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Questions related to Battery
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When making a decision for the power and energy sizing of a support storage system, say batteries, for a grid connected generation technology, it is important to quantify the degree of smoothing done by the system inverter because you don't want to end up with an oversized battery, considering the high investment cost involved. So, is there a way to quantify the degree of smoothing of input power fluctuations done by a grid-tied inverter?
Here are the details:
Maximum degree of fluctuations in input to inverter: around +/- 20% of rated power
Inverter: PWM H-bridge NPC IGBT, 5kHz switching frequency
Grid frequency: 50 Hz
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Anybody have any idea regarding three phase converters equipped with active front end to feed energy back into the grid....please share your knowledge if anybody knows anything about this topic...
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If a rechargeable sodium-ion battery with good performance characteristics could be developed, it could have the advantage of using electrolyte systems of lower decomposition potential due to the higher half-reaction potential for sodium relative to lithium.
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It's not clear what do you like to know. Please post your question clearly. By the way decomposition of electrolyte occurs in non aqueous system below certain voltage but what is more important is the SEI. So, If you can from better SEI, it will work. 
Thanks
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This is to improve the quality of the slurry.
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The amount of NMP depends on you requirement:
1. Electrode density 2. Electrode formulation recipe 3. Slurry weight
Here is the graph which will give some idea how much NMP is require to make electrode.
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Here estimation of charge is carried out using extended Kalman filtering, I am unclear how we should model the uncertainties involving the battery. How can one incorporate them in our state space ekf model for estimation?
I am unable to get a correct estimation. I am using Matlab scripting to realize the EKF. I am not sure why the script fails to estimate accurately.
Can anyone help me to find out where I am going wrong with reference to the m script attached.
How should we we choose noise parameter Q and R here?
Kindly can someone explain to me what exactly should be considered in these places?
Replies will be much appreciated.
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It depends on the t-domain you are considering!
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In the polymer batteries already using a Lithium as a filler, then again using the nano fillers to increases the conductivity. How it helps in increasing it? 
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Dear Shazia Farheen,
I Send you a paper about your question and I hope you find useful.
Best Regards
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How does it affect the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries?
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You have several unconnected questions placed together. Insulator by definition will insulate the passage of any flow of electrons. So if insulating metal oxide is applied as a coat then your material will be out of  electrochemical response . Photoluminescence  is an optical property and if your material has some   electrochemical response dependent photo-optical property then  that can influence the performance both ways.
Kindly pin-point your queries and question . Do not put vague questions as that invite similar answers
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Hi, I prepared silver based solid electrolyte, using this electrolyte I want to fabricate a battery with different cathodes and anodes. I prepared a battery Iodine+graphite as cathode, silver powder+solid electrolyte as anode. By using Iodine+graphite as cathode, I am facing some problems and didn't get accurate results, please can you suggest any other materials for cathode and anode? 
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I would suggest using disulfide titanium
G.A.Sholz, R.F.Frindt Preparation and Open-Cirquit Potentials of Silver –Intercalated 2H-TaS2 and 1T-TiS2//J.Electrochem.Soc. 131, No 8 (1981) P.1763-1767
or tantalum disulfide.
The diffusion coefficient of silver in the titanium disulphide is sufficiently high.
A.N.Titov “Fast Ionic Transport in AgxTiS2” // Physics of the Solid State 51, № 4 (2009) 714
And, judging by the possibility of electrochemical titration at room temperature, the same can be said of tantalum disulfide.
Both these materials are stable relative iodine.
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I want to power up a device like beagle board /RasberryPi with a battery pack to run them for months in some remote location without power supply.
So I want to know what is the best way to achieve that.
Do I have to use UPS or connect series of battery packs in parallel.
or any other good techniques are present to run these smart devices for many months/years.
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Dear Suman,
I think it is not an option to simply use a battery or battery-pack big enough to do the trick as this would turn out to be very expensive.
Talking about months or years means at least 10.000 operating hours and even if your devices consume 1W only, this leads to 10 kWh storage plus battery management.
I'd suggest to use a battery good enough to power the devices for 100 hours or even less, supporting them using a small solar cell.
If battery voltage and solar cell voltage match, no complex charger is needed.
Proper power management will help to reduce power consumption, so consider disabling any functionality you do not use, especially wireless communication like Bluetooth or WLAN.
In case you can access other local power sources like small wind generator or even a small watercourse, things would get more complex - and more expensive - but may also contribute to standalone operation with no grid to connect to.
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A paper explaining assumptions and ways to model potential revenue streams to an energy storage battery system (at consumer-side behind the meter and utility-owned connected to the transmission grid)?
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Dear Rasik, do a search for the IEEE article Value Analysis of Battery Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems. regards Gerro
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I am working on supercapacitors and using NaOH as electrolyte but I am facing some problem while using NaOH electrolyte. Can anyone please tell me what are the other electrolyte I can use to check capacitive performance.
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The effect of the electrolyte on capacity is important. On the one hand, ion sizes are important, especially if you have porous electrodes.
Adsorption properties determine the capacity as well as possible faradaic surface reactions that can provide a pseudocapacity. The pseudocapacity is usually much larger (factor >5) than double layer capacity alone.
Ion mobility is an important factor for power density as well. Especially in porous electrodes, in which the ions have to travel to the bottom of the pores.
So the "best" electrolyte depends on a lot of factors. Another suggestion to the above ones would also be HCl, NaCl etc. but there are tons of possibilities and it really depends on your electrode (material, porous structure etc.).
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Hello all!
I want to measure galvanostatic charge/discharge responce of my flow battery system with 2 or 3 electrode. I used organic compound as an electroactive material. I could not be sure about how much current I should apply to my system. Any suggestion will be appreciated.
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What kind of rate do you want to use?  1C, 0.5C, 0.25C, etc...?  What is the estimated capacity of your battery?  What is the voltage range you expect to operate in?  This is what I did when I wasn't sure.
Do a CV scan in the range you want to charge/discharge in at some rate which is equivalent to the expected C rate.  What I mean is, lets say you want to charge/discharge at a 1C rate, so fully charge in an hour and fully discharge in an hour.  If your voltage window is 1V, take 1V/3600s and make your CV rate 1/3600 V/s or 1/3.6 mV/s.  Once your CV finishes integrate the charge from your starting potential to the upper voltage limit, and divide by the time it took to go from the starting voltage to the upper limit (in this case about 3600s).  That should give you a rough idea of what rate to use for your galvanostatic measurement.  
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Hi!
I have created in custom procedure using the most updated nova software and autolab PGSTAT302N for a vanadium redox flow battery. The program would run continuously for several days, taking charge-discharge data at different current densities.
My issue is that after several hours my data picks up noise and seems to be discharging. Once the procedure is halted, the voltage continues to fluctuate even with the electrodes unhooked.  I find if that the only way to fix the system is to shut it down for several hours.
Any chance someone knows what I am doing incorrectly? Below is an example of what I am experiencing.
Thank you so much.
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 I think it may be my carbon paper electrode. I chose a non-PTFE carbon electrode. This may impact the electrode stability (Vanadium redox flow batteries operate in 5M total sulfate). I have not yet found a resource claiming this to be the case, but I will be changing electrode regardless in the hope that this is the cause. I will update in case anyone ever runs into a similar problem.
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When charging Li ion battery using 1C current upto the maximum potential of 4.2V, is it important to hold at  that maximum cut-off potential for the battery to reach 100% SOC? If this is true, what dictates the SOC of li ion battery other than potential?
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This is a very interesting question and raises a fundamental issue. The question that is implied is “what do you (or for that matter, anyone) mean by a state of charge?”
As a practical matter, it means the stored charge relative to the maximum stored charge as determined under a predefined charging condition. The point is that a cell can accept different amounts of charge depending on the charging rate. Further, the maximum charge depends on the utilization of the active material that is the limiting reagent (i.e., the active material contained in the limiting electrode). Theoretically, 100% utilization of the active material would require that the cell be charged at infinitely low rate for infinite time. If that condition was actually met, then the cell would then achieve the true 100% state of charge. It is always interesting to compare the utilization of the active material relative to the charge that is actually stored. In a lead acid battery, when the cell is “fully charged,” the active material is about 50% utilized. Indeed, most of the active material merely occupies space and adds weight.
And to avoid oversimplifying the whole state of charge concept, there is the temperature dependence on the state of charge. That is, by varying the temperature, the active material utilization changes. Then there is the influence of current density but that implies an electrode design issue. There are also a number of other issues that can be rolled up into what is conveniently termed as an “aging effect.”
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Considering the flow through CDI process (capacitive desalination) for water purification, why the electrodes are more important than the electrolyte (spacer)? I think there are similarities between the CDI and batteries, so the electrolyte nature should play an important role for increasing the efficiency of the whole process. But according to my researches in this case, most of the scientists are working on the electrodes, why?
Do you have any experience of working on the electrolyte nature or not?
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السلام عليكم
I did not use this technology, but chemically speaking, you are correct, if I understand well, the electrode is soaked with the electrolyte which helps to carry on the ions of the processed solution through the microporous of the electrodes, and improve the movility of the electrolyte, so you will improve the rate of the process, but not its efficiency, as capacity of ionc removal, because de constraint is about the capacity of electrosorption and it only depends of the surface area of the electrode. Greetings.
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We have a battery smart charger and discharger that produces a very harmonic grid.
We use the capacitor bank but after few time the capacitor fails. 
Can anybody help me with a design filter?
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Sounds as if you need a choke-input filter, or at least some sort of inductive reactance at the filter input.  Also consider a metal oxide varistor across the filter input, to short out transient spikes. Thyristor/triac circuits generate spikes readily. And is the rated working voltage of your capacitors high enough?
What are the preliminary tests that should be done for electrode materials before using them in aqueous batteries?
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How can one choose the type and molarity of aqueous electrolytes that suit the electrodes? What are the preliminary tests that are involved?
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E-pH diagrams, Evan Diagrams and Tafel Plots can determine the molarity and type of aqueous electrolytes for specific electrodes.
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In a metal air battery, metal works as the anode while oxygen works as the cathode. What is the role of the catalyst then and how does it work in a metal air battery?
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The links provided above are definitely good starting points, but the idea of "facilitating" ORR and OER is complicated. It largely depends on the system that you are interested in and to some extent the electrolyte. In a typical cell the metal ion (ie. Li+, Na+) reacts with O2 at the oxygen electrode surface (here we call it an "oxygen electrode" since technically the "cathode" is O2) to produce a metal-oxide (superoxide, peroxide, hydroxide etc.). The metal-oxide that is produced exhibits varying levels of stability based on its environment, but is most commonly solid. That solid species is typically poorly conductive, so when it deposits on the electrode, it progressively covers active reaction sites. Introducing a catalyst to the oxygen electrode surface serves a few functions: 1) it reduces the overpotentials of ORR or OER so that the energy efficiency of the cell is better and 2) it may change the morphology or stoichiometry of  the metal-oxide product (usually making it more reversible). There are additional effects that are influenced by catalyst selection such as reducing electrode pore blocking and stabilizing reaction intermediates, but those are related to the points above. If you are interested in catalysts for Li-O2 systems, please take a look at some of my recent papers. Hope this helps!
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If I want to feed a load with higher instantaneous demand from a battery i.e. with high rate of discharge, then what are the things to be kept in mind while designing such a battery load system for higher instantaneous power demand. 
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High discharge and recharge rates may reduce the lifetime of the battery and increase its damage rate.
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I just need a device we can buy and include in circuit. Like if we are running a device with 12V from P.S, and that cuts off, it switches to battery.
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A 2-diode OR can do this work:)
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Hi everyone, could anyone advise on this? I wonder if polymer electrolyte is applicable to Lithium sulfur or Lithium air batteries because these are less studied and reported?
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Of cause, polymer eletrolyte can be applicable to Li-S battery and Li-air battery. You may find some papers (published in between 2000~2006 for Li-S and 2009~2011 for Li-air) on the use of Poly(ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte for Li air and Li sulfur batteries. However, for the two next generation batteries, major electrolyte issues are not on the immobilization of electrolyte phase (by employing polymer electolyte) but on whether electrolyte is compatible to sulfur and air electrochemistry. It could be answer to your inquiry. The reversibilities of sulfur and air are not enough for commercial applications, and therefore, the development of new electrolyte for enhanced reversibility is of critical importance. If one can explore new concept which addess the current problems of Li sulfur and air batteries with using new polymer electrolyte, it would attract interest.
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Support our effort to provide the island of Tilos with energy autonomy and develop the 1st ever smart island microgrid, challenging the performance of battery storage and interacting with a host grid #Horizon 2020 / LCE-08.
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Please specify your needs and the project scope you are asking for assistance.
Your project is very interesting but there are too many alternative paths for development based on demand appliances, etc.
Examine my website www.gbsepmt.com to learn what I can contribute.
You can also email me directly gbsepmt@gmail.com.
Sincerely,
Gerald Sheble
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I wonder what  makes them a proper electrolyte, and what are the current working mechanism models (designed ways of Li ion transfer) for these electrolytes?
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Hi,
it might be a bit late to answer your question! But, just so you know:
One of the advantages of implementing solid state electrolytes in Li batteries is achieving high level of safety since the electrolyte is no longer volatile which reduces the risk of catching fire especially in high operating temperatures. However, due to the very low ionic conductivity of electroactive ions in solid state electrolytes, they have not been of much interest for energy storage applications.
Instead, ionic liquid electrolytes, which are basically ionic compounds with very low melting point due to their over sized cations and/or anions, have been studied as electrolytes in lithium air batteries. These ionic liquid electrolytes have very low vapor pressure and are often non-flammable! Besides, they're still liquid at room temperature (RTILs) and therefore the ionic conductivity of electroactive species in RTILs will be high enough for energy storage applications especially with the help of organic additives.
For more information read this article (I have added the link to the publisher as well):
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2014, 118 (47), 27183-27192
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Can anyone guide me how to build a simple model of Redox flow battery in Simulink?
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i try
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I work on chem-e-cars and cannot find a good source to supply the required energy to launch the armature. In making chem-e-car, you cannot use a source of energy that pollutes the air with toxic gases or liquids and the source must not have an unpleasant effect on the environment. The purpose of this is that you must design a car with chemical materials that has the lowest unpleasant effect on the environment and helps us to have a better life on earth.
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Dear Arshiya Tehrani,
The problem is more complicated and even can not be resolved in the frames of traditional approaches.
To launch an armature, the battery supplies P=I2power, where I=U/(R+r) is the current, U - voltage, r is an internal resistance of battery and R is the resistance of armature winding. Simple estimations for U=5V and R=r=0.5 Ohm result in a launching power about P=12.5 W.
Unfortunately, the internal resistance of galvanic batteries is quite high, r~2 Ohm, and even more. The series connection of N galvanic 1.1 V cells increases battery voltage N-fold and, at the same time, increases the internal resistance (r) of battery N-fold too, which, in turn, constrains the current (I) according to formula above. To keep the internal resistance low (about 1 Ohm), we need at least 5x5 combined parallel-series connecting 1.1 V galvanic cells, to launch the 5 V armature. However, this amount of galvanic cells is probably non-transportable by the 12.5 W chem-e-car. That's why, to win in chem-e-car competition one needs to work out a new approach to the problem. 
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Faraday efficiency is defined as ratio of observed cell current to estimated theoretical current. I am looking for Faraday efficiency of various fuel cells.
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Faraday efficiency simply  is the ratio between the obtained electrons during the operation and the theoretical electrons liberated during the FC operation.
for example from the i t curve (area under curve) you can calculate the actual electrons produced and by the calculation of the No of moles consumed during the fuel cell operation you can calculate the maximum electrons could be obtained.
you can refer to the following refernce
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We are able to regain the battery active material from lithium ion batteries with a high yield and very purely (e.g. only 0.1% w/w of aluminum impurities). But as this process involves (potentially) the thermal decomposition of the PVDF binder, a sophisticated crushing process, and some other processes, it is not the cheapest possible process to realize in industrial scale.
How would you determine a reasonable price for LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 from spent lithium-ion batteries? Would a certain amount of LiF or maybe even LiPF6 and other F-compounds from the electrolyte result in a lower price in your scenario?
Thanks a lot in advance!
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The economic of LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 recovery depends on the cost of raw material of lithium ion batteries. Sometimes, the economic can not be directly evaluated as the need of lithium ion batteries treatment. Besides, the consumers pay some fee for the treatment.
What are the important details that could explain the performance of cathode materials in lithium ion batteries?
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What are the details that need to be considered while analyzing the performance of cathode materials?
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"Performance" can mean a lot of things. Usually, though, it means capacity and current performance. Specific capacity (mAh/g active material) is often cited in papers, and given at several different current densities (mA/cm2, mA/g, etc).   Speaking from an industry perspective, more useful performance numbers for end-users are Specific Energy (Wh/kg) and Energy Density (Wh/L), which combine capacity and current; and Specific Power (W/kg) and Power Density (W/L), which consider only power.  Other important "performance" metrics are cycle life and/or fade rate (i.e. how does mAh/g capacity fade with each cycle); and efficiency (i.e. different between charge and discharge capacity in same cycle, often a sign of uncontrolled SEI growth or some other side reaction.  Other less common, but equally important metrics to consider are safety (both during regular operation and abuse) and cost.  Safety is hard to quantify; there are a variety of US and EU testing protocols that can be applied to batteries, but if you're working with a bench-scale powder, those tests aren't compatible.  Cost can be estimated, but usually entails lots of assumptions for early-stage materials. Hope this helps!
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 Having read  papers on “Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries “ I cannot help but wonder why people have not considered The Intercalation Compound  Graphite Ferric Chloride as a suitable Cathode material.  I have a  back round in Graphite Intercalation Compounds and would appreciate understanding  why this material is not considered as a suitable Cathode material. This idea is not discussed in The Handbook of Batteries  by Linden and Reddy or in the book “Carbon” by Kim Kinoshita as possible Cathode material. Also, Internet searches yields no discussion of this question or investigative work.  I would very much appreciate any comments on this question. I am considering recommending that work be started to investigate this material as a suitable cathode material. I would appreciate any and all positive or negative comments on this question. 
F.J. Salzano
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Dear Francis,
I totally agree with Alexander and Indra, FeCl3-intercalated graphite would not be the wisest of choices. In my opinion you have to consider the following points:
-FeCl3 might be soluble in carbonate based electrolytes (I haven't checked the Carbon paper cited by Alexander at this time so I don't really know what did they use)
-the presence of FeCl3 might compromise stability of both electrolyte salt (generally LiPF6) and intercalated phase (Li+ might both attract Cl- or might compromise electrical stability due to the possibility of Fe reduction)
-consider solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation (are you familiar with this?): I suppose FeCl3 intercalated graphite has a bigger interplanar distance than Li+ intercalated graphite so what will happen to the electolyte when one reaches 1-0.7V?
-another issue: will an intercalated species intercalate something more? In other words: are crystalline sites still available for Li+ (take also into account electrostatic repulsion)?
- cathodic behavior might not be working at all since graphite intercalation takes place practically at 0-0.5 V vs Li+/Li so it acts almost as metallic Li. When you go, let's say to 3 to 4 V, graphite will not be active. You might not even have Fe oxidation because it starts already at +3 state (unless you discharge first and it is somehow reduced, hopefully not to metallic Fe, see comment n°2)
Hope this helps.
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Hi All,
I have been studying about galvanic cells related to my project and as there ar many term and titles in electrochemistry, I am confused about differences between these three terms for galvanic cell: OCP, Equilibrium potential, and Standard potential for cells.
Please help me through it, if possible, I would appreciate it. Thanks
Reza
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In a few words, these three potentials are:
  • Standard cell potential: the theoretical Nernst potential for a redox reaction, when the activities of all the reactants and products are one (hence standard)
  • Equilibrium potential: the potential of the cell taking into account the activities according to the Nernst equation
  • Open circuit potential: the experimental potential observed at zero current; it may show contribution from different processes, therefore it doesn't necessarily correspond to any fixed equilibrium potential value. Plus, it can change over time as the conditions in the cell change.
Any guide or book that teaches electrode process during electrochemical test?
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Need reference that can explains clearly about cycling voltammetry and charge discharge process in lithium ion batteries. 
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Bard
How many cycles should be done on lithium ion coin cell batteries?
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How many cycles are important? 
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For publication: 200 cycles are good enough to check the performance. For practical applications (industry) 2000 cycles, capacity should not drop below 80% of the initial value. If the material is new: 20-30 cycles are OK. I
How can I find C-rate for hybrid Li4Ti5O12- anode and Activated carbon-cathode batteries?
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I am preparing hybrid battery in which anode made by Li4Ti5O12 and cathode by activated carbon, and another electrode has mixture of both materials. But for  Electrochemical testing I need c-rate in terms of current, so how can I calculate from both materials? 
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From knowledge of the theoretical specific capacity of an electrode material, you can calculate the C rate in terms of current. using the following equation: Capsp(teoretical)= Ah/g A= Ampere, h=hour, g=grams of active material  Whence we have: (Capsp(teoretical) *g)/h = A C rate means that you want to have the theoretical capacity in 1 hour, then h=1. If you want to discharge the material at 2C rate means that you want to have the theoretical capacity in half hour (h = 0.5), this means that the electrode provides all its capacity in 1/2 hour and so on. (Capsp(teoretical) *g)/h = A In this equation you know the theoretical capacity, the grams of active material and assigning a value to h, you calculate the value of the discharge current (A) at xC rate.
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What is the difference between glass fiber membrane (e.g. Whatman GF/D) and PE membrane (e.g. Celgard 2400) in terms of wettability of electrolyte (e.g. 1M NaClO4 EC:PC=1:1V%).
Considering to adopt glass fiber membrane as the separator of anode and cathode in a sodium battery, is there any requirement about the  porosity, pore size and thickness of  the membrane?
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sometimes Celgard suffers bad performance,especially during cycles. 
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This may also be referred to as accelerated stress testing.
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Dear Usman,
maybe some of the data will be useful for you: http://venture.org.pl/leszek/fta/
Best
Leszek
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Dear Loïc,
The sup Info will be available soon, we just received the proof today, so I guess in couple of days everything will be online. For the intermediate phases our results were not fitting with the literature that is why we are doing ab-initio approached to understand why. This article will be also available soon.
Best
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1. (Exact) composition/metal of M in Toyota Prius battery pack or any other battery pack.
Do they use different Metals...
2. Electrolyte of the commercially available batteries
3. How to dispose/recycle old batteries 
4. Any links that I can get more information.
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Several lithium salts are very soluble in carbonates and the resulting conductivities of around 10 mS/cm are adequate for batteries. Also, some carbonates clearly decompose at carbon anodes to form useful SEI layers. Are these all the primary reasons for using carbonates or am I missing some other crucial property? Maybe their price is lower compared to other solvents that would perform just as well or better?
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Of course, price plays a role. Also, electrolyte should be liquid in the whole temperature range where the battery is intended to be used. For example, dimethyl carbonate melts at 2C, so it cannot be used alone, or the battery would freeze in winter.
As for SEI, it would be much better if electrolytes did not interact with electrodes at all. Unfortunately, they do, so formation of the good SEI layer is the best way to avoid further decomposition of the electrolyte.
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Nafion is widely studied for the application in fuel cell. There are a few publications reported the use of Nafion in Lithium battery and Sodium battery. Using Nafion in non-aqueous may create higher impedance to the cell due to bigger size of Lithium ion than proton. Is there any modification can be made to improve the cationic conductivity of Nafion other than proton?
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You are correct that Nafion is applicable in lithium batteries. The most common "modification" for Li cases is simple immersion in a Li-ion containing solution - at least based on what I have seen. When in non-aqueous environments, Nafion still functions, but as you said, conductivity will be lower (dependent on your solvent). There is some indication in the literature that Na and Li can degrade Nafion, but you will have to look for your specific purpose. I have also seen a separate product called LITHion, which is used for Li-ion conduction, so that may be of interest. I hope this helps.
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Any reference to theory and companies that offer services which have proven to be effective?
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It is known that some cathode materials for Na ion battery are synthesized and utilized for battery cathode. At the time of assembly these cathodes are free of sodium. An example is Fe2(MoO4)3 material.  
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Yes, can be considered as charged and after fabrication you need to discharge first.
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Is there any document including the real-world investment costs of utility scale energy storage systems?
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Dear Shahab,
I recommend you study the following paper. I have read it in detail for several times. Its data regarding Energy Storage Systems (ESS) would definitely be helpful for your research.
Regards,
Morteza Shabanzadeh
Why are the initial charge, discharge and irreversible capacities important for lithium ion batteries?
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Initial capacities giving important details of the electrochemical devices?
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Marcus' answer is very good. I would propose looking at this question from another perspective as well. First-cycle capacity loss for a full-cell Li-ion battery is typically associated with SEI (surface electrolyte interphase) formation at the anode. SEI formation is complex and still poorly understood for next generation anode materials. Some would argue that we still don't even understand SEI formation/morphology on graphite anodes, either. SEI serves a vital role for graphite anodes by forming an ionically conducting interphase between graphite and the electrolyte that suppresses further electrolyte decomposition. The key, I believe, is to understand if we need such an interphase for next generation anodes. And if we do, can we somehow engineer it to optimally do what we need it to without significant consumption of Li+ or electrolyte. Ideally it would be very thin, only occur upon the first cycle, conduct Li+ very well, not conduct e- and be uniformly deposited.
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We currently need to buy an ultrasonic metal welder for electric vehicle battery tab welding. The materials we need to weld are 2 layer of 0.2mm Al to 1.7mm Al extrusion, and 2 layer of 0.2mm Ni coated Cu to 1.7mm Al extrusion. We got some problem on the maximum power required for the welder.
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The oscillation frquency and the amplitude of the vibration are important parameters by the ultrasonic generator. Check the generator ouput watts  for the metal welding.
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This composite has good capacitance behavior due to it's high surface area. Hence, your suggestion is valuable for me to use these composite in a battery's application. 
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Do you mean Lithium ion batteries?
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a part of fundamentals.of.electrochemistry book :
When alternating current is used for the measurements, a transient state arises at the
electrode during each half-period, and the state attained in any half-period changes
to the opposite state during the next half-period. These changes are repeated according
to the ac frequency, and the system will be quasisteady on the whole (i.e., its
average state is time invariant).
For measurements, an ac component IIm sin ωt with the amplitude Im and angular
frequency ω (ω2πf, where f is the ac frequency) is passed through the electrode
(alone or in addition to a direct current). Alternating potential (polarization) changesΔE having the same frequency and an amplitude ΔEm are the response. Sometimes
alternating potential components are applied, and the resulting alternating current component
is measured. In all cases the potential changes are small in amplitude (10 mV).
For an electrode behaving like a pure (ohmic) resistance R, the relation between
the instantaneous values of current and the changes in potential at all times would be
ΔE/IΔEm /ImR. This is actually not found in real electrodes, but instead, a
phase shift α analoguous to that observed in electric circuits containing reactive elements
appears between alternating current and alternating polarization. In electrochemical
systems the potential changes always lag the current changes: ΔEΔEm
sin(ωtα), which corresponds to an electric circuit with capacitive elements. Thus,
the ac behavior of an electrode cannot be described in terms of a simple polarization
resistance R (even if variable) but only in terms of an impedance Z characterized by
two parameters: the modulus of impedance ZΔEm/Im and the phase shift α. The
reciprocal of impedance, Y1/Z, is known as admittance or ac conductance.
A model for the ac response of real electrodes is the simple electric equivalent circuit
consisting of a resistance Rs and capacitance Cs connected in series (Fig. 12.12a).
It follows from the rules for ac circuits that for this combination
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You can measure the battery impedance spectra and perform fitting them to the sutable equalent cirquit. You can obtaine the values of the circuit elements. They alow to evaluate the battery state of charge (SOC) and other battery paremeters.
How to prepare aqueous lithium batteries using carbon anode?
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Is it possible to prepare coin cell type aqueous lithum batteries? Any references for aqueous lithum battery preparation? 
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Most types of activated carbon will work as anode for aqueous systems.  But the capacity is usually quite low (~15-25mAh/g).  You need a lithiated cathode, such as LMO or LFP.  There's quite a few papers on this topic from the past 15 years.  Lastly I find pouch cells easier to make than coin cells for aqueous - can be done in a few minutes. 
What is a suitable electrolyte and anode for sodium batteries?
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Which type electrolytes can be used in coin cell fabrication? 
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EC:PC with NaPF6 seems to be the best but there's not strong consensus on this topic yet - many factors to consider.  Hard carbon is still pretty standard for the anode.
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I want to model a battery and a load. But the load should vary according to the time. Battery models is available in simulink and simscape. But how can be it connected to a variable resistor. In simpowersystem no variable resistor block is available. But in simscape the available variable resistor is cant be connected to the battery.
Or anyone can give me some inputs to model a variable resistor in matlab?
thanks in advance
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If I were you, I would use a MATLAB function instead of the resistor.
Greets
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See above
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Adil, I have seen this article the other day.
Power and Energy Control Strategies for a  Vanadium Redox Flow Battery and Wind Farm Combined System
F. Baccino, S. Grillo, M. Marinelli, S. Massucco and F. Silvestro, Members, IEEE
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Our group is currently conducting research on different rechargeable batteries, including Li-ion, Li-polymer and Ni-MH, to develop a robust battery management system for transportation applications. The first phase involves the development of a unique algorithm to accurately estimate the SOC of the above batteries using a modified EKF technique. We have been collecting data by cycling low-capacity batteries using different setups and now looking to add another system. If you have used any of the above systems and would like to share your experiences, please send us an email. I am also looking for a postdoc to carry out some experimental/theoretical work. Any interested person is encouraged to contact me.
Thanks in advance
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E-mail is fjsj@optonline.net. Be pleased to hear from you.
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Can anyone please explain the battery management system testing procedures or testing methods? Which are the procedures/methods that are practically done after getting the BMS.
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BMS consists of a few parts; monitoring SOC, monitoring health, balancing, etc. I believe every parts have its own testing procedure. For example, to test balancing we need to deliberately put one or more cells of the battery pack out of balance, only then the balancing should start.
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I have been thinking about a high-temperature thermite-reaction battery/fuel cell for some time. This attached papers appears to confirm that it's possible to mediate a thermite reaction via molten salt substrate.
Wondering whether it would be feasible to take this a step further and add electrodes. Thoughts?
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You are on the right track. The basic idea sounds like something Donald Sadoway (MIT) was doing for a while. His battery is metal-salt-metal, so it's a bit different from thermite, which would probably be oxide-salt-metal. These batteries are now being commercialized by Ambri, and they are aiming to have these to market in 2016.
Here's a popular-sci article about this:
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.
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You can use MMonCa for that:
Feel free to have a look at it at:
Regards
Ignacio.
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Okay, I am working on EMG controlled prosthetic arm with 5 active DoF and 5 Driven DOF. Designing an elbow, a wrist and 3 active fingers. All is done but I need help in choosing an appropriate battery.
Like how will I choose the battery and I want the battery to last for a day at least...
I read a few articles where they said lithium ion or lithium polymer batteries are being used for this purpose and battery needs to be recharged daily; however in certain cases it may last for 3 days or so...
Please can anyone suggest how to choose an appropriate battery according to the use of my design? I am using 3 feather servo motors and 2 other servo for elbow and wrist plus I have a small PCB for EMG acquisition and classification...
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Lithium-ion-polymer (LiPo) cells if you want high energy per battery weight (specific energy). Lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePo or LiFe) if you desire many hundreds of cycles (charge-discharge) and long calendar life of the battery and you accept lower specific energy. Any lithium-ion powered device need a battery protection circuit disallowing too deep discharges. Servo-driven RC models use LiPo/LiFe for many years. Please visit any RC webstore and take a look.
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To analyse different characteristics (temperature, charge/discharge voltage, internal resistance, current, etc.) of Lithium ion batteries which simulation methods are best?
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Dear M., You can build your own mathematical model using available equations (Li intercalation kinetics, current distribution, Li diffusion in electrolytes, particles, etc, in Matlab or similar - see literature below) or use COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3's LiB model which, with appropriate thermodynamic, physical and experimental data can be modified and simulated according to your system. Model equations: Doyle e al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 1996, Volume 143, Issue 6, Pages 1890-1903, doi: 10.1149/1.1836921 Kim et al., Journal of Power Sources 2011, Volume 196, Pages 5115–5121 Cai and White, L. Cai, Journal of Power Sources 2011, Volume 196, 5985–5989 COMSOL Li-ion battery simulation tutorials: Capacity Fade of a Li-ion Battery: http://goo.gl/w8TN4b 1D Isothermal Lithium-Ion Battery: http://goo.gl/p1DDAi 1D Lithium Ion Battery Model for Thermal Models: http://goo.gl/RE3zh1 Thermal Modeling of a Cylindrical Li-ion Battery in 3D: http://goo.gl/58i5lK Single Particle Model for a Lithium-Ion Battery: http://goo.gl/Sh0G3q Lithium-ion Battery with Multiple Active Materials in Electrodes: http://goo.gl/LrD3sa All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery: http://goo.gl/wO2SPW HOWEVER, due to the complex nature of the Li intercalation processes, available models do not completely describe occurring phenomena resulting not super-satisfying results. Hope it helps, Best & Cheers, R
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For example C10, C5, C20 batteries backup period are affected by the rate of charging and discharging current. A battery have a charging/ discharging current of 10 Ampere according to the manufacturer specification and it has a 10 hour backup. If we charge the battery at the rate of 15 Ampere, how will battery backup period decrease? How will this change at 20 Ampere?
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Hello Mr.Kumar.
It's strongly depends on the type the batteries,for example if it,s li-ion or li-polimer rate of charging can at 150% of nominal can warm the batteries and reduces the life cycle,and if you charge by more than 300% nominal amperage it could be explode(and i had experienced that during one of my works)but if the batteries is like lead acids,it damages the batteries faster,but you know that the nominal charging current of lead-acids usually is high.
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I am interested to work on Aluminium-Air batteries for energy storage, portable, and defense applications. Please provide your thoughts/views in terms of challenges and opportunities of Al-air batteries in future.
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Many top researchers in the field have said that metal-air battery technologies will have a very hard time to just MEET the performance of current Li-ion batteries. This is the case with Li-O2 batteries.
Stan Whittingham has commonly advised people to do a back of the envelope calculation of energy density for such systems, which shows little chance that they can improve beyond Li-ion.
Another important distinction should be made: These are not metal-"AIR" batteries, they are metal-O2 batteries. These systems cannot truly operate with ambient air, and would likely need extensive scrubbers or tanks of O2 to supply them. This makes them similar to a fuel cell or a gasoline engine, in that they would need to be charged up with oxygen gas.
I think there is a potential for niche applications, but many could question whether this is worth all the time and effort? I would like to see more sustainable battery technologies in the future, and some of these metals (sodium, aluminum, etc.) are more abundant and easily extracted from the environment. Replacing cobalt in current Li-ion technology is also very attractive from both a cost and environmental standpoint.
Hope this adds something useful to the discussion.
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See this google drawing I made to illustrate a hypothetical battery system where the equilibrium point (where battery is considered "dead") changes with temperature. <br /><br />
I am looking for battery chemistry where this shift is dramatic. Common/cheap battery chemistry preferred but exotic ones would be interesting as well. <br /><br />
Also, would take a suggestion for a good reference which provides experimental data on the dV curves as they relate to T for various battery reactions.<br /><br />
_________<br /><br />
In theory this shift would be dramatic in battery chemistries that have high entropy difference between product/reactants. I can think of some examples but interested to see what others think/know empirically.
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Dear Michael,
it seems me that "my novel" batteries based on hydrate of alkaline hydroxides or eutectic hydroxides (all under myself study) could be ibteresting for you.
Yurii Baikov
Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Petersburg
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As battery can maintain voltage level more accurately than capacitor.
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In general battery converts electric energy to chemical energy while capacitor converts the same into electrostatic energy to store energy. however the battery has relatively large energy capacity than a capacitor. This is what enables a battery to maintain the battery voltage longer than a capacitor.
On the other hand the chemical reactions in batteries are relatively very slow compared to the process of storing energy in a capacitor. Hence capacitors have higher current ratings than that of batteries. Moreover cost of battery with constant power rating is higher than that of a capacitor with the same power rating.
As a result in application where relatively low energy storage is require or when higher power rating is of more importance, capacitors would be utilized. Thus the decision should be taken based on intended application while considering the cost as well.
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My intention is to understand the surface energy of my electrode material based on the electrode potential/surface potential value.
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I analyze the surface energy in terms of the zeta potential values to an specific electrolyte using a SurPass electrokinetic analyzer for solid surfaces
regards
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Is it true that frequent step change in load current and charging the battery with step input current affects the battery life (lead acid battery life)? If yes, in what ways? And are there any relevant links or papers that I can refer to, to understand about this topic more deeply?
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Everything depends on the current rate which you are using, battery design and frequency (how many cycles). If we are speaking about standard flooded batteries than the higher current rate during cycling (step load change) will lead to longer cycle life time (considering constant Depths of Discharge). Very small current rate can lead to the ageing effect called sulfation which was already mentioned by Holger.
For the VRLA (Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid) batteries the current rate during charging is influencing the COC (Closed Oxygen Cycle) which is an exothermic effect and increases the battery temperature. If your current rate in this case will be too high than you can increase the battery temperature to the level that will harm the battery and decrease its life significantly.
I guess you have to study the ageing effects of the lead-acid batteries a bit. Afterwards you will definitely be able to answer all your questions by yourself.
If you have any further questions dont hesitate to ask.
I can recommend you the following literature:
1) D.Rand et al., „Valve-regulated Lead- Acid Batteries“, 1st Edition, Elsevier, 2004
2) G.Pilatowicz et al. "Simulation of SLI Lead-Acid Batteries for SoC, Aging and
Cranking Capability Prediction in Automotive Applications", JES, 159(9), A1410 (2012)
3) P. Ruetschi, "Aging mechanisms and service life of lead–acid batteries", JPS, 127, 33 (2004)
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.
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May I humbly add?
Sorry; I used an improper word (delayed) while concluding the answer:
What I wanted to convey was that the time taken for discharging was more than than charging because of clogging , Li2O2 it liberates O2 at a slower rate than the rate at which Li metal has reacted with the O2.
Please look in two graphs given on page 34 of the paper (click):
Prof. Dr. Petr Novák .... A. Débart, M. Holzapfel, P. Novák, and P. G. Bruce, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006 (128), p. 1390.
and then read as:
If we plot graphs between voltage and time both for charging (electrode withLi2O2) and discharging(electrode without Li2O2) ,time taken for discharging is more(1375m) than taken for charging(1250m) for the same volts loss(4.7-3.0=1.3V).
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The electrode material may be LiCoO2, Ni(OH)2, etc.
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It is very interesting concept, and actually some of the approaches have been taken for cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. For example, Prof. Manthiram's group (U. Texas at Austin) controlled morphology of primary particles of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based high voltage spinels. Similarly, many research group have tried to control the crystal morphology of olivine materials (e.g., LiMnPO4) to shorten the [010] diffusion length and thereby overcome the slow Li+ diffusion rate (due to its 1D characteristic). My general advice is that soft chemicals (i.e., polyanions) is much easier to control the morphology of primary particles compared with oxides; this is because oxides requires relatively high sintering temperature, where provided energy is high enough to rearrange the crystal morphology toward its own structural characteristic. In my best knowledge, wet chemistries (e.g., hydrothermal, sol-gel, polyol methods) have been useful to control the crystal morphology of nano materials.
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I am looking for some references which are needed to understand basic and fundamental aqueous lithium ion batteries.
Reading papers about case studies are too confusion for me at this point, I guess.
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You can check the following articles:
Lithium Insertion into Manganese Dioxide Electrode in MnO2 / Zn Aqueous Battery – Part I: A Preliminary Study
Journal of Power Sources, 130(1-2), 254-259
2004
Lithium Insertion into Manganese Dioxide Electrode in MnO2 / Zn Aqueous Battery – Part II: Comparison of the behavior of EMD and battery grade MnO2 in Zn| MnO2 |aqueous LiOH electrolyte
Journal of Power Sources, 138(1-2), 319-322
2004
Lithium Insertion into Manganese Dioxide Electrode in MnO2 / Zn Aqueous Battery – Part III: Electrochemical behaviour of γ-MnO2 in aqueous lithium hydroxide electrolyte Batteries
Journal of Power Sources, 153, 165-169
2006
Electrochemical behavior of Anatase TiO2 in aqueous lithium hydroxide electrolyte
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 36(5), 599-602
2006
Electrochemical behavior of LiFePO4 in aqueous solutions lithium hydroxide electrolyte
Key Engineering Materials, 320, 271-274
2006
A study of lithium insertion into MnO2 containing TiS2 additive a battery material in aqueous LiOH solution
Electrochimica Acta, 52(24), 7007-7013
2007
The effect of B4C addition to MnO2 in a cathode material for battery applications
Electrochimica Acta, 55(3), 1028–1033
2010
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I know, that there are some effects related to magnetohydrodynamics and can change internal resistances, but I'd like to know more about this matter
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If one considers a wet battery of the old fashioned type as a kind of plasma, with free ions in a background solution, then the addition of slowly varying magnetic fields to the battery will affect the resistance to current flow inside the battery itself, and thereby any external circuit you connect it to. In this case a magnetic field parallel to the direction of normal current flow has no effect. But if you put a magnetic field across this direction it will increase the resistance according to the "magnetization", a parameter (omega*tau) which measures the ion gyrofrequency (omega) times the collision time of the ion with other ions and the solution (tau). The resistance in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field will go something like (1 + omega*tau)^2. In the liquid state I would expect that tau is very small such that omega*tau is << 1 for most magnetic fields experience on earth. Thus, the magnetic field will have little influence since the ion dynamics is controlled by collisions and not magnetic fields. The clearest explanation of the physics of collisional plasmas is Braginskii's article from 1965 Rev Plasma Phys. 1, p. 205.
I hope this helps
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I know the bulk of the material is in the anode and cathode and that the electrolyte only makes up a small fraction of the total weight. I'm interested in a quantification of this.
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In the following links there are tables datailing the percent mass for each component in some types of Li-ion batteries currently used in vehicles:
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Is there anyone that could explain or show something about it in detail?
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Let's have a bilayer Ferro/Normal metal typicaly NiFe/Cu.Combining a fix strong field and RF ossillating transverse film you will induced a precession of the magnetization in the ferromagnetic film. This precession will induced a spin accumulation (imbalance of chemical potential for spin up and spin down) in the Cu thin film. This is Spin Pumping.
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Assuming a suitable weighing device.Listing out reasons would be helpful.
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The answer to this question was quite well given under the following link:
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Though it has a bandgap (which is unlike graphene) it has a good mobility advantage. Does anyone know of any firm (or high impact paper) reports of MoS2 used for supercapacitor application?
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There are some papers on MoS2 super capacitors.. ex: doi: 10.1149/1.2778851 from KP Loh's group...
and don't judge a paper by IF...
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I would like to prepare cathode material for lithium ion batteries. But in the process of slow evaporation it will precipitate. I need a viscous clear solution and can anyone clarify my doubt for choosing the best acidic and base medium for the synthesis of cathode material?
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What type of cathode material(s) are you looking at?...
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What are the latest challenges in lithium battery research, and do researchers feel that we have reached a mature stage in its development or is there still plenty of room to improve their energy density and lifespan?
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Vivek, I just found out that you have to save the download before reading it. Maybe that was the reason for failure.
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Or major different of these batteries with other types?
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Solar PV Electric PV Battery
Photovoltaic System Component
PV Batteries
Batteries accumulate excess energy created by your PV system and store it to be used at night or when there is no other energy input. Batteries can discharge rapidly and yield more current that the charging source can produce by itself, so pumps or motors can be run intermittently.
The battery's capacity for holding energy is rated in amp-hours: 1 amp delivered for 1 hour = 1-amp hour
Battery capacity is listed in amp hours at a given voltage, e.g. 220 amp-hours at 6 volts. Manufacturer's typically rate storage batteries at a 20-hour rate:
220 amp-hour battery will deliver 11 amps for 20 hrs
This rating is designed only as a means to compare different batteries to the same standard and is not to be taken as a performance guarantee. Batteries are electrochemical devices sensitive to climate, charge/discharge cycle history, temperature, and age. The performance of your battery depends on climate, location and usage patterns. For every 1.0 amp-hour you remove from your battery, you will need to pump about 1.25 amp-hours back in to return the battery to the same charge state of charge. This figure also varies with temperature, battery type and age.
Battery Types
Different chemicals can be combined to make batteries. Some combinations are low cost but low power also, others can store huge power at huge prices. Lead-acid batteries offer the best balance of capacity per dollar and it's a common battery used in stand-alone power systems. In this section we will cover lead-acid batteries, for information on other type of batteries, please visit the FAQ link above.
Lead-Acid Batteries - How They work
The lead-acid battery cell consists of positive and negative lead plates of different composition suspended in a sulfuric acid solution called electrolyte. When cells discharge, sulfur molecules from the electrolyte bond with the lead plates and releases electrons. When the cell recharges, excess electrons go back to the electrolyte. A battery develops voltage from this chemical reaction. Electricity is the flow of electrons.
In a typical lead-acid battery, the voltage is approximately 2 volts per cell regardless of cell size. Electricity flows from the battery as soon as there is a circuit between the positive and negative terminals. This happens when any load (appliance) that needs electricity is connected to the battery.
Good care and caution should be used at all times when handling a battery. Improper battery use can result in explosion. Read all documentation included with your battery in its entirety.
Wattage, Volts, Amps, etc.
Most electrical appliances in the United States are rated with wattage, a measure of energy consumption per unit of time. One watt delivered for one hour equals one watt-hour. Wattage is the product of current (amps) multiplied by voltage.
watt = amps x volt
One amp delivered at 120 volts is the same amount of wattage as 10 amps delivered 12 volts:
1 amp at 120 volts = 10 amps at 12 volts
Wattage is independent of voltage:
1 watt at 120 volts = 1 watt at 12 volts
To convert a battery's amp-hour capacity to watt-hours, multiply the amp-hours times the voltage. The product is watt-hours.
To figure out how much battery capacity it will require to run an appliance for a given time, multiply the appliance wattage times the number of hours it will run to yield the total watt-hours. Then divide by the battery voltage to get the amp hours.
For example, running a 60-watt lightbulb for one hour uses 60 watt-hours. If a 12-volt battery is running the light it will consume 5 amp-hours (60 watt-hours divided by 12 volts equals 5 amp-hours)
How big a battery do I need for a PV System?
Ideally, a battery bank should be sized to be able to store power for 5 days of autonomy during cloudy weather. If the battery bank is smaller than 3 day capacity, it is going to cycle deeply on a regular basis and the battery will have a shorter life. System size, individual needs and expectations will determine the best battery size for your system.
Please contact us and our engineers and consultants will be happy to assist you.
Battery Cycles
Batteries are rated according to their "cycles". Batteries can have shallow cycles between 10% to 15% of the battery's total capacity, or deep cycles up to 50% to 80%. Shallow-cycle batteries, as those for starting a car, are designed to deliver several hundred amperes for a few seconds, then the alternator takes over and the battery is quickly recharged. Deep-cycle batteries or the other hand, deliver a few amperes for hundreds of hours between charges. These two types of batteries are designed for different applications and should not be interchanged. Deep-cycle batteries are capable of many repeated deep cycles and are best suited for PV power systems.
Lead-Acid Battery Types
Starting Batteries - Shallow cycle automotive battery not suitable for Photovoltaic Systems.
RV or Marine "Deep-Cycle" - 12 volt batteries usually 80 and 160-amp hour capacity. A compromise between shallow and true deep cycle batteries. Life expectancy is about 2 to 3 years.
Lead-Calcium Batteries -Occasionally these shallow-cycle batteries recycled from the telephone company are used in remote power systems. At 400 pounds per 2 volt cell and cycle limited to 15% - 20%, these batteries are not recommended.
Sealed Batteries - These are liquid-tight batteries that can operate in any position without leaking acid. Because of the seal construction, you cannot check cell conditions with a hydrometer. Vents prevent pressure build-up in case of gassing. Recommended only for situations where hydrogen gassing during charging cannot be tolerated, or the battery is going to be moved a great deal, or to be fit in tight spaces. Require lower voltage charge controls. Most AGM batteries (absorbed glass mat) have a life expectancy of 2-5 years, and 5-10 years for higher quality Gel cell batteries. Most sealed batteries are AGM.
True Deep-Cycle Batteries - True deep-cycle batteries are specifically designed for energy storage and deep-cycle service. They tend to have larger and thicker plates as shown in the image above. Ideal for renewable energy systems, deep-cycle batteries withstand having a majority of their capacity used before being recharged and survive hundreds and even thousands of 80% cycles. It is recommended to use 50% as the normal maximum discharge and leave 30% for emergencies. Do not use the bottom 20%, the less deeply you cycle your battery, they longer it will last. Available in many sizes and types.
for Reference look for this product......
(PV System Battery
Deep-Cycle backup power
Made by Concorde Corporation)
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How can we enhance a LTE uplink network so that the UE's battery consumption will not be too affected?
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Hi,
try to read this paper, maybe it could be useful
A. Simonsson, A. Furuskär, Uplink Power Control in LTE - Overview and Performance, Subtitle: Principles and Benefits of Utilizing rather than Compensating for SINR Variations, IEEE 68th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2008-Fall)
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I do not understand the point of half cell measuring of cathode or anode materials before testing them in a full cell. Any explanations or suggested literature?
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Half-cell is measured normally against standard electrode with known potential at the condition of measurements. In that way, the half cell of the material we doing research, can be idealized. For instance:
Li+ + e --> Li (which is around 3.05 V versus NHE).
Now consider you have oxide material which can host the Li+ (intercalation or insertion)
MO + xLi+ + xe --> MLixO
The inserted lithium ideally, should be extracted, deintercalated in the oxidation process.
Say that you measure the potential of that material and it is 2.5 vs. Li/Li+
Then you know when you applying this material against other material (B) (in the cell not half-cell) which will be the cathode and the anode and you will know also the exact voltage of that cell. This material (B) is identified in smiliar way.
I suggest reading the Electrochemical methods. Fundamentals and applications (2ed., Wiley, 2001) by Bard A.J., Faulkner L.R. , or any other available reference of electrochemistry.
I hope this can help.
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Actually I want to know for electrolytic manganese dioxide, battery material for the use in rechargeable Zn-alkaline battery applications (KOH/LiOH electrolyte) what should be the minimum charge-discharge cycles.
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should be unlimited, more are better.
But normally Zn based battery is very difficult do recharge due formation of ZnO
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I would like to hear your opinion about the optimal geometry of electrochemical cells suitable for in-situ XRD; in order to observe phase transition of electrode materials during charge/discharge.
1. Some group utilize pouch-type cells but wonders if Cu-Ka XRD source is strong enough to penetrate the pouch and can obtain good signal/noise ratio using such laboratory XRD. If not, what XRD source will be optimal for deeper penetration?
2. Is there any commercial in-situ electrochemical cells which I can purchase for this purpose?
I will thank any of your suggestions/advices.
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Hello,
there are commercially available cells from the company "EL-CELL" in Germany (Link below). However, in the as-delivered condition they are not useful in my experience, as they provide a "window" which is way to thick for x-ray penetration. Maybe you can try to modify/improve them. What I found in literature (although i dont't recall the references) is as follows:
  • Transmission and reflection geometries have been constructed.
  • Transmission measurements were done with a synchrotron source
  • For the reflection geometry, it may be possible to replace the metal current collector (which is the may attenuation) with polymer sheet that was metallized with a thin film of Cu or Al (depending on the electrode).
  • Check out the works of Petr Novak and his group at the PSI (this may give some ideas) and also the links below
regards, Alfred
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What's the mathematical/physical expression of the certain force?
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I think electric field, with applying a potential difference between two electrodes.
It lies in eletrochemistry field.
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The cathode of a lithium ion battery is a composite fim, which is composed of active material (ex. LiCoO2), conductive particle (ex. Acetylene black) and binder (ex. PVDF). Herein, if I want to know the spatial distribution of PVDF along the depth direction in a cathode composite film, which method can be used? 
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In this system, the size of actuve material particle is ~10um, and the film thickness is less than 100um. So it is important to measure large area of the film for analyzing averaged depth profile of PVDF on large area. Is it possible to analyze large area of the sample (larger than 100's um x 100's um) by using Auger electron microprobe?
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The specific theoretical capacity of titanium dioxide is 330 mAh/g. If we are using titanium dioxide nanotubes of amorphous and anatase phase in Lithium Ion Battery. Can I use theoretical specific capacity 330 mAh/g when I am measuring cycling performance of amorphous or anatase phase containing titanium dioxide nanotube arrays as anode material in button cell?
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Hello,
The theoretical capacity of 330 mAh/g is related to the formation of a Li1TiO2 phase you will read in the literature that for anatase this phase is thermodynamically not suitable unless your anatase particles are arround 10 nm or smaller. So to be able to get higher capacity with anatase the primary particle size should be very small. Then you will also find in literature that amorphous TiO2 present very high capacity. Howver the storing mechanism completely differ from the latices insertion mechanism occurring in anatase. So by having a combination of nanosized anatase crystal and huge amount of amorphous phase you might reach high capacity. However the difference in mechanism coupled with the huge parasitic "surface effect" occurring in amorphous phase might result in low capacity retention upon cycling.
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I studied in electrode for Lithium Ion battery prepared via sol gel method. After calcination of the powder, by using FTIR, OH band was appear in the spectrum. Its -OH band will effect the performance of litiun ion battery?
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The Group IA metals pick up water to form OH bonds very easily. I think that the technique that Richard suggests is a reasonable one. However, I would suspect that the humidity is high where you are doing the experiments. This means that calcining should be done under vacuum conditions and the transfer of material should be with minimal exposure, probably under argon.
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We measured a charge-voltage-curve and get the characteristic one for a single step charging reaction.
What could be a scientific way to determine the voltage boundaries for our material?
Up to now we use a threshold of the slope. If the slope gets above a certain limit, we define this as our voltage boundaries.
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To get the largest battery capacity for a given material, the charging voltage should be as high as possible, and the discharge voltage as low as possible. The limits are given by the stability of the materials: voltage ranges that deteriorate your materials including the electrolyte must be avoided. Do you have any indication of processes others than the desired one in charge-voltage-curves with an extended voltage range? If so, try to determine the onset voltage of these processes from your curve. If possible, find out what these processes are (electrolyte decomposition, phase transition, dissolution … ?), and how serious they affect the performance of your battery. In some cases, points of inflection of the charge-voltage-curve might be used as potential limit, but there is no general rule here, because it strongly depends on how fast and how destructive the secondary processes are. In addition, it depends on the research goals. To demonstrate the capacity limits of a material (e.g. for comparison with the theoretical capacity), it can be acceptable to use a larger voltage range, accepting faster degradation and limited cyclability. A better approach than that is to consider procedures like constant current followed by constant potential to avoid destructive potentials and to get full charge and discharge anyway. To demonstrate cyclability, you need to optimize your potential limit, and the best way to demonstrate the best limits is often to run several identical cells with different limits.
To sum up: Good scientific ways to find the voltage boundaries include (amongst others): (a) To do test series: cycle identical batteries with different limits. (b) To identify the stability limits by identifying the degradation processes, their impact and their onset voltages.
The threshold of the slope can depend on the current used and seems kind of arbitrary to me, but maybe there are good reasons (previous experience and limited amount of material and time) to use it for your paticular kind of systems.
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For the lithium battery test : My sample add in the PVDF 5%, and then slip casting on the copper or aluminium show the picture. I do not know why. Perhaps the binder is not very viscous.
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Dear Moonyoung. 
First of all, what is a solid to solvent ration of your suspension? It seem like you have to many solvent. The second problem I see is a large species of your active material. Try to decrease the particle size. It can improve the quality and homogeneity of the suspension. What is the solvent you use? Do you use some surfactant agent in order to improve the sticking of the slurry to the Cu/Al?
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The charge density at OHP moves relative to stable metal charge density under the applied pressure attributed to streaming current.
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Streaming current is a very inefficient way of generating energy. In order to generate an appreciable current, you have to use very diluted electrolytes (e.g. 0.1 M). It is only the charge density at the slip layer that counts, and even with very narrow pores, this accounts only for a tiny fraction of the whole electrolyte volume. You should compare this to the charge density in battery materials that is measured in tens of M.
It will be much more efficient to convert the volume flow to electricity in a turbine
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Lithium intercalates well in silicon and the integrity of the electrode is maintained even after several charge/discharge cycles but does lithium metal react with extremely dry fumed/pyrogenic silica.
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 Salam alaikum, Dear and brother Salman Sultan.                                                                  I do not know if these references will help you or not. these are about lithium react with silica. I hope you will find useful these references.
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Oxygen coalescence will separate the anode from the electrolyte, resulting in an increase of charging voltage, thus a current efficiency reduction-Rechargeable zinc-air battery.
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I have not dealt with this problem, but from fluids basics, anything that can modify the surface wettability or bubble stabilization will have an effect.
The more electrolyte-philic the surface, the better off you are. Not sure what you can do to achieve that in zinc-air system. I'm guessing you evolve oxygen when you plate out fresh zinc, which means you are limited for options with regards to surface coating. You can try surfactants that would improve the wettability, but that brings up  point two.
You want the bubbles as unstable as possible -- the sooner they coalesce into bigger and more buoyant bubbles, the faster they will leave the surface. Because of this, additional surfactants are a double edged sword, since while it can make zinc more wettable, it will also stabilize the bubbles.
Surface structure could also go a long way to govern the bubble behavior. The notorious zinc dendrite formation, even if limited, could have a big effect. This could be the easiest phenomenon to verify, since you can play with charging regimes with no change to your system and see what it does.
Sorry i cannot offer anything more specific to your problem. Best of luck.
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As we already know-KALMAN FILTER etc.
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State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filtering
What is distribution relaxation time and what is its significance?
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What is the role of relaxation time in dielectric analysis?
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Very briefly: the simples system with exponential decay can be desicrbed by a single relaxation time. That would produce a semicircular Cole-Cole plot (e' vs. e"). Th practically measured plots usually deviate form this ideal picture. (They can be more or less precisely described by the Havriliak-Negami expression with two more shape parameters, which have no direct pysical meaning). There are other approximations, such as the "stretched exponential" or William-Watts fuction and seveal other relaxation models that predict non-exponential decay. Some of these have parameters that have physical significance (in terms of the model used). Formally non -Debye responses can be described by a relaxation time distribution which, by itself also does not have physical sigificance. In some cases the temperature dependence of the relaxation time can be described by the Arrhenius relation. In this case if the preexponantial factor shows distribution the temperatute dependent dielectirc spectra can be converted into frequency dependent ones onr vice versa. (Provided of course that the temperature dependence of the limitin permittivities are negligible or known). If the activation energy shows distribution, the material is tehrmoreheologically complex, the transformation described avove cannot be done. The activatin energy distribtuion can be studied by the moethod of thremostimulated currents. (See: the books of J. Van Turnhout and Ptere Hedvig).
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LiFePO4 conductivity.
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yes of course carbon coating can improve its conductivity, though its not very significant technique to improve electronic conductivity of LiFePO4. You can read this article to understand "how to improve electronic conductivity"
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The electrochemical, catalytic and electrocatalytic properties of Nonstoichiometric MnO2 depend upon their defect structure , the concentration of defects/unit area and the nature of cations present as dopants in their intersties.
MnO2 can exist in six types of polymorphs- hollandite( α -MnO2), pyrolusite(β MnO2), ramsdellite(γ-MnO2), romanechite(δ-MnO2),hexagonal( ε-MnO2) and todorokite.They are put to the specific uses. Of these MnO2 crystal stuctures, the one called γ- MnO2 having ramsdellite(JCPDF 82-2169) structure and containing Co(II) ions as dopants has been used in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) .
It can be prepared by electrodeposition using Pt anode in 0.2M/L HF containg 0.7M/L MnSO4. Co(II) ions acting as dopant can be introduced by the additon of 0.001-0.1M/L using a constant current density of 1-6 A dm^-2 at room temperature by using a steel plate( 1CH18N10) as cathode.The precipitated deposit was filtered off(Shotta filter paper) and dried in air at 80-90C for one hour.
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I would like to specify my question further :
1. What I mean "Li ion transport" is refer to a single ion behavior(not a statistical concept);
2. Both Chemical potential and concentration gradient should be terms describing a system;
2a. Is it possible for chemical potential to describe a solid state system while the internal energy and volume could change?
2b. What's the differences of chemical potential term in solid and liquid/gas?
3. Is there a build-in electric field in electrodes? To what extent it could influence ion transport compared with chemical potential?
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By the way, your using the term cathode follows some papers (even with big names in the author list) in the literature, but it is inappropriate because both the positive and negative electrodes in a rechargeable battery can be a cathode depending on if the battery is under charging or discharging. The notions of anode and cathode are only correct for primary batteries and electrolysers. Further, if you are careful, you should have noticed that commercial manufacturers of batteries do not use the "cathode and anode" notions. They only use positive electrode (terminal) and negative electrode (terminal).
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I have developed solar PV with MPPT booster converter blocks in matlab. I would like to develop one charge controller for connecting a battery in that. I am bit confused, which type power converter (DC/DC-buck or buck boost converter) is better? Also any ideas about developing charge controller model in matlab?
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I guess its depends on the battery that you want to use as a load/storage. Type of DC/DC converter will be very much relies on your MPPT output voltage range and the battery voltage. If your MPPT delivers very low voltage while your battery is at higher voltage, then definitely boost, buck-boost or sepic (perhaps) is your best bet.
And oh, BTW, some battery are very sensitive to ranges of voltage (e.g. Lithium based) while some other are not (e.g. Lead Acid).
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On page A49-fig. 8 of this article, "Analysis on cycle-life performance of ALB with three-electrode" has been done. When you measure the cycle-life performance of the "full cell" with 3 electrodes, what are the working and auxiliary electrodes? I know how to record just anode or cathode cycle life performance in a 3 electrode test setting, for example if you test the anode (working electrode), the cathode will be the counter electrode, and the reference will be 3rd. But can somebody define the electrodes in the full cell cycle-life performance test please?
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It was illustrated in Figure-1. So you need two channels for the experiment....
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Batteries have been used for ages to power different types of appliances. Man cannot imagine life without batteries. The battery technology is bound to take a big leap in the future as scientists become more concerned with environmental issues. The major improvement aspects that the scientists are now considering include mobility, lifespan and efficiency.
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Researchers from Rice University, based in Houston, USA, claim the nanoribbons (consisting of a foam-like graphene lattice filled with vanadium oxide) can be used to make high-performance cathodes that capitalise on graphene’s excellent conductivity and vanadium’s ability to store lithium.This combination imbues the cathode with both high energy and high power density. Depending on their intended purpose, energy storage devices normally have only one of these two different properties, offering either long operation time or rapid energy dispensing. Li-ion batteries’ high energy density makes them perfect for smartphones, but slow ion and electron diffusion has previously hindered their use in applications such as electric vehicles that require a high power density. The Rice team claims that its nanoribbons could be used to improve the design of high power Li-ion batteries, as their structure allows fast diffusion of both lithium ions and electrons. The method makes use of the basic properties of both materials and the fact that they consist of atomically thin layers, says Dr Robert Vajtai, Faculty Fellow at Rice’s Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science. ‘One of the advantageous properties of these materials is electronic. Sometimes it is catalytic, but often it’s for energy storage devices because they need a very high surface area. These materials, being only a few atoms thick, naturally have the highest surface area that you can make.’ The thin nature of the nanoribbons provides a short solid-state diffusion length for the lithium, something that Vajtai claims improves on current cathode materials. He explains that the 10nm thickness combined with the small pore size (one micron or less), ‘means that all the lithium ions that you bring into the vanadium oxide only need to travel a very short distance inside the electrolyte, increasing the speed of the device.’ Although vanadium pentoxide has previously been used for lithium-based energy storage, its initial promise as an electrode material was limited by its low electrical conductivity. Vajtai says that this was because the material was being used in macroscopic crystal form, a structure that differs dramatically in thickness and porosity. ‘Even a millimetre is really large compared to our nanostructure [which measures 10nm across], so if you have one Li-ion, it needs to travel 100,000 times further to charge or discharge that layer’
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EMD(Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide) is obtained by anodic deposition of manganese sulphate solution. It is widly used as a cathode material in alkaline batteries.
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Dear Mr Biswal, maybe you can apply it to pH measures. There are some papers that describe the using of metal oxides for potentiometric sensors, specifically pH. ISFET is based on metal oxide. Electronic nose uses metal oxides too. Then, it is possible apply it for gas sensor. However, the theory is a guide, but the practical, decides. You have to test.
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We are preparing some electrolytes for non Li batteries and we want to test the electrochemical windows of them with 3-electrode cells. In all the publications are described the materials used and the parameters adopted for the cyclic voltammetry, but even if I've tried to prepare such kind of cell, I obtained no results. Could someone give me a scheme of such kind of cells or some information about the things I have to keep in mind for making such cells?
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I would use an inert working electrode (platinum foil or carbon plate), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, and a platinum foil counter/auxiliary electrode. Be sure to place the reference electrode and the working electrode as close together as possible and the counter/auxiliary electrode as far from them as possible. Then set up a voltammetry experiment: 0 V vs Ag/AgCl to 0.8 V, then keep increasing the positive potential until you observe a large increase in current- positive limit of your electrolyte. Then do the same for the negative potentials. You can easily use 10 mV/s with such electrodes. I am assuming that these are aqueous electrolytes. If not, please state their composition, as the reference electrode might change.
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So far I haven't seen any reliable binder-free 3D cathode materials for Li-ion batteries, which can be cycled for more than 100 cycles.
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I do agree with the Wei Wei comment
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I mean to say that can we store solar energy in some other simple and durable system other than batteries.
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You can always store solar electricity indefinitely as hydrogen (which is an energy carrier rather than an energy storage medium) using a hydrogen system (water electrolyzer, hydrogen storage, and fuel cell). However, the cost is very high and the efficiency (defined here as the output electric power from the hydrogen system to the input electric power into the hydrogen system) is still low for most hydrogen systems (about 90% for electrolyzer, 95% for storage, and 50% for fuel cell)..
Modern batteries (especially Li-ion) are proving to be more efficient and durable everyday. So unless you plan on storing very large quantities of solar electricity for your research, I would recommend batteries. If things are not very clear, then the only choice becomes conducting a thermoeconomic comparison between your different storage alternatives..
I hope this helps!
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Could anyone tell me if I can do galvanostatic charging/discharging test by using "Epsilon instrument"? I tried to do it by using chronopotentiometry tool but I feel that something is wrong.
This instrument can do only two galvanostatic modes: chronopotentiometry and double step chronopotentiometry.
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In fact, it sounds as if something is wrong with your potentiostat / galvanostat system. Try to check this by using an equivalent circuit, use a very big capacitor and a large ohmic resistance to charge/discharge this capacitor with your galvanostatic mode of the system. If the output is correct, then the problem should be somewhere else. Usually, you should have obtained some equivalent circuits with your system, at least we got some with all of our potentiostats (EcoLab, PAR, ...). But it is quite easy to solder some realistic circuits ! Good luck, Dirk
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A team of Harvard scientists and engineers has demonstrated a new type of battery that could fundamentally transform the way electricity is stored on the grid, making power from renewable energy sources such as wind and sun far more economical and reliable, as reported two days ago in Nature (January 9th, 2014).
The Harvard team reports that the battery, which they say can be applied on a power-grid scale, uses naturally abundant and small organic compounds called quinones rather than electrocatalysts from costly precious metals such as platinum.
Quinones would be inexpensive to obtain and can be found in green plants or synthesized from crude oil. The battery designed by Harvard scientists and engineers used a quinone molecule that's almost identical to one that's found in rhubarb. The quinones in the Harvard team's battery are dissolved in water, which also prevents them from catching fire. These hydroquinones would perform a similar function to metal electrocatalysts such as platinum, because the molecules can store electrical energy efficiently.
My question: Can this new discovery of organic battery be cheap renewable energy solution? Your comments are welcome
For more info, see:
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Hello,
we did a lot of work on quinone battery systems in the 1970th. It works, but the voltages are too low for application. Practical use might need at least 2 Volt per cell. You can see my work on my profile in Google Scholar. Would like to hear from your work in the future. Regards
Reinhard
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In regarding to use of Nb2O5 in lithium ion batteries.
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Dear Rasu
In Nb2O5, like other semiconductors, the concentration of charge carriers is
directly related to the defect structure of the metal oxide which is dependent on
temperature and oxygen pressure. Greener et al. conducted a detailed analysis of  the relation between conductivity of α-Nb2O5 (monoclinic) and temperature under ambient oxygen pressure [1]. They showed that an increase in temperature and decrease in oxygen partial pressure increased the conductivity of α-Nb2O5. These results are in excellent agreement with the measurements by Kofstad and Chen et al. [2, 3]. 
 The structural changes of the Nb2O5 cathodes which are caused by discharging and recharging were investigated using Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis methods [4,5]. They suggested that tetragonal-Nb2O5 exhibited the best cycling performance with a large discharge capacity of 190 mAh g–1 for up to 30 cycles. XRD analysis suggested that the orthorhombic- and tetragonal-Nb2O5 maintain their original crystal lattices, accompanying a small change in the cell volume even after the Li+
intercalation. However, the two-dimensional layered structure of tetragonal-Nb2O5 was suggested to be the best for accommodating a large concentration of the intercalating ions [5].
[1] E. H. Greener, D. H. Whitmore, and M. E. Fine, "Electrical conductivity of
near‐stoichiometric α‐Nb2O5," The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 34, pp.
1017-1023, 1961.
[2] P. Kofstad, "Studies electrical conductivity of Nb2O5 as a function of oxygen
pressure at 600-1200 degrees C," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids,
vol. 23, p. 1571, 1962.
[3] W. K. Chen and R. A. Swalin, "Studies on the defect structure of α-Nb2O5,"
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 27, pp. 57-64, 1966.
[4] N. Kumagai, K. Tanno, T. Nakajima, and N. Watanabe, "Structural-changes
of Nb2O5 and V2O5 as rechargeable cathodes for lithium battery,"
Electrochimica Acta, vol. 28, pp. 17-22, 1983.
[5] R. Kodama, Y. Terada, I. Nakai, S. Komaba, and N. Kumagai,
"Electrochemical and in situ XAFS-XRD investigation of Nb2O5 for
rechargeable lithium batteries," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol.
153, pp. A583-A588, 2006.