place within different contexts of practice in relation to life stories, so nursing student has the need to deepen the emotional dimension of the experience of fragility and pain.
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The emotions, the emotional experience and emotional expression is a condition of the human. But there are patterns of response and expressivity, and emotional development has its own characteristics throughout the life cycle. What are these patterns, which are those features, and which relationships with other human dimensions?
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As an older person, who was emotionally complex when younger, as we all probably are, I now value the smoothness and control of my emotions. The self talk I employ tends to keep my emotions more positive, similar to meditation or CBT. I really value this stage in my emotional life. Small pleasures being more important now than the bigger more intense ones of an earlier time.
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I'm interested in a simple but comprehensive way of emotions categorization for an instrument that I'm developing that assess the emotional body experience. I will be grateful for any reference that could help me. I'm reviewing Eckman's classification, the Somatic Markers hypothesis of Damasio, Arnold, M., Polivy, J., The PANAS scale, Watson; the Circumplex Model of Affect, Watson & Tellegen, 1985; etc.
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I hardly can think about "neutral" emotions. By definition, a discrete emotion implies affective values (negative, positive or both). I suggest you to think about emotions as conventionally categorized mental processes (rather than intrinsically categorical). In fact, emotions are differentially categorized depending on culture and language. As Magalí suggests, Scherer's model could be a good choice. Keep in mind that positive and negative affect are neither mutually exclusive nor discrete "states": the affective valence/s should be understood in a continuum (and from a dynamic perspective). Maybe Russell's model could complement Scherer's one (see, for instance, Russell and Barret paper: http://www.ozrp-students.narod.ru/0910/0910_2/vo_4_spe/russell-barrett-1999.pdf). For a more "practical" work (obtaining emotional category data from IAPS images), consult, for instance, the paper by Mikels et al. (2005): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1808555/
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The original BES (as reported in this publication) is considered unidimensional scale. However, we (me and one of my student Akanksha Dubey) developed a Hindi version of this scale and tried to find its correlation with various dimensions of the SCL-90-R. Unlike the findings of Rimes, we failed to find its correlation with anxiety, depression and other domains of the SCL-90-R. This led us to consider this scale as multidimensional and consequently we factor analysed (principal component analysis) the Hindi version of the BES . The scree test, parallel analysis, and the Velicer's MAP suggested to retain two factors. We have not yet labeled these two factors but tentatively we are considering two factors to reflect Acceptability beliefs and non-acceptability beliefs. Other alternative name we are considering is positive beliefs about emotions and negative beliefs about emotions.
When we re-examined the relationship of the said two dimensions of the BES with various domains of SCL-90-R, interestingly we found significant and positive correlation the non-acceptability beliefs with various domains of the SCL-90-R including anxiety and depression. The acceptability beliefs showed a significant but negative correlation with various dimensions of theSC-90-R.
This pattern of finding suggest us to consider the BES as multifactorial scale.
I invite the view of the authors and other esteemed members on this issue.
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Your description of the factors as essentially positive vs negative raises the possibility that you have a unidimensional construct with correlated errors on the 'negative' items. This effect, whereby a single dimension can produce two apparent factors, has been well-documented. It would be a good idea to test the competing models and compare goodness of fit.
Marsh HW: Positive and negative global self-esteem: A substantively meaningful distinction or artifactors?
J Pers Soc Psychol 1996, 70(4):810-819.
Hankins M (2008) The factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): the result of negative phrasing? Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health 4:10
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Can we discuss unconsciousness when it comes to emotional triggers?
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Good question. My suggestion is that it depends on what you mean by "unconscious". The (now) classic debate between Zajonc and Lazarus (on the relation between cognition and emotion) essentially boiled down to a definitional consideration. Specifically, Lazarus argued that a stimulus must be "processed" in some way for the evaluation of meaning and thus emotion to occur. Zajonc disagreed, suggesting that Lazarus' implicit definition of cognition was so broad that it included perception. The Lazarian view has come to dominate with the basic view being that stimuli are evaluated/appraised for meaning and that it is this process that generates each emotion.
Returning to your question, this view (i.e., emotions are arising from perceived change in the status of goals) does not require that appraisal or the goals are conscious in either the Freudian or the cognitive sense of the term. Indeed, it is assumed that most appraisal processes will be automatic and that a significant number of the goals (AKA your emotional triggers) will be also.
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I find it interesting that in 2013 we still seem to struggle to define a basic set of emotions. I tend to understand this struggle as an indicator for a problem that needs to be solved. Further, i think that more accurate definitions would already help a lot.
Also, i believe that we should not mix emotion with cognition. According to my understanding theses are two separate things.
Let's see what others think.
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Peter, you might want to dig a bit more into the idea of a dissociation of emotion and cognition. Behavioral regulating states, among which we'd place emotions, are all multifactorial, and they involve cognition and learning: for example, arousal/vigilance/fear modulated by locus ceoruleus generating norepinepherine expression, have multiple visceral effects that are registered by certain afferent nuclei -- thus the "feeling" of fear, awareness of heart pounding etc. -- but also influences attention, learning and memory. Anyway.
To your main question: My reading, though my primary area isn't emotion, is that the question of "what are basic emotions" won't soon be answered unless there's agreement about what's meant by "basic" or even how to define an emotional category. The typical definition suggests that any state mediated by higher order social inferences or self-evaluation is not primary. But that's not to say that happiness or fear or sadness are devoid of higher-order elements.
Jaan Panksepp would define basic emotions according to phylogenetic continuity -- that is, if some state has an analog across species, it's basic. There's no apparent analog to embarrassment in your cat, for example, so scratch that one. But fear certainly has a great deal of continuity, so keep it on the list. And so on. However, this can't be a complete answer (though it's appealing in many ways) because it begs the question of similarity (i.e., what counts as "analogous") and the fact that especially in humans there's a cognitive and learning aspect of the basic emotions as well as so-called "secondary" emotions. Moreover, you're still begging the question of how to classify emotions (how many, how finely differentiated, etc.).
In short, the lack of consensus might reflect the vagueness of the constructs and questions more than anything.
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I have designed a model for a virtual agent which can show emotions based upon the currrent event occured. Now I want to simulate the model and generate the result. Please tell me which tool is suitable for simulation of this types of models.
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It might be a good idea to get in touch with research groups at KTH Stockholm or CITEC in Bielefeld. At last years IVA2012 some ideas were discussed.
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(is it bivariate with PA and NA indepedent or bipolar)? Anyone with an idea?
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Multilinguaslim and emotion.
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it depends on Emotinal experiences. but as whole, L1 (mother language) evokes greater emotional response than Second language. however it is not ture in all situations, If a bilingual person married with woman who is the native speaker of man's second language or talks wiht his children in secondlanguage and etc ,the emotional responses may be stronger in second language.
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I am interested in advertisements and customer's perception about them. What are your thoughts on using emotional appeals in advertising? Do you think it hides the fault of the products?
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It's just my opinion, but I think that advertisment are addressed to the motivation of customers to buy. The characteristics of the products doesn't actually care. For an advertisment what really cares is to move people to buy. Just make people think that buyiong the product they can be sure to achieve the emotional wellness showed by the advertisment...
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What makes emotions so powerful in intercultural communication, or in any communication? How can emotions in intercultural encounters be recognised and studied?
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Part of the reason is to help us understand to which extent emotion recognition is influenced by social and cultural factors as opposed to "innate" ability. This could lead to insights regarding the nature of affect and emotion and its role as an evolutionary adaptation.
Take a look at these publications:
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Pubblications, authors, blog, etc.
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There has been somewhat of a renaissance of study of culture and emotion in recent years. Very good work from Jeanne Tsai, Batja Mesquita, Yulia Chentsova-Dutton and others. More empirically (and experimentally) based than was historically the case and considerably more useful.
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Music affects us emotionally. Language could be unemotional but still the prosody of language sounds emotional. How do language and music interact in cognition? What are the differences and similarities between emotions in music and language?
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I think we can look this relation in deaf people and their differences with hearing people.
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Society seems to be manipulated with all sorts of vices triggering our emotions. Whether a song, a movie, commercial or other media, our emotions are influenced into buying into a false dream, how do we as mental health professional approach someone dealing with negative or destructive emotions? I am writing a psychological book on emotions and would like to have some prospective on how you would help someone with emotions like envy, jealousy, bitterness, anger and other debilitating emotions? Please keep in mind, that I would like to add your perspectives in my book as a Q&A area of one chapter.
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Grace, your use of "renegade emotions" is on point!  When those feelings take over it feels like a renegade that runs away with all cognitive thought processes and leaves destruction in its path.  The effects are exhaustion, but sometimes not being able to sleep as these renegade thoughts go on and on, continued irritability as the mind keeps beating any self-esteem back into the cobweb corners of the mind as the thoughts run ramped.  It is like a runaway train that you can't figure out how to stop and the continued drive is wanting to stop the thoughts, wanting them to go away but just being 'stuck' and those outside with comments of 'just be happy' or 'just calm down' creates a continued frustration.  The frustration takes over and consumes you.....
In my opinion, it is in these times that it is hardest to take the help and the most important thing needed.  Needing to know there are those who understand and care, who will just sit there with you and wait with you through the storm, who will give some light and fend off the renegades.  One of the hardest things to do and, in my opinion, most needed is positive self-talk.  Having the strength to battle off the thoughts, to ground yourself and bring yourself back into the present.  Accepting and taking responsibility for personal behaviors, awareness of triggers, and creating a plan of action when these emotions take effect are key to personal improvement.  Emotions are intertwined with basic human needs and to manipulate the mind from creating "renegade emotions" takes both time and practice.  Positive self-talk is something which must be learned and practice to become a habit and to calm negative and destructive emotions.
Thank you for your topic/question, I look forward to reading more.
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Several months ago an article appeared in ResearchGate on cognitive-emotional connections in the brain. Can anyone help me retrieve it?
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You may also want to read De Houwer and Herman (2010): Cognition and Emotion: A review current research and theories (Psychology Press).
What about the relationship between anxiety and alexithymia?
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There is a growing body of research about the relationship anxiety and alexithymia. There is also a debate about the place of alexithymia in psychopathology: on one hand, it is considered as a kind of anxiety or mood disorders, and on the other hand, it is considered as an independant but related component. According to Berthoz and colleagues (Berthoz S, Consoli S, Perez-Diaz F, Jouvent R. Alexithymia and anxiety: compounded relationships? A psychometric study. Eur Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;14(7):372-8.), alexithymia is influenced by anxiety, which is also influenced by depression (see also, in French: Affectivity and alexithymia: Two dimensions explicative of the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms. Bonnet, A. Bréjard, V. Pasquier, A. Pedinielli, J.-L. ; L'Encéphale: Vol 38(3), Jun, 2012. pp. 187-193).
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Alexithymia has been found to be associated with anxiety as well as depression. Taylor, in one study demonstrated using factor analysis that though depression and alexithymia are related but they do not overlap. The nature of relationship or the mechanisms linking the two constructs is still not well known. Several speculations has been presented on the basis of empirical data. In one study, we observed that alexithymia is linked with neuroticism but this relationship is a mediated relationship. Using a measure of perceived autonomic arousal we speculated that tonic ANS arousal present in both individuals high on neuroticism and alexithymia may be possible link between the two. The paper is available on RG and following is the link. http://shootingcupoche.com/publication/222911321_Eysenckian_personality_dimensions_and_alexithymia_Examining_the_overlap_in_terms_of_perceived_autonomic_arousal?ev=prf_pub
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What I have found out so far is that most studies in the past have focused on physiological responses, now more recently, studies have shifted towards self-report measures. So, I was wondering why is there this sudden shift in methodologies used?
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The approaches are complementary. Physiological data is unlikely to capture the full experience of emotion. On the other hand, physiological data is continuous and can be measured without the conscious introspection required for self report. The big problem with this conscious introspection about emotion is that it is divorced from the way in which we tend to experience emotion in real life. Physiological data also has the allure of being something objective that can be reliably measured, though I'm not sure that it is any more reliable than self report.
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At the moment I am strongly focusing on affective processing. The literature is very inconsistent regarding "emotion" definitions. I am very much interested in proposing a new and clear definition that is meant to help emotion research to get rid of its interchangeable use of the term "emotion". How would you define it?
Have a read here to get inspired:
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The difference between human beings and computers.
Do you think muscular diseases as congenital myotonia (Thomsen's and Becker's) could influence embodied cognition and emotion?
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I'm interested in finding potential collaborators (with clinical expertise in muscle diseases) to start a pilot study about the hypothetic effects of some mild diseases (as congenital myotonia: Thomsen's and Becker's) on emotions and affective processing (from an embodied emotion perspective). If you are interested, send me a private message including a brief cv.
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Hi, I find the question very interesting from a theoretical point of view, but I am not sure you would find any (consistent) impairment in emotion and affective processing in a population of subjects with mild congenital disease. Are you interested in studying their recognition abilities of others' emotions, or in their own subjective emotional experience? Re. emotion recognition, data on another congenital syndrome (Moebius) are controversial (the first patient described by Giannini in 1984 showed a severe impairment in recognising facial expressions, other patients described by Calder et al. in 2008 showed selective impairments that were inconsistent among patients, Bogart found no impairments and concluded that facial mimicry is not necessary to recognize other's emotions), but we found a significant impairment in patients with acquired locked-in syndrome (Pistoia et al., 2010). Results on congenital syndromes are always difficult to interpret because people with such deficits could have developed different compensating strategies. Re. affective processing more in general, we found no differences between locked-in patients and controls in a task in which subjects were asked to classify complex scenes on the basis of the emotion they induced. Therefore, it would seem that the motor system is not involved in this kind of "subjective" emotional experience but it is in the recognition of other's emotions, but of course more studies would be needed and I have no data on congenital syndromes. Very interesting, though. If you go on with the study I would be very interested in knowing your results!
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I am seeking a database of 3D face models including facial expressions of emotions which gives me accurate dynamic facial information for synthesizing human's emotions. Any suggestions?
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We have previously used the static database of Montagne, B., Kessels, R. P. C., De Haan, E. H. F., & I, P. D. (2007). The Emotion Recognition Task: a paradigm to measure the perception of facial emotional expressions at different intensities. Perceptual and motor skills, 104, 589-598.
That database has morphed expressions in 5% intervals from a neutral expression to 100% of each basic emotion.
Examples can be found in the Appendix of our recent Cognition paper Roberson, D., Kikutani, Döge, P, Whitaker, L. & Majid, A. (2012) Shades of emotion: What the addition of sunglasses or masks to faces reveals about the development of facial expression processing. Cognition, 125, 195-206.
We are currently working with a dynamic set - if you contact me on my Essex email address, I can give you the details.
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Cognitive dissonance is a discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions (knowledge). It is among the most studied topics in contemporary psychology during the last 50 years. However nothing is known about emotions related to cognitive dissonances. Are they same as basic emotions (happiness, rage, sadness?) or are these entirely different kinds of emotions? Consider a case when you receive two equally good but significantly different job offers with different salaries in different regions of the country. Each offer alone would be great and would evoke positive basic emotions (pride, happiness due to opportunities...). But the choice between the two could be painful. So it is clear that emotions of cognitive dissonances are entirely different from basic emotions. Is this so? How many different emotions of cognitive dissonances exist? How these emotions could be studied?
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Leonid, Thinking about CD still, I wonder if there is a classic experiment (paper) you could cite for me that is generally accepted as illustrating CD and its effect on human behavior as you are using the term in your posts..
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Any information is welcomed!
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Hi David,
You should take a look at these papers.
Vuilleumier P, Driver J (2007) Modulation of visual processing by attention and emotion: windows on causal interactions between human brain regions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 362:837–855.
Vuilleumier P, Pourtois G (2007) Distributed and interactive brain mechanisms during emotion face perception: Evidence from functional neuroimaging. Neuropsychologia 45:174–194.
This one isn't a review proper, but the intro nicely integrates the literature.
Schacht A, Sommer W (2009) Emotions in word and face processing: Early and late cortical responses. Brain and Cognition 69:538–550.
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Cognitive dissonance is among most respected psychological theories. It is a discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions. Tens of thousands of papers have been published, however, nobody asked a question: is this discomfort an emotion? It certainly feels like it. If it is an emotion, is it like other 'basic emotions", like grief, happiness, anger? if you are in restaurant choosing between fish and meet, there is an emotion of choice separate from hunger. Anticipation of good meal is a positive basic emotion related to hunger, but choice might be difficult. If you are choosing between two good job offers, every offer could be enjoyed (basic emotions), but choice could be very difficult. So what are these difficult emotions of choice? What are emotions of cognitive dissonances? How many different emotions exist?
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That is a question worth empirical investigation. The challenge is one of measurement, But emotions dissipate rather fast, have you considered the possibility of looking at resulting moods? There is a rich literature on mood, which is a different type of affect lasting longer and being less intense then emotions. If you are interested in qualitative differences, some studies emphasize that negative moods may vary depending on the nature of the emotion on which they are be based (e.g., anger-based negative mood is different that sadness-based negative mood). Perhaps looking at that literature would be a good point to start. Let me know if this makes sense. 
Emotion and motor learning
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I am looking for research on positive emotion and motor learning. How does emotion (specifically positive emotions) impact motor learning?
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I entered < positive emotions + motor learning> in Google Scholar. The first two listings might be useful.
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Dear Leonidas, 
There is a fight between anxiety and aspirations. The multi-level anxieties that the youth experience reflect the range of experiences that they are exposed to; these are significantly linked to their age, marital status, education and place of residence. The aspirations of the youth were diverse in their intensity and linked significantly to their SES, level of education and place of residence. The impact of SES, the benefits of education and exposure to urbanisation are clearly linked to what the youth look for in jobs/career/their start-up. There was no direct co-relation between anxiety and the aspiration levels of the youth. Youth were by and large optimistic about their future. Those in the zone of uncertainty were basically those adversely affected because of their SES and educational attainment. You can have a look on: Indian Youth in a Transforming World: Attitudes and Perceptions
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I sometimes believe that olfaction actually represents a basic form of affective processing. Has olfaction maybe always been the earliest form of an emotion system (evolutionary start of an emotion system)? Smelling things is so obviously and directly related to a "feeling" of pleasant or unpleasant, much more than it is related to "knowledge" about its origin (or semantic content).
The sense of olfaction has the most direct connections with the limbic system (e.g. amygdala) among all senses. Thus, neuroanatomy would strongly support this idea too.
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Typically, it is considered that olfaction is initiated by the interaction of odoriferous molecules with olfactory sensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium. It is entirely valid only for the naïve animal that never been exposed to the odorant, and the odorant has no visual image or sound presentations. For example, if dogs are trained to the certain odorants accompanied with optical or acoustic signals, or have inherited the knowledge of the odorant (like an odor of fire) the process of olfaction involves other modalities like vision, hearing, memory, thinking, analyzing, etc. These additional odor information processing associated with training and learning can be investigated if the olfaction can be evoked not by odorant molecules, but acoustic, visual, or memory impression of the odorant. The vocalization of “baked potato”, “rose” or “wood fire” evokes the perception of odors of these objects in the human. The visual images of the same objects make one to smell the same things. There is evidence that some odorants can modulate emotion and cognition. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex that with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system that is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Although, the entorhinal cortex collects and distributes information about olfactory memory and serves as a top-down modulator of olfactory cortical function. The medial and orbital parts of the frontal cortex are involved in the cognitive integration of all sensory stimuli in relation to prior experiences.
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I'm curious about this topic because I'd like to understand how the genome instructs brain circuits to appraise a stimulus in a species-specific manner.
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Michael Davis has never published anything along those lines.
Perhaps a broader more theoretical question should be asked: How does the brain recognize certain things (like cat odor or the sight of a snake) as being fearful without any training? Is this a 'labeled line' phenomenon in which a specialized receptor (e.g., in olfactory nerve) connects to specific circuits that mediate fear? OK, but how then to explain our ability to fear / loathe (or be attracted to) certain things in the visual domain?
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Although many believe love is a subjective expression, is there an objective mathematical function for it?
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Love can not be expressed in equation. Rather it is an emotional feeling and state of mind.
Can emotions be modeled?
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Emotions have been investigated from different points of view, but i do not see models for emotions. Is it possible to study emotions objectively?
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More of a question. Could someone collect the results of an MMPI-2 (specifically superlative self-presentation subscales), get a consensus of the results to form a baseline, and get a general idea? Am I on the wrong track/ Be gentile as I am an undergraduate
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Today, there is a wide agreement that affect, such as emotions and moods, is a very valuable psychological process to understand cognition and behaviour at work. Discrete emotions are intense and short-lived affective reactions (seconds, minutes) toward an specific object (e.g. fear to be fired or happy for being rewarded). Mood, in turn, are mild and long-lasting (unfolding over days and weeks) without an explicit object (e.g. feeling enthusiastic or anxious). Moods have a causal object, but people are often unaware about it. Drawing on this, should discrete emotions or moods be a more relevant concern for organizational behavior practitioners?
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Basic emotions often lie at the heart of decision-making in organizations when confronted with social emotional- or conflicts of interest. Conflict handling in these cases often stems from basic-and recurring reaction patterns (fight, flight or freeze, Van der Helm, Boekee, Stams & van der Laan, 2012). From these reactions a lot of organizational disasters can be explained.
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The relationship between emotions and health is currently investigated and analyzed in holistic perspective of human care but also in a logic of economic costs, and more.
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The emotional labor of nursing has been studied worldwide since the early 1990s, having as main reference the studies of Professor Pam Smith, and proves to be very useful for nurses to guide their practice by human and holistic care.
His concept:
Fineman (2008) defines emotional labour as a human process produced at the meeting person-person, which involves intense energy on the part of the professional, in order to present an emotional disposition that leads to transformation of disturbing emotions and promotion of well-being on the other. Emotional labour involves managing negative feelings so that they become a disturbing experience (which minimizes the suffering). It means taking care of customers passing tranquility and calm but also safety, creating an affective and positive environment, so that it can feel safe and confident.
I am investigator in this area of the Emotional Labour in Nursing. In my PhD thesis I define emotional labour in pediatric nursing as "performance in nursing incorporates actions entered in the care process, affective-emotional dimension, which aim to positively transform the experiences of the actors involved in care, with the intention of promoting global well-being" (Diogo, 2012). See http://shootingcupoche.com/profile/Paula_Diogo/contributions/?ev=prf_act
In a brief, we can characterize the emotional labour as strategies to manage the emotions of anather (in the health-disease process) and to manage his own emotions of nurses (health professionals).
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The stimuli are movie clips inducing emotions. Ideally, if this measure allowed for quantification and integration with other physiological signals. I would ambrace any suggestion you have. The ideas I have already generated (some of them quite crazy) include the measurement of:
1. LEANING-FORWARD and LEANING-BACK by means of:
a) head accelerometry
b) motion capture
c) tracking the point of body balance, e.g. placing participants on a wii balance
d) recording a video of the posture and a software body movement tracking
2. EMG:
a) recording facial muscles related to fear and disgust (avoid) and pleasure or anger (approach)
3. SELF-REPORT:
a) participants use a rating dial to report their motivation continously
I am very curious what you think about these ideas and what other methods are available.
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Hi, there are three behavioural reaction time measures that I'm aware of.
1. There is the Approach-avoidance Task (AAT). This task requires people to push or pull a joystick to simulate moving the stimuli closer or further away.
See: Rinck, M., & Becker, E. S. (2007). Approach and avoidance in fear of spiders. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 38(2), 105-120.
2. There is the Selective Attention/Action Tendency Task (SA/ATT). This task requires people to touch stimuli on a touch screen to measure the speed that they will move their hand towards or away from a stimuli.
See: Sharbanee, J. M., Stritzke, W. G., Wiers, R. W., & MacLeod, C. (2013). Alcohol‐Related Biases in Selective Attention and Action Tendency Make Distinct Contributions to Dysregulated Drinking Behaviour. Addiction.
3. The stimulus-response compatibility task (SRC). This task requires participants to move a stick figure manikin towards or away from a stimulus.
See experiment 4: De Houwer, J., Crombez, G., Baeyens, F., & Hermans, D. (2001). On the generality of the affective Simon effect. Cognition & Emotion, 15(2), 189-206.
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Dr. Rottenberg published a review in 2005 titled "Mood and Emotion in Major Depression" in which he describes ECI in depression. I've done a search but haven't found anything on this in anxiety. Is there an alternative term for ECI?
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I guess the following paper may be useful to you.
Lang, P. J., & McTeague, L. M. (2009). The anxiety disorder spectrum: Fear imagery, physiological reactivity, and differential diagnosis. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 22(1), 5-25.
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Would RT measurement be too imprecise/variable using a touchscreen repsonse compared to a simple button press? I aim to measure attentional biases to/from emotional faces.
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Hi Margaret,
We recently combined a dot-probe task with a touch screen based approach/avoidance task, which sounds similar to what you are considering.
You can check out the details here: Sharbanee, J. M., Stritzke, W. G. K., Wiers, R. W., & MacLeod, C. (2013). Alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendencies make distinct contributions to disregulated drinking behaviour. Addiction, 108, 10, 1758–1766.
Hope that helps!
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My undergraduate research group is interested in comparing anger and remorse as responses people might have when they are doing something or have done something negative to another person. They are also studying how well people can express emotions like these with online tools or in social media contexts.
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"My undergraduate research group is interested in comparing anger and remorse as responses people might have when they are doing something or have done something negative to another person."
If someone is remorseful for something because they've caused *themselves* harm, then the associated emotion is regret. But the OP specified that they're interested in remorse over damage done to another person - that's guilt.
Has someone tried to optimize the emotional user experience by relying camera movement on actual body movement in different emotional states?
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Video footage used in movies is most of the time chosen and modified to put the consumer in a certain mood, which is archived with different parameters such as color, music, composition and none the less: camera movement. While directors would use smooth camera movement for wide landscape shots, flying people in a horror film are likely to be shown from a shaky and fast moving perspective. Therefore camera operators have a certain experience and knowledge of how to move the camera to create a natural look; but maybe it is possible to modify still footage by adding movement, based on actual physiological studies, in post production, to create an atmosphere and feelings that match the intention even more realistic. The basis could be an algorithm describing the head movement based on influences such as posture, heart beat and breathing during different emotional states. Has something like this already been done or proven irrelevant?
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Hi, Lukas. While it's not a cinematic application, the live virtual environment teaching tool TeachLiVE at UCF has the user wear a sensor so that their movement in space translates to virtual camera movement in the virtual environment. This is used to give the user, a teacher trainee, the sense of physical presence within the virtual classroom. The effect is natural and intuitive, allowing the emotional state of the trainee to affect the virtual environment through proximity to the virtual students. There is an emotional component to the camera movement since the audience itself controls the camera. Cheers.
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I have written some fuzzy rules for emotion modelling. But manually I can write a very limited number of rules only. Is there some mechanics to make these rules generated automatically?
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In general rule induction is used for automatic rule generations for expert systems. By definition, it generate rules automatically through set of observations. In fuzzy logic we use membership functions like s-function or p-function on fuzzy variable.
What is the general proportion of distress during survivorship that is not cancer-related?
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Studies show that between 5 and 50% of patients in survivorship have "distress", 2 to 5 years after diagnosis and initial management. This is associated with some disparities and determinants of overall health, and community health, in recent studies. I haven't been able to find any study in which those in distress during survivorship have apportioned their distress to cancer-related and non-cancer-related categories. Am presently doing such as study, but wonder if others have had any experience or data, or have found publications regarding, this research question.
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Right now we are exploring determinants of health including social, resources, education and health literacy, etc and some biomedical vars including time from treatment and type of treatment..
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Empathy means different things to different people. In order to make progress in understanding this psychological capacity, I'm hoping to help unify the definitional construct of empathy.
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Carl Rogers (2007, pg. 243) defined Empathy as the ability "to sense the client*s private world as if it were your own, but with out ever losing the AS IF quality."
This AS IF quality is more important than one may imagine; and, I dare say this may be a quality that if extremely difficult to obtain. Psychologist and doctors and other heath professionals of great wisdom and knowledge, may though their experience may have a great understanding of a clients situation based on their past experience. However, I refrain from ever saying, "I know how you feel."
The reason for this is not due to my experience as a psychologist, but due to my life as someone with a chronic and progressive muscular dystrophy. Once I hear from someone, who as they saw me twitching in my wheel chair uncomfortably, "Oh I know how that feels." They proceed to tell me, that they had spend a week in a wheel chair, just to learn the experience. Although this is very admirable, and quite a good idea, I found it necessary to reply, "But do you know how it feels to not be able to get up from the wheel chair after a week?"
No one can ever know how anyone else really and truly feels, and claiming to do so is in my opinion arrogant. For this reason, I never tell my clients, "I know how you feel." Even when I may have a very good idea how they feel. Instead I express this as a goal, as a continuation. When insight has been obtained through therapy, I still only claim, "I'm beginning to understand how you may feel."
Eric J. Kolb
References:
Rogers, C. (2007). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, (44(3), 240-248
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We all know what depression is and how it can affect the person. What I want to know is how we can see depression so that we are able to tackle it early on before it becomes worse. So the question is, what are some of the behavioural clues that would indicate that the person is depressed?
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The behavioural sysndrome associated with depression is described here - it includes hunched body posture, avoidance of eye contact, disruption of appetites for food and sex, sleep disturbances and avoidance of social contact - the brain structures that mediate these responses are all centred around the third ventricle - hence the Third Ventricle Hypothesis of depression
Thumbnail sketch here
Full paper here
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I found your article intriguing, and it is much in keeping with research on reevaluating our affections in a new light (that what seems cognitively certain is often affectively based). Need for knowledge (NfK) is something most of us can greatly identify with - and sometimes it is much like any hunger mechanism - thank you for suggesting this. May I ask, do you feel that curiosity could also be a more basal affectation?
You connect curiosity with cognition and conscious sense, but perhaps might it also be realizable at a more nonconscious level - since many animals exhibit curiosity and have no higher cognition per se (or language capability to discern knowledge proper). Curiosity seems to "overcome fear" and this seems to be a key component of it. That is, what is most curious (even in early and prehistory apparently) is usually most dangerous too, but somehow irresistible (e.g. Pandora's Box, Garden of Eden, and attribution to cats). It seems a "fear/desire" contention - perhaps we might even borrow your phrase with the slight change "fear-to-know"? An enduring story is that of the Tree of Knowledge, and certainly curiosity made it irresistible (and the affective relation collectively intuitive). If so, mightn't we also view curiosity as pre-cognitive?
Conference Paper Curiosity and Pleasure
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Thank you..... yes...your suggestion is truly acceptable and I agree with your suggestion...as the saying goes... curiosity  can kill a lady... in this case the curiosity acts as a positive drive for them to "accept" the challenge of solving the problem... This is one of the most important factor that needs to be nurtured among the children... but how?...
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Antonio Damásio (in the book "The Feeling of What Happens", 2000, and other writings) distinguishes feelings from emotions, but argues that both can be unconscious. For him, they are conscious only when referenced to a Self.
Pereira Jr (2013), using a slightly different definition of terms, argues that feelings are always conscious, while emotions can be unconscious. According to this view, the conscious Self is fundamentally a product of feeling experiences; it does not exist without feeling. Feeling constitutes the subjective side of consciousness, while cognition constitutes the objective side (the informational contents of consciousness). Emotions, as physiological and behavioral processes, can be unconscious, when occurring before or after a (conscious) feeling.
Reference:
Pereira Jr., A. (2013) Triple-Aspect Monism: A Framework for the Science of Consciousness In: Pereira Jr A. and Lehmann D (Eds.) The Unity of Mind, Brain and World: Current Perspectives on a Science of Consciousness. Cambridge-UK : Cambridge University Press.
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Yasuko,
Alfredo,
I agree with you. There is a difference between knowledge and experience. Colour is a subjective experience and we learn by examples what is called red or blue and so on. There is no possibility to teach this only by verbal instruction.
Physicists says there is no colour at all, it is only a tricky information process in our eyes which make it possible to distinguish different frequencies of light. We also can not imagine the experience of colour vision of tetrachromatic persons or gold fishes, insects or birds.
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The existence of large-scale calcium waves has been proven and imaged 'in vivo' with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Thrane et al (2012) showed that general anesthetics selectively eliminate these waves. Recently the structure of these waves has been imaged and analysed, but their function(s) is (are) still not identified. I welcome your critical comments here in RG.
Reference: Thrane AS, Rangroo Thrane V, Zeppenfeld D, Lou N, Xu Q, Nagelhus EA, Nedergaard M. (2012) General anesthesia selectively disrupts astrocyte calcium signaling in the awake mouse cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.109(46):18974-9
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fMRI of nanoparticles bound by the action of calcium ions - this method measures calcium concentrations in the extracellular space, but may also measure astroglial activity:
Calcium-based MRI sensor enables more sensitive brain imaging
System detects direct signals of neural activity; could reveal patterns underlying behavior
Date: April 30, 2018 Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Summary: Neuroscientists have developed an MRI sensor that lets them monitor neuron activity deep within the brain by tracking calcium ions. This type of sensing could allow researchers to link specific brain functions to their pattern of neuron activity, and to determine how distant brain regions communicate with each other during particular tasks.
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I find many references and projects in "Emotional Education" in schools, some actually focus on empathy, but rarely assessments of efficacy. I am looking for projects that work with parents, their methods and measures, and with children at a much younger age than the typical Emotional Education class.
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You might want to take a look at Joan Luby's PCIT-ED preschool paper.
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Some of the most frequently used scales include strange items with questionable face validity.
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Talk to Roger Giner-Sorolla at the University of Kent, UK - he has some new measures that you will like.
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I would like to know (and perhaps be sent PDFs) of any research that has been done in Israel concerning the connection between Autism and Emotion Perception, Facial Expressions. Anything related will also help. Thank you!
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Hi! You would be interested in the work Dr. Ofer Golan is doing at the Bar-llan University
Does anyone have a study/data on preceived stress and emotions in prostate cancer? If so, what are the findings?
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I have done a study looking at these and their relationship to patterns of coping (strategies) but there are only sparse reports for prostate. I'm interested in how many emotional domains there might be, and also how people are negotiating the cognitive-emotional divide that is historical but some reviewers are hanging onto as well. Given the new I-PANAS-SF, etc, older studies are of less value, and new studies may need to use the newer, better, tools?
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Less sure about the conceptual question you are raising regarding emotion but there are a few studies linking patterns of prostate-relevant coping to screening behavior. You might also check out William Dale's work in Chicago looking at anxiety and decision-making following biochemical recurrence. Indirect but interesting stuff.
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I believe affective teaching influences students results in EFL. Finding updated results/proven theories is a hard task.
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I think your terms of research might need to be more restricted if you want to find some reliable results. What exactly do you mean by "affective" - are you referring to the so-called affective "methods" (e.g. Suggestopedia, Community language learning, etc.) or more broadly to teachers taking into account affective variables, and therefore, for example, taking measures to ensure that learners' anxiety levels are kept in check? Learners' affective variables have been studied from many different perspectives, but the most commonly researched (and possibly most influential) constructs have been language anxiety, self-efficacy (although this is also considered a cognitive variable) and motivation.
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I would like to investigate the moderating influence of this trait on the generalization of emotional responses. Is it still up to date to measure this construct in combination with a trait anxiety scale in order to differentiate between repressors and persons with low trait anxiety?
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For finding a suitable "Testothek", you can also make use of this free service provided by ZPID: http://www.zpid.de/index.php?wahl=products&uwahl=frei&uuwahl=testlibrariesintro .
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Big Brain is an EU funded project involving the dissection of a human brain into 7,400 slices and then scanning these into a computer to produce a 1TB 3D model of brain structure. The US is following suite with a $100m project focusing on dynamic functioning. But is this just micro-exploration that loses the bigger picture or will it afford insight into wider scale functioning, behaviour and the nature of consciousness?
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Integrated multi-modal functioning of different brain centres?
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I am performing some simulation that requires me to think about anger dynamics, in quantitative terms. Specifically, I need some discussion on the following, at least some qualitative insight:
  • After an angry street protest, will the anger of the participants be less or more than that before it? 
  • After an online post (say to a forum) made in a state of anger, will there be a change to the anger of the owner of the post? 
  • When a person counters an insult, will there be a change to his/her anger?
For each of the above, what sort of anger dynamic will be at work?
Appreciate your input, thanks.
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The key to defusing non-constructive forms of anger is to explore and cease to identify with the ego's attempt to feel superior to and in control over other people, and to learn to explore non-judgmentally into the truth of a given situation rather than trying to be "right" and "victorious" at all costs. Another related way to defuse non-constructive forms of anger is to become more aware of a level of our permanent being that is inherently unconditionally relaxed, secure, and naturally empathically attuned to and nonjudgmentally accepting of self and others. In my two recently published books, I discuss how to gain insight into anger and thereby constructively transform it, through unbiased exploration of one's feelings and experiential states, as well as through the development of constructive modes of interpersonal communication and win-win approaches to changing society for the better. More information about my books is described in the enclosed attachment and on my researchgate profile page.