Science topic

Attitude - Science topic

An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Questions related to Attitude
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The research is part of my present project.
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Yes! Childbirth Connection, a US-based NPO, surveys moms annually about their childbirth experiences. Their reports, "Listening to Mothers," might be a good place to start: http://www.childbirthconnection.org/article.asp?ClickedLink=205&ck=10068&area=2. Good luck!
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what statistical analysis would i have to use to find out out if increasing knowledge influences an individual's attitude towards physical and intellectual disability if i am using pretest and protest for both my knowledge scale and attitudes scale? and i'm also trying to find out if contact also has an influence on people's attitude towards physical and intellectual disability
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Hello Farwa, the theoretical formulations of regression and Anova are quite different . They are indeed opposite. While regression analysis computes relationships, Anova computes differences. In short, Anova is used for making comparisons whereas regression is used for computing strength of relationships.
So I will go with the suggestion made by Chukwuma.
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- work attitude, work ethics, etc.
- relationships (with bosses and colleagues)
- turnover rate (loyalty)
- other aspects...
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Overall, the millennials may be considered as persons aged between 15 & 40 years old. In other words, this is the generation which came after our generation & will take over the responsibility from us "the senior generation" very soon.
Of course, there are differences between generations with regard to attitudes, ethics, relationships, loyalty…etc.
As a recent retired person "who moved to part time work temporarily" , a big question (similar to yours) came to my mind with regard to the effectiveness of the young generation in shouldering the huge duties that we are leaving for them. Are they trustworthy or not?
I shall write my anticipation as a hint. There are enemies who would like to see our universities turning into high schools & getting rid of the experienced old staff, as early as possible, can help in arriving at that goal. The enemies are predicted to win the game, unfortunately.
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As a researcher, how can you put these answers and explain them in your results ? Please, any suggestions.
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If all the respodents answered 'neither' you might want to re-think your question formulation. Maybe there something in it that does not register, so respodents fail to pick up on the attitude nuance you want to evaluate them for. 'Neither' is the easy way out for 'I did not understand'. You could also switch to a more fine-grained likert. I know 3, 5 or 7 likert is the standard, but if that 'neither' response bickers you, go with an even scale (say 6) forcing answers away from a default average. Alternatively, you could eliminate the nominal tags on the scale. Numerical thinking is less prone to default logic biases. Add cross-valuation questions, i.e. the same question formulated differently and check whether responses were consistent. If a question gets a 'neither' response but its cross-valuation counterpart gets a different one, it's more likely that the original question did not register. Of course, any on these thing would mean you would have to run your data collection again.That's why it's useful to pilot your questionnaires, you get to streamline your tool against such issues before you commit to an analysis.
If you are not in a position to collect data again and you have to analyze the data you already have, you could a) treat the answer as a legitimate response, i.e. that the subjects were indifferent as regard to the question; b) omit the question from analysis; c) normalize 'neither' responses towards an average calcualted from responses to similar questions.
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In the regression analysis of my research data on SPSS one variable yields a negative standardized coefficients beta value of -.089 I havr five independent varibles and one dependent variable which is Green Purchasing Intention. The only negative beta value is for Attitude Towards Green Brands. How can I interpret this negative value in hypothesis testing. This is my first research. Thank you in advance.
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Ette
I am sorry but estimate/ standard error is answering a different question than effect size - If I collect a large enough sample size any effect will be significant no matter how trivial. On a scale of -1 to +1 -0.089 appears small to me
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Stats help! My experiment has two groups: a familiar brand group vs. an unfamiliar brand group. In the familiar brand group, I measured participants' pre-existing brand attitudes. Then I divided the familiar brand group into two: (favorable pre-existing attitude group and unfavorable pre-existing attitude group) through median split. Finally, I compared the following three groups: 1) unfamiliar brand group, 2) favorable pre-existing attitude group, and 3) unfavorable pre-existing attitude group. Reviewers say I cannot do the median split but need to treat pre-existing brand attitude as a moderator using PROCESS MACRO. However, in my view, pre-existing brand attitude is not a real moderator because I did not even measure this variable for the unfamiliar brand group (this variable is not applied to the group). Thoughts?
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As Yang Feng has pointed out, pre-existing brand attitude has not been measured for anyone in the Unfamiliar Brand group. So I think that a single analysis using the pre-existing brand attitude scores as a variable is not going to work.
What is the dependent variable? And what is the research question (in words)? Would it make sense to carry out a two-stage analysis as follows?
  1. ANOVA or t-test comparing Unfamiliar & Familiar brand groups.
  2. Linear regression model (using the Familiar group only) with X = pre-existing brand attitude and Y = the DV (whatever it is). (Inspect the scatter-plot to see if there is any suggestion that functional relationship is non-linear. If it is, you may need to include some polynomial terms.)
HTH.
Should a paternalistic attitude be shown by the doctor to the patient for disclosure of diagnosis?
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A cancer diagnosis is always a bad news and in some places the doctors withhold this information form the patient to avoid or decrease patient suffering(paternalistic attitude). Kindly tell what your role is (i.e. oncologist, psychiatrist, patient, relative of patient, researcher, unrelated) followed by your take on the question based on your experiences.
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I am an oncologist in Argentina and usually I adapt my conduct to the patients psychological profile. This means that if I get to the conclusion that he or she can take it, I tell the patient the diagnosis Otherwise I tell it to the family. My attitude is slightly paternalistic.
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More and more, in business, we have to deal with selfish, arrogant clients who always ask for more whitout giving nothing, does not care their providers and don't hesitate to fire them as a paper handkeshift.
The ain of this project is to understant midle and long term consequences of this attitude competitiveness of the firm managed like that.
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Perhaps Bob Sutton's new book "The Asshole Survival Guide: How to Deal with People Who Treat You Like Dirt" could be useful in thinking about this question?
Do you know any studies about the (German) constitution and its relation to (German) citizens/students [knowledge, attitude, identification]?
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Hi there I particularly look for studies about the German Grundgesetz, but would also be interested in research related to other countries' constitutions. Especially studies about the knowledge of the constitution, the citizens' attitude toward the constitution and the citizens' identification with it would be helpful. It should mainly show results about students of (public) schools. Thank you so much for your help! Philipp
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Google answers positively - there are some - I suppose in Germany
Do we have any term for referring to how much a person cares about risk management in his/her projects?
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I try to explain what I have in my mind using an example: There are two people (let them be A and B) and we assign the same project to both of them. A takes 20 risk management decisions while doing the project, while B just takes 5 risk management decisions in his/her work. My question is do we have any specific term which refers to this concept? I'm not sure, but is this their "risk perception" showing up here? Their "risk behavior"? Their "risk attitude"? Or something else?
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Hi Mohammad. I suggest the suitable term in your example is risk awareness. If a person aware about risk then he will be more concern in considering any related risk in their project
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Hi!
I am working on a confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the model fit of my proposed construct (I work with Amos).
I have 27 items of a questionnaire which stand for a psychological attitude. The attached document shows the structure of how the attitude is formed.
I get a decent model fit (using CFI, SRMR and RMSEA) and also nice fator loadings.
As the model can obviously be calculated in AMOS, have I done the modellation the "right" way or did I miss a certain point or did I draw the model wrong?
Many thanks in advance for your help!
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Hello, i’m analizing!
In what ways might we measure risk-taking ina social experiment?
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Hello. Our team is running a social experiment where four individuals have ten minutes to come a consensus on an ill-defined financial problem that simulates a typial real-world scenario in a aparticular industry. How might we measure the group's risk attitude? There is no optimal answer. What we are looking for is a valid, relable, way of ideintifying how risk averse (or vice-versa) a group's decision is. Many thanks.
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There is a single-item measure used in the German Socio-Economic Panel that just asks people how willing they are to take risks in general that correlates reliably with behavioral risk measures (see Dohmen, Falk, Huffman, Sunde, Schupp, & Wagner, 2011). Furthermore, you could let the individuals or the group play an investment game established by Gneezy & Potters (1997). This is fairly easy and seems to mirror your financial risk-taking better than a questionnaire could be. You can find an overview about risk-taking measures used in behavioral economics or decision science in Charness, Gneezy, & Imas (2013). Good luck!
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I came across an interesting study from two decades ago where people were polled on issues of the day for if they supported or opposed various policies (e.g., affirmative action in college admissions). After participants responded indicating their support or opposition, the phone interviewer presented a single sentence key point for the other opposite side.  The dependent measure was if the participants changed their minds.  Visser & Krosnick (1998) were primarily interested in how much people could be persuaded as a function of age.  They found a U-shaped function where people were more persuadable in 20’s and 80’s, but not so easily persuaded in their 50’s and 60’s.  What I find most striking is that the majority of people were persuaded in most age groups, and over 40% of those in their 50’s and 60’s changed their mind.  I’m wondering if anyone has conducted a study with a similar design in more recent years?  It would be fascinating to compare the percents persuaded more recently, given the rise of partisan news and the internet. ~ Kevin
Visser, P. S. & Krosnick, J. A.  (1998).  Development of attitude strength over the life cycle: surge and decline. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75(6), 1389-1410.
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Maybe this recent is interesting to you.
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I would like to assess how valued individuals feel within a group. Do they feel important, is their role respected by their peers and others within the same organisation. Do they have a sense of belonging, or do they feel undervalued and unimportant?
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Thank you Amoo Temitope, this is not relating to assessing performance or achievement of an employee. We would like to be able to assess how valued an employee feels - are they supported in their role by their team members and superiors?
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I have noticed that some requests for scholarly articles from colleagues on RG and some by private emails (though published mostly not on open access status), are always turned down stating that those articles cannot be shared, even privately. I want to know the reason(s) because to me, this attitude seems to be detrimental to the development of young and  research-oriented researchers from developing/under developed countries. I believe strongly that studies in developed countries/regions with adequate cutting edge techniques need to be readily available to researchers in the South for global scientific development. Many Universities in the South are not well-funded to the extent that it will be hard to make subscriptions for these highly-rated scholarly journal outlets and I believe if scientists from these developed nations can be magnanimous enough to provide these findings to researchers in the South, these will go a long way in improving  Science &Technology of the South.
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Dear Clement,
I think that it is more an issue of copyrights compliance than attitude. I agree with your point, and the good news is that the move to open access that some journals are promoting would address the access issue. The bad one is that it would affect the publication one, since many HEIs in the South might not have the resources required to do that.
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Different countries have different attitude and policies to deal with heritage building, I am wondering how to achieve or generate an idea that two theories 'keep old as old' and 'rebuild as old' could exist in a single heritage building.
If there are some precedents, how did the architect convince people?
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Yes it is very possible.  All you need do is to ascertain that each structural member and system of members can sustain the applied current and future loads envisaged during the structures design life.
This is normally the case when certain features of the tradition of a people or society must be preserved.
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Most of the time one may use an email or the likes to disseminate a so called coupon or link into KAP based study so that it can be done at one's own free time 
However how do we remove a response that is done to contaminate the data? Do we only rely on good faith of the responders or... 
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Thanks Kevin for your answer.. appreciate very much
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I am interested in different research paradigms (for instance, practitioner research, evidence based management, action research, qualitative and quantitative research..)
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Please let me know if this reference/site is helpful to you:
1.  Attitudes and Perceptions - Leadership/Management/Administration
by J Pickens - ‎Cited by 141 - ‎Related articles
joining St. Thomas University, Dr. Pickens served as Research Director for Family Central ... ory of Individual Psychology, emphasized that a person's attitude toward ... A human resources manager listened to Scott's complaints and suggested.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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In this respect, radicalism associated with identity refers to any `essential` attitude that attempts to reject the `other` who is different from the self. In fact, this kind of fundamentalism has led to several civil wars as well as disintegration especially in the third world.
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Dear Rafik,
youre welcome. Sadly i have no exact refrence, but the question about the indigenous identity Problem goes an very high Levels here - especially in the cutlrual anthropologies and in the science of ethnology. It is more the question, to whom the once taken objects belong, but bound to this question is also the problem, if modern societies still can fix their modern selfpicture to older - normaly seen through european glasses - descriptions.
In my own Research about the usability of the term 'shaman' fort the Interpretation of archaeological burials, i found quite problematic Pictures: As shamanism was Long time forbidden in many parts of siberian russia, the nowadays shamans have nothing in common with those living two hunders years before. Only the objects can be the same: When shamanism was forbidden, some costumes and drums were hidden and survived - often although their users died. Now, the Grandgrandchildren are using ethnographical literature to reconstruct the older ways and this for sure leads to big solving Problems. Perhaps if you want to follow this way of religious self identification crisis, please check out the works of Dmitry Arzyutov, Andrei Znamenski or Erich Kasten - at least Aryutov and Znamenski were Publishing in english and are still activ and always reachable via mail for questions!
Best wishes,
Andy
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How will the retail stores change their product selling strategies, marketing, promotional ways and other business activities to face the competition of these online shopping stores
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The traditional retailers need to change their approach towards customers, if they want to compete with the online retailers. Strategy should be related to-customer retention, payment options, delivery strategy, customer service, pricing etc.
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I am working on factors influencing use of sustainable marketing practises in manufacturing small and medium enterprises based in north Karnaka India, can any one plz suggest the use full scale to measure the environmental awareness and attitude of SMEs
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Research that I uncovered in looking at making changes to the environment recommend that more than three options is advisable. We recommend 4 or 5, depending on the context. An excellent source of research on what motivates small business and the environment is found through the Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB). CFIB has over 109,000 members who are employer businesses. They have been collecting data from their members for 40 years on a vast array of issues. On the environment, they have conducted 4 surveys since 1991.  We have used their research to develop tools, including guides for small business. Out last one had 3,000 downloads in the first month and over 57,000 in the two years it was posted. It is under revision at the moment. We have used their data in projects in other countries successfully.
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What is how knowledge, attitude and behavior based research?
Sometimes, Scientists and researchers are conduct a knowledge, attitude and behavior based survey before any greater experiment or as their wish.
Why and How this is beneficial in Scientific Contribution?
Thank you for any opinion
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Experience and wisdom has a tendency to undermine the idea of an absolute truth; that science and knowledge is linear, definite and progressive. Being open to this means that it is important to stop every now and again and ask why are we doing this? Is this the right direction? What are the implications?
In practice the "Science Contributions", you refer to are not only varied but often contradictory. More likely driven by very human aspirations of select groups and individuals rather than some divine path of true knowledge.
Don't take my word for it though, read some of Richard Feynman's reflection on what science is. I could direct you to plenty of philosophers and social scientists, but something tells me you'd prefer a 'proper' physicist!
Enjoy & good luck
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I have 20 independent variables regarding the practices and attitude of fishers about fisheries management. Data was collected though questionnaire and recorded as YES/NO. I would like to identify the variables that have less contribution towards fisheries management. Is there anyone who can suggest me what kind of analysis to use? Do you think that PCA is appropriate?  
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Given your data are binary, it might also be worth considering IRT. Like Jean says for correspondence analysis, there are lots of R packages for IRT. While correspondence analysis (the Gifi procedures) are PCA methods for ordinal and nominal data, IRT is a collection of procedures usually for binary and ordinal procedures from the same general model of factor analysis (see Bartholomew et al,'s textbooks on the general linear latent variable model).
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I am making a questionnaire to explore knowledge, Attitude and practice of parents towards childhood vaccinations - can you help me, please? Thank you
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Hi Lubna,
This is an active area of research. please see this paper for a discussion of the issues.
Dubé E, Bettinger JA, Fisher WA, Naus M, Mahmud SM, Hilderman T. Vaccine acceptance, hesitancy and refusal in Canada: Challenges and potential approaches. Can Comm Dis Rep. 2016. If you can't find the paper, ask me and I will send it to you.
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Can anyone interpret this data from Spearman correlation between students' test score and attitude survey?
r = 0.106, p = 0.563, n = 32
Is it "there is no significant positive correlation between students test score and attitude"?? is it the p-value exceed 0.05 consider no significant / no relationship between the 2 variables ?
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Maybe more precisely, it's that you don't have sufficient evidence to suggest there _is_ a correlation. You don't want to necessarily conclude that there is _no_ correlation. After all, with 400 observations, a rho of 0.1 would yield a p-value of about 0.05. That being said, it is important to address the value of rho, which at 0.1, would be considered low in most situations.
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I would look to research Illinois legislator's perspective and attitude of school based agricultural education but I am not sure what framework to use.  I don't have much about the research yet because I do not want to research it if there is not a framework for it. Thanks!
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It is a system of Eidos. Here about it a bit written:
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Hi everyone. I have collected data to see the impact of training (pre and post training) on knowledge, attitude and self confidence which later calculated in total score (continous) for each domain.
If I want to know which variable (categorical variable e.g : age, sex, job etc) affecting the mean changes of these 3 variables (Knowledge, Attitude, self confidence), what test should i use?
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If I categorised the score into categorical (yes/no), what test should i use to find which factor affecting the changes of KAP between pre and post training.
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Hi SitI,
One method you might want to consider is seemingly unrelated regression (SUR). SUR allows one to calculate, in your case, three OLS regressions but make use of the correlation between the outcomes to make the results more efficient than calculating each regression independently.
Wikipedia has an article which explains the method in detail. Let me know If you need assistance implementing this in SAS (my programming language of choice. Others can surely help you in R or Python). Below is the link to the wiki.
Best,
Aran
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I am doing a research regarding urban sprawl. And the general attitude of the population (large house garden swimming pools) cars traffic etc are the norm. I know these though because I live here. I need to develop a questionnaire that can describe/ prove these.
Can you please help?
thank you
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- One possible question: Do you prefer living in a good location inside city, close to everything (where you do not even need to own a car) or do you prefer a rural location next to/ outside the city/ at the city edge, where you can have a larger house and garden, but depend on your car?
You can add the two answer options and maybe a section for comments.
- Maybe add in your form questions about age/ number of family members to live in the house, size and location of their house (always provide options, try to list categories).
- I would also prepare a semi structured interview (or a few talks with locals on site) to understand the cultural patterns, behaviour, reasons for this choice. Why do they choose to live outside the city? (e.g.: city is noisy/ polluted/ housing not available or affordable/ no playgrounds and they are families with kids/ housing not suitable for their family size/ needs/ what are their needs or dreams). Also ask what is the uncomfortable side of living in the more detached location.
You can add points to your questionnaire based on the finding to validate the identified reasons (with yes/no questions?).
- You might need to refer in parallel to data/ statistics about your case and maybe research on the city growth stages or main structural changes in the urban systems and form. Also, comparison with other cases might also be help.
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My experiment design includes both between and within subjects. My within-subject independent variable is content type (humor vs non-humor) and my between-subject independent variable is media richness (high vs low). I had 104 participants - So in other words every participant has seen both content types (video in this experiment); however 50 have seen both videos without any text description (low media richness) and 54 have seen both videos with text description (high media richness).
I have 48 questions measuring 6 dependent variables. Interestingly, in my case there is brand attitude measure at time T1 (before video exposure) and brand attitude measure at time T2 (after video exposure). This has been done for both groups (ie. for high media richness and low media richness).
I used 7-point Likert scale for all 48 questions. I will calculate the mean for all multi-item scales and consider the resulting variable as the independent variable. I used Google Forms for data collection and by large data has been coded automatically. Since every question was mandatory, data cleaning also is done to get started. I have 4 spreadsheets at the moment. Now my question is, how do I code the data in to a single sheet? Should I just code humor as 1 and non-humor as 2 and high media richness and 1 and low media richness as 2 and add all 208 entries in a singe spreadsheet? I guess, am going terribly wrong out here. Please advice.
My objectives are:
1) To check whether the video exposure (both humor and non-humor) leads to change in brand attitude
2) To check which content type is more effective - humor or non-humor
3) To check whether high-media richness condition is more effective than low-media richness condition
4) To check whether two additional variables (data collected) have any moderating effect on the content type
All my hypotheses are formulated around these objectives.
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Many thanks Harekrishna Roy.
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We have designed a module to help students learn the basic astronomy concepts. Module used computer applications and gestures as tools. Along with change in conceptual understanding, we want to study the attitudinal change in students. Which is the best available for doing that. Medium of instruction is Hindi.
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It is new and standardized on Indian students.
Or you can go through
(Quite older)
However, if you are adapting or translating any tool to Hindi language, you need to re-establish its reliability and validity by repeating almost whole standardization procedure. So, I advise to construct your own course specific tool.
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I have requested a research paper last week and still have no received the paper. I am trying to finish writing a research paper and need the full paper I requested. The paper I requested is
Development of the inclusion attitude scale for high
school teachers. How long will it be until I am given access to the paper?
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It varies from author to author. Some are sending after few hours. Some one day to one week as the longest waiting time.
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Several streams of contemporary psychotherapy adopt what may be termed a "presuppositionalist" attitude in which the therapeutic process and the therapeutic outcome are understood to be intrinsically (dare we say organically) dependent on the philosophical foundations. This characteristic may be observed in therapies that claim to be empirically validated as well as those that base their methodologies on humanistic assumptions, postmodern assumptions, or religious values. Thus raising the question, "To what extent do these attributed philosophical foundations matter?"
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One way to consider your question would be to look at the research which suggests outcomes may be broadly equivalent across treatment approaches (often referred to as the Dodo bird effect eg Luborsky et al, 2002 & Rosenzweig, 1936). It has been argued that this reflects common therapy factors and thus there are specific therapy components which matter rather than philosophy / theoretical foundations per se. There are other possibilities however (eg see Davies & Nagi, 2017 - chapter 15) - therapy equivalence may be a failure to detect differences or (and perhaps more interestingly) that different people may gain from different interventions. This latter idea might suggest the need for a therapy, therapist, client 'fit' and possibly for the notion of 'general' and 'specific' responders (some may benefit from any form of therapy whilst others might need a specific approach that they can 'buy in to' and use). It will be interesting to see what others might contribute.
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I need to measure the attitude through questionnaire and explore factors through semi-structured interviews. Can I do both of them at the same time with the same respondents as both results are linked.
Or
Is it acceptable to include questionnaires in the semi-structured interviews?
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Thank you all for your valuable answers..
I included some Likert scale questions as closed questions within the interview open questions and I asked the interviewees about their opinion why they chose agree of disagree.
Is that OK!
Thanks
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Writing a dissertation on the effects of instructional coaching and need help finding an instrument.
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Horne, Jason Brock, "Instructional Coaching: Teachers‘ Perceptions of Practice and Effectiveness" (2012). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1458. http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/1458
Sumner, K.Y. (2011). AN EXPLANATORY MIXED-METHODS STUDY OF INSTRUCTIONAL COACHING PRACTICES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. Doctor of Education Thesis. Western Carolina University. http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/wcu/f/Sumner2011.pdf
Edwards, J.L. & Newton, R.R. (1995). The Effects of Cognitive Coaching on Teacher Efficacy and Empowerment. American Educational Research Association. 18-22. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED388654
White, A. S., Howell Smith, M., Kunz, G. M., & Nugent, G. C. (2015). Active ingredients of instructional coaching: Developing a conceptual framework (R2Ed Working Paper No. 2015-3). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED571818.pdf
Gallucci, C., DeVoogt Van Lare, M., Yoon, I.H. & Boatright, B. (2010). Instructional Coaching: Building Theory About the Role and Organizational Support for Professional Learning. American Educational Research Journal . 47(4), 919–96. DOI: 10.3102/0002831210371497
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I am recently working on my dissertation project dealing with the current Romanian protest movements. I plan two steps within my research that should include to an as high as possible degree activists of that movement: firstly, I want to provide a political grouping of activists, that should follow the activists own identical perceptions instead of a theoretically anticipated framework. Secondly, I want to realize qualitative interviews with some activists regarding their political attitude and motivations for protest. I know that in archaeology and ethnology there exist research approaches designed to collaborate with local communities (community archaeology, critical heritage studies). Does anybody know such approaches that could be or already are used for politological research? Or does there already exist something like community politology I overlooked in my research so far?
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Hi Nina!
I touched upon Social Movement Theory in my current Master project with regard to radicalization, but some indeed use the framing or leadership theory to underpin the causes for such group dynamics.
Some authors (I'm not sure if they are all political scientiests though) are: Wiktorowicz, Sageman, Bakker, Neumann or a study by the Change Institute from 2008.
Dalgaard-Nielsen provides quite a good summary on Social Movement theories (among others) with regard to radicalisation, but it would fit in the realm of protest movements as well.
Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2010). Violent radicalization in Europe: What we know and what we do not know. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(9), 797-814.
Good luck, I hope that helped a bit.
Best,
Alina
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As you may know, the human behavior in academic environment is determined by his attitude and values. the question is, are there any basic academic values? how they create and develop or change and under which conditions we can cultivate these values?
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I think admitting one's ignorance is a core academic value.
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I am working on the connection between foreign language learning anxiety and L1 identity, and want to know if we can measure feeling of or attitude towards L1 identity, especially at the adolescent level.
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Hello,
Generally speaking, measurements whereby human perception or interpretation is an important factor have long been used as a basis for decision-making in different qualitative studies. The following links can hopefully satisfy what you are looking for:
Best of luck
R. Biria
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I'm trying to test Discriminant Validity for SEM model for Technology acceptance model, using (Fornell and Larcker, 1981) by comparing AVE to square root of correlation between factors. I have 2 set of sample data from 2 different countries, in one sample 2 variables are showing high multicollinearity while the test passes in the other sample.
Is it acceptable if attitude and Intention are highly correlated ?
What does that indicate about my variables ? and how can fix this issue ?
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This paper addresses different multicollinearity issues: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2152644
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I am currently working on the acceptance of nudging in Germany. An important factor is the seemingly negative image nudging has in the German media. It is often described as manipulative and a governmental attempt to control the public.
Is there a way to measure the dominating media coverage? Of course there are also neutral and positive reports, but how can I prove that the main attitude is negative?
Thanks a lot in advance!
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You can do content analysis for a certain topic, over certain period.
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how to arrange perception survey of natural radiation hazard with the measurement content of:
the questions about knowledge,
the questions attitude (affective) and
the questions about action (psychomotoric).
the respondent will be university student.
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I would randomize the question groups. I am not sure whether starting or finishing with the knowledge questions is the better.
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Do people think and know about the relationship between SWM and climate change?
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What is the relationship? Solid or liquid.
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There are various known and well documented causative factors of paediatric dental anxiety, I was wondering if anyone has studied and know of any others?
'commonly known':
- parental/ sibling influence
- previous bad experience e.g. remembered pain
- fear of the unknown
- clinician attitude
-  dental environment
Many thanks in advance,
Marisa.
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Well, one thing is the sound of the drills. Once the drill causes pain, the pain is associated with the noise of the drill, and the patient is in high-sensitivity fear state as soon as he hears the noise. I have gotten past this with a hypnotic suggestion to the patient that the noise of the drill is the sound of the bad tooth and tooth pain being REMOVED, and that the client should welcome it as the sound of relief from his decay. Seems to work, and gets the client to relax during the procedure, which is 80% of the battle. the higher the patients tension the higher the discomfort, so getting them to chill is a major plus.
How can we examine the attitude of customers towards electricity theft?
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I want to study people's attitude towards electricity theft. How should I proceed?
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By doing survey based study and following the descriptive analysis of the responses collected. It will suffice for examining the attitude of customers towards electricity theft.
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In my quest for finding a scale for measuring social innovation, I have come across a social innovation attitude scale which was developed for students and RESINDEX i.e. regional social innovation index. Still I am looking for Social innovation scale. If anyone can help, I will be obliged.
Many thanks
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In general , social innovations are finding the new means for enhancing society’s capacity to act. the following link may be more useful in developing construct for the study.
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I am researching fusion centers (DHS entities) and the aspect of communication sharing subject to "attitude" or perceptions of workers and organizational structure. Thanks.
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very insightful - thank you so much
Mary
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I would need help for social and healthcare field employees attitude towards preventing dementia
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It is not entirely clear whether dementia can ultimately be prevented, which may explain why there has been little work in this area. The best evidence seems to show that lifestyle interventions may delay onset or modify trajectory somewhat. To say 'prevent' dementia may be misleading. The following papers may be useful:
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Physical attitude
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Can't or won't?
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I want to know whether, there is any relationship between journalists' knowledge and attitude on a particular subject with their reporting on same subject. If you have any publication related to that please be kind enough to share with me.
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Dear Sir,
Kindly, let me know what is WP and RT.
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In my research, square root of AVE of my independent variable (Product image) is lower than its correlation with a dependent variable (attitude), thus distorting discriminant validity. In order to fix this problem, I reapplied EFA to find out which indicators were cross loaded on both factors and then eliminated them. However my model is a multigroup model consisting of 3 categories, hence cancelling variables for one group did deteoriate discriminant validity for other groups. Therefore, do we really need to achieve discriminant validity for this specific case? Can I exclude the dependent variable (attitude) when I prepare Discriminant validity table. In linear regression, we check for collinearity just for independent variables not for any dependent variable. Besides, by its nature, I would expect a strong correlation between attitude and product image as attitude regressed on product image in my model. Therefore, I think discriminant validity violating should not be a big problem.
I got stuck in my research for a long time and could not find any valuable information about it.
Thank you for your precious time.
Murat
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Dear Chike,
Thank you for your suggestion. I am familiar with discriminant analysis. Yet the problem I mentioned was about discriminant validity which has to be satisfied during confirmatory factor analysis. Anyway the problem is already over. Thank you.
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Opinion, Experience etc.
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Hi:
Certain occupations are more suitable for particular types than others are.
However, personality should not be the only factor you consider when choosing a career.
A self-assessment should also look at your interests. These two main factors taken together serve as way to find the right career than any one of them does alone.
Regards
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I found only this one:
Okebukola, P. A. (1986). An Investigation of Some Factors Affecting Students Attitudes Toward Laboratory Chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 63(6), 531-532.
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3 Hart, Christina; Mulhall, Pamela; Berry, Amanda; Loughran, John; Gunstone, Richard J. Res. Sci. Teach. 2000, 37, 655-675.
4 Wallace, Carolyn S.; Tsoi, Mai Yin; Calkin, Jamie; Darley, Marshall J. Res. Sci. Teach. 2003, 40, 986-1024.
9 Freedman, Michael P. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 1997, 34, 343-357.
10 Markow, Peter G.; Lonning, Robert A. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 1998, 35, 1015-1029.
22 Kirschner, Paul; Huisman, Willibrord Int. J. Sci. Educ. 1998, 20, 665-682.
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I am conducting a research about Oral health related quality of life by using OHIP-14. One of my variable for conceptual framework is Knowledge,attitude and practice. I am having trouble with the literature part to support which model do I base on for the KAP part. Is there any model that support KAP and oral health related quality of life? I need to put something to support my variable for my literature review part. If anyone can help, please do. Thank you
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there are various articles regarding KAP in relation to Dental trauma and oral health practices (In school teachers and Dental nurse), which you can download and modify it accordingly. the scale can be modified with concern with statistician  
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I want to manipulate environmental concern (which is usually seen as an interpersonal difference variable) to create two groups. I define environmental concern as "a general attitude toward preserving the environment” (Minton and Rose, 1997, p. 38). As manipulation check, EC is to be measured with items as for instance published by Ellen et al. (1991): Compared to other things in my life, environmental problems are not that important to me; Environmental problems are of great concern to me personally etc.  
Any advice is much appreciated. Thank you.
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Hi Sabrina,
I haven't come across any experimental manipulations of environmental concern. The concept is usually defined as a trait variable, but what you are looking for is a state conceptualisation, which may not exist (although others may correct me on this). On the other hand, I have seen some scholars categorise respondents into high/low environmental concern groups based on either a median split (Albayrak et al., 2013) or a mean split (Lin & Huang, 2012). Hope this helps!
Best wishes,
Viren
References
Albayrak, T., Aksoy, S., & Caber,  M. (2013). The effect of environmental concern and scepticism on green purchase behaviour. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 31, 27-39.
Lin, P.-C., & Huang, Y.-H. (2012). The influence factors on choice behavior regarding green products based on the theory of consumption values. Journal of Cleaner Production, 22, 11-18. 
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I have three independent variables (attitude scores)
and one dependent variable (alcohol consumption)
I conducted a hierarchical multiple regression to see if one IV considerably improved the ability of the other two IVs to predict alcohol consumption. The change in R2 was insignificant.
How do i calculate effect size for a study like this?
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What is the purpose of the effect size calculation. For statistical power then standardised effect size measures can be useful, but if for interpretation then you need unstandardized measures -  particularly if your outcome is meaningful (e.g., alcohol consumption).
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I have used a MIMIC modelling approach to identify the key underlying beliefs that influence attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. For that, I used as indicators the composite of beliefs. So, for instance, I have 6 composites of behavioral beliefs (bxe) and three direct measures of attitude and I built a MIMIC model to identify and test whether these set of beliefs would explain the latent construct attitude. From a practical point of view, results are interesting, because I could identify the most important beliefs and, therefore, target an intervention on these beliefs. However, I am struggling to understand if these approach make theoretical sense, because most of the literature points that all beliefs are equally important in the expectancy value model that underlies the idea of the composite beliefs.  
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In my humble opinion, it is not only useful, but also may be considered as an important methodological contribution in your research area (if this approach was not followed by anyone before). The question is, how?
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is not only influenced by the expectancy value theory, but also by other theories like TRA and Attribution theory. In fact, the TPB was modeled to overcome the explanatory and predictive limitations of expectancy value model. Having said that, TPB requires that researchers conduct elicitation interview to find out about key underlying beliefs before finalizing a TPB questionnaire (please see the attachment 1), and the guidelines imply that the associated strength of each underlying belief may not be equal at all. This could be your first point of reference to support your approach. Second, in another paper (please see the attachment 2), it clearly shows that new information can change the associated weight with underlying belief under Attribution theory.
Combining these two references, it may be said that a new systematic and objective approach should be developed to identify and measure key underlying beliefs more accurately because that would most likely enhance the measurement efficiency, and reduce the subjective guess-work in the process. And MIMIC is an attempted answer to solve that problem.
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Could you pls opine which of these three is more important for a competent employee to be more effective in the organisation: attitude, emotional intelligence or IQ? Kindly share your country experiences and antecedents also.
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What is more important of a competent employee: attitude, emotional intelligence or IQ?
From my personal experience, all the 3 i.e. EQ, IQ & SQ (Spiritual Quotient - see diagram below for their characteristics) are equally important as different job / situation etc required certain (X)Q to be more prominent.  For example, in a competitive work environment with all the high IQ employees working together, those with also high SQ & EQ can be more successful because e.g. they respect & empathize, they can maintain better their interpersonal relationship with others & they can manage the stress more effectively etc.
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What is the best way to measure attitude ambivalence?
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Hello Yushu,
The article mentioned above has been attached.
Regards
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In the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), behavioral intention is influenced by three constructs : attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. In some paper, those constructs are supposed to be independent (Ogden, 2003) whereas they are all linked in some figures (Ajzen, 1991 ; Bamberg & Möser, 2003).
In an experiment I have conducted during my PhD, I have found links between these constructs. I was wondering if these results are consistent with previous studies.
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A nice example. Maybe there is a little confusion on the terms. In my view, "conceptually independent predictors" means that each has an independent/unique predictive value, and not that there are unrelated. Correlations among the concepts are a common observation, so if you find correlations in your data than that's not untypical.
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I need to assess the ability to engage in complex activities or projects demanding an interdisciplinary approach.
I’m using the word “competency” to involve a three or at least a two dimensional construct regarding:
-       Knowledge to recognize different but specialized fields of work, research and study of different disciplines.
-       Attitude towards the contribution of different disciplines for complex problems solving and respect for their particular knowledge and practices.
-       And probably some skills component involving Team Work (?).
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Ok. Thanks! 
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I'm working on project of Token Economy as part of drug rehabilitation. In assessment of behavior modification i need attitudinal measurement also. If any one has or know about this, kindly give it to me.
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Now quickly changing behaviour of employee at any position has some definite role to play as per the job, and other than his job. But performance level of any employee is governed by many factors including his attitude towards the job and his extra role behaviour on the job. Extra role behaviour mainly includes land of hand towards colleague and also facilitate the organization going beyond the basic nature of the job.
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To assess the Indian Youths towards professionalism. Also would like to fixed the ways to prepare the professional sportsman.      
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Why just India? There is a need here in the USA, especially in professional sports such as baseball, basketball and football. The international professional golfing community seems to be ahead of the curve. I believe that there are some universities who actually teach sports professionalism standards. Would that be of help?
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I am wondering what software to use for this? I am also wondering how much time you allotted to developing and trialling the task?
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I probably could help you and upvoted your question by the little green ^ arrow but the real Arrow (the most revered Nobelist in the area of social choice) has looked at what I wrote here:
and more of my papers (some on scales) are here:
so pressing ^ is safe for you :)
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I know the Freiberg compass well as I am using it, but the Breithaupt seems to me similar in shape. Is there any difference in use or only in the companies?
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Dear Dr. Diabat,
there is almost no difference except in the stabilizing and damping effect on the needle of the compass, which is less well done in the Freiberg-type. You need more time for the measurement using the Freiberg-type.
Best regards
Harald G. Dill
How do I evaluate and quantify the worth of a software developer ?
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Existing methods for Job Evaluation evaluate the position itself, not the software developer / engineer him/herself. My question is ; How we can quantify the value of a Software Engineer for a specific job position? Basically we have two inputs in hand ; .- Job Description .- Detailed Resume of the Person, working in this position. These two inputs together builds the worth of an individual person working in a job position. Each person has his/her unique attitude, personality, technical background and skills. How far these skills and properties match with the job position and how valuable is the combination of person's properties together with the job description is subject to a methodical approach for quantifying and for measuring in an analytical way. Does anybody know an existing research about this topic ? Thank you in advance. Tolga Simsek 
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I agree with Volkmar that this might not be a great approach. I am working in the software quality area and I am not sure that the inputs you have are sufficient to calculate the contribution of an individual to a project, never mind assess the potential contribution to a future project, which seems to be the logical application of the proposed profiling.
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In Research we use a scale to know the attitude of the sample. My question is what is the minimum required statement/item for an attitude scale? and why? Because some attitude scale has many statements/items and some of them very less. [note- only for one dimension]
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To define a factor in a factor analysis you need at least 3 items. The reason is because 2 items define only a single correlation.
But you can still get an alpha reliability from only 2 items, which makes sense if the two items are "highly" correlated.
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I know proactive coping inventory (PCI) by E.Greenglass, R. Schwarzer, & S. Taubert; Proactive attitude scale (PA) by R. Schwarzer. Are there any tests and scales for measure personality proactivity?
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Depends on whether you want to measure proactivity as a trait or a behavior. Bateman's and Crant's measure is a measure of trait proactivity, but other measures are available for measuring proactive behaviors. See Sharon Parker's work on proactive behavior. Different forms of proactive behaviors can be differentiated (see Parker & Collins, 2010).
Parker, Sharon K., and Catherine G. Collins. "Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors." Journal of Management 36.3 (2010): 633-662.
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Hello group,
I have a huge set of data came from a survey by using 40 questions on likert scale with five levels (1: Strongly disagree... and 5: Strongly agree). The data has one independent variable and 50 depended variables including the 40 questions of the survey plus 10 personal questions about the employees who did the survey (age, gender,...etc.). The project is trying to answer what drive people attitude on safety culture? I'm looking for the appropriate methods to analysis the data.
I would really appreciate any help.
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If you are analyzing it with a nominal level variable, I would use a chi square. If you are using ordinal level variables for analysis with the likert scale variable, I believe the most appropriate statistic is the Spearman's Rho correrlation. SPSS give a probability of significance as well as a correlation measure of the strength of the relationship. I would not use regression with a likert scale variable unless it is with a number of other scale level variables in a model. Then the likert scale variable would have to be a set of dummy variables. 
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What other instrument(s) can we use to measure "multicultural attitude" other than MASQUE, TMAS, and "Multicultural Attitude Scale"? 
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Multicultural attitude is not measurable with quantitative means (it is appealing to do so, however, it is impossible). All tools you mention measure only a single group of features and can be harshly criticized (and will be criticized) for putting the agents under a joint abstract condition that does not exist in reality. For being able to evaluate with qualitative tools, you need a broad personal understanding of multiple cultures. This way seems to be too long for a short span of 3 years. Nevertheless, I would strive for mixed methods that allow for a better balanced interpretation of outcomes. Follow Praveen Hoogar's discussion! That looks promising!
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What are former varieties of language worth for current day speakers? Sociolinguistics have proven interesting in a lot of aspects, but - to my mind - mostly in the discussion of how language and varieties/dialects affect, our attitude towards and understanding of, each other. How we sound and the words we use are important in communication human to human. Do we today have any worth of studying, remembering and talking about former dialects in the perspective of improving language today?  
I know this question could become very complex due to our different first languages, cultures and understandings. And, obviously I already have an reply myself to this question, but before I tease you with my own answer, let's try to start this discussion from and "open to interpretation perspective". 
Are there any worth in older languages for current day communication? 
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I don't think people study or attempt to preserve old dialects in order to learn how to speak today or in order to somehow improve our current language skills. One of the main reasons for studying older dialects and languages is to enable us to understand what people have said in the past and how they have thought about life. We don't need any more justification for that than idle curiosity. If you say something and I don't understand you then I'll ask you to clarify it, simply because I'm curious enough to want to understand you despite any difficulties involved. It's the same with utterances made in older languages. Someone scratches a few signs into a clay tablet - I want to know what they meant.
In terms of preserving a language or dialect that is on the verge of extinction I would say that, in addition to the simple argument set out above, it is about identity. Languages, dialects, and ideolects are core aspects of identity. We need not necessarily try to fossilise someone's personality by trying to prevent them from speak some new language with more potential commercial value for them. But at the same time we should definitely resist overt efforts aimed at marginalising or eliminating other languages, for example as part of a nationalisation or nation-building project. Measures like these represent an unwarranted attack on a basic human right - that of controlling the development of one's own identity.
But in the final analysis I don't think that one ought to approach the humanities as a question of utility. If we were washed up on a desert island and had to survive for years among a small community then none of them would go off to pluck coconuts for us to keep us alive just so that we could sit around studying ancient languages, pontificate about art or literature, or try to interpret a poem. We do these things because we have the luxury of being able to use our time in this way and because it simply gives us pleasure to do so. What's the point? There is no point!
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Thanks in advance.
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There are substantial amounts of literature on this subject matter. The one that I really like is a paper by A/Prof Geoffrey. He's done a comparison of behaviour between SRI and conventional investors across six countries.
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I used a measure to find employees' experience of organizational systems and processes affecting their attitude to work and influencing their level of engagement.
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@ Ray, thank you for the reference.
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To establish other theories suitable for attitude studies and not exclusive to the theory of attitude change.
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Bloom's Taxonomy applies to clarify the domains of educational learning objectives. The think-feel-do model of hierarchy of effect eg. AIDA, Model Stage & Model Order, DAGMAR by St. Elmo Lewis, Lavidge & Steiner and, Colley respectively are best fit for the study.
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Kindly send me stuff on,
, "a socio-psychological study of university students' attitude towards varities of English speech
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Quantitative-based research
McKenzie (2010) explored more than 500 Japanese university students’ attitudes towards six ‘varieties’, and relevant articles are McKenzie (2008a, 2008b).  More recent attitude-related studies of his are published and available on his RG account.
McKenzie, Robert M. 2008a. The role of variety recognition in Japanese university students’ attitudes towards English speech varieties. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 29(2). 139–153.
McKenzie, Robert M. 2008b. Social factors and non-native attitudes towards varieties of spoken English: A Japanese case study. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 18(1). 63–88.
McKenzie, Robert M. 2010. The social psychology of English as a global language: Attitudes, awareness and identity in the Japanese context. Dordrecht: Springer.
Qualitative research
Jenkins (2007) explored more than 300 English teachers' attitudes towards diverse accents, and a relevant article is Jenkins (2009).  Also, Jenkins (2014: Ch.7) revealed international students’ orientations towards diversity in English.
Jenkins, Jennifer. 2007. English as a Lingua Franca: Attitude and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jenkins, Jennifer. 2009. English as a lingua franca: Interpretations and attitudes. World Englishes 28(2). 200–207.
Jenkins, Jennifer. 2014. English as a Lingua Franca in the international university: The politics of academic English language policy. London: Routledge.
Hope this helps.
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 I am doing research on attitude, awareness, Knowledge on intention to participate in Islamic Insurance; I read the literature; but I did not find any items to measure this variables from the literature.
Really I want to use adopted items; could you help please?
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Dear Ali Yassin sheikh Ali 
Greetings,
Please find the attached file about your topic may be useful for you.
Best Regards,
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A research into the perception and attitude of pregnant women to drugs. I want to use likert scale to assess the attitude and perception of pregnant women to drugs 
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There is difference between Likert-score items and scales that are made up of several Likert-scored items. If you are using a multi-item scale, then it is quite common to treat that as interval-level data that yous can assess through parametric statistics.
As a first step, you would want to use Cronbach's alpha to asses the reliability of the scale.
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my study is on scientific attitude of students. I got the score of Likert-scale which is not found to be normally distributed through histogram and other graphs. my study need not accept the normality because the students score may be on higher side. In such a situation can I go for parametric tests?
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i suggest using the Mann–Whitney U test, also called the Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon (MWW), Wilcoxon rank-sum test, or Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test, is a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that it is equally like that a randomly selected value from one sample will be less than or greater than a randomly selected from from a second sample.
Unlike the t-test it does not require the assumption of normal distributions. It is nearly as efficient as the t-test on normal distributions
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Do you think this is a result of author's own attitude or rather the result of publishers' policies?  Are the researchers unsure whether their measuring instruments are working perfectly or are sensitive/accurate enough? On the other hand we often see the results which are hard to reproduce, if at all, by others researchers...
Well, we cannot be ever 100% sure that our results are perfect or guaranteed, but this comment applies equally well to achievements "in favor" or "against" the tested idea.
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Negative results are published less frequently because negative results are often less practical in the area of building synthetic scientific theories, and the use of these results in specific practical applications.
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I will very appreciate that you can offer me the links of related reference.
Are there some academic articles or journals can identifythe positive relationship between consumers' attitude to beauty bloggers and consumers' attitude to bloggers' beauty product?
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Hello Jingyuan,
I hope these help:
Johnstone M-L (2012) The influence of fashion blogs on consumers
Cheng, R. J., & Fang, W. (2015). Blog intention based on fashion involvement and trust. International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, 6(1), 19.
These are Master's theses:
De-hsin Chia (2010) A study on female blog readers attitudes towards eWOM and buzz marketing in beauty blogs
Daniluk J.(2016) My personal experience matters: The effect of source characteristics and argument diversity in beauty product blog reviews on consumer response 
These are also  theses:
Vineyard, C. L (2014) The Relationship Between Fashion Blogs and Intention to Purchase and Word of Mouth Behavior
Tran, D. (2016). Beauty bloggers' influence on Vietnamese young consumers.
Very best wishes,
Mary
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The belief in animism posits that the things in nature, thus, plants, animals, water bodies and so forth are inherent with spirits or souls and as such are not to be abused or wantonly destroyed. In what philosophical ways can this cultural belief practiced by many ethnic societies in Ghana be harnessed for biodiversity conservation in the modern quest for new strategies to mitigate the deleterious attitude of biodiversity degradation.
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Ecotheologically and ecoanthropologically as well as ecosophically- check Tomalin, Emma. Biodivinity and biodiversity: the limits to religious environmentalism. Routledge, 2016, Mikusiński, Grzegorz, Hugh P. Possingham, and Malgorzata Blicharska. "Biodiversity priority areas and religions—a global analysis of spatial overlap." Oryx 48.01 (2014): 17-22., Robinson, Daniel F. "Legal geographies of intellectual property,‘traditional’knowledge and biodiversity: experiencing conventions, laws, customary law, and Karma in Thailand." Geographical Research 51.4 (2013): 375-386.;GROVES, DEGRADATION OF SACRED. "Sacred groves of Manipur—Ideal centres for biodiversity conservation." Current Science 87.4 (2004): 431.;Sinha, Rajiv K. "Biodiversity conservation through faith and tradition in India: some case studies." The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 2.4 (1995): 278-284.;Naveh, Danny, and Nurit Bird-David. "Animism, Conservation, and Immediacy." A handbook on contemporary animism. Acumen Publishing, Durham (2013): 27-37 and many such works available
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Attitude questionnaire on biodiversity conservation. 
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Dear Danilo,
Thanks for your question. I have not come across a template questionnaire for biodiversity conservation but researchers geared towards soliciting for attitudinal responses to biodiversity develop some for the use of such purposes like what was cited by Hafidha. I think it would be a great research goal to develop a well-structured questionnaire that could be used as a model/ template for ascertaining the attitudes of people regarding the use and conservation of biodiversity.
The link between the behavioral patterns of people and the use and/or conservation of biodiversity is important to be looked into. After all, the driving force behind our decisions regarding the bio-resources in our environment rests in the values, moral principles that mold our attitudes. A questionnaire that journies into this domain in biodiversity conservation research would be a remarkable achievement and a giant data collection tool for researchers in this field.
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I'd like to explore the attitude of one group of students towards computer-assisted language learning (CALL). The questionnaire includes 20 statements (I use a 5-point Likert Scale: strongly agree- agree- no idea- disagree- strongly disagree). Indeed, I want to see if these students have positive attitude towards CALL.
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Hi, Laya,
One of the first things to do is to check the internal consistency of the 20-items with Cronbach's alpha. This will tell you whether or not you need to omit any items in your overall factor determination.
Secondly, an exploratory factor analysis will tell you how many potential factors (or variables) that you may be finding with your items. Typically, potential factors have an eigenvalue greater than 1. An EFA will also tell you the percentage of variance you are capturing with these items.
There are other tests, but if this is a new instrument you have developed, this may be enough for an exploratory paper, depending on your discipline. Summative scores should be calculated on the factors that you find in your analyses.
Good luck!
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Hi 
I am interested in finding out if your motives for reading online news perhaps also affects your willingness to pay for online news content through attitude?
What are your thoughts about it?  
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Dear Pernille Omak,
Generally speaking, the Internet and new technologies are altering information seeking  behavior of news readers. As you have rightly observed , reading the news content online can affect news readers' attitudes and willingness. For more information, I refer you to the links, which can hopefully provide you with the targeted literature.
Best of luck,
R. Biria
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Any experience and suggestion on response option when measuring «belief strength» and «outcome evaluation» within the TPB framework?
(a) unipolar scoring (from 1 to 7)
or
(b) bipolar scoring (-3 to + 3)
or
(c) a combination of both?
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Ajzen (1991) advocates for the use of bipolar scaling when it comes to belief strenght (p. 192-194). He argues that from a measurement perspective, either unipolar or bipolar measures can be used. However, he shows that the correlations with the global attitude is higher when using bipolar scales of belief strenght. This said, others (e..g. Schwartz, 1999 attached) show that people may interpret the questions differnetly depending on which scale (uni or bi) that are used (see p. 95-96). 
Hope this helps
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
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Hello, I have made a test for student to scale their scientific attitude. I used 12 question or items. Maximum point for every question is 4 and minimum score is 1. But, I still hesitate about the range score to make a judgement for the high and low level. Any suggestion?
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There is no definitive way to divide scores into high and low categories.
One method is to use reasonable cut-offs.  For example, in your case, you might call “high” a score that averaged 3 or greater on every question.  So that would be 36–48.  And then perhaps averaging lower than 2 on every question is “low”, so 12–23.  And then 24–35 is “medium”.
A more statistical way is to use percentiles.  The value for the 90th percentile is the score below which 90% of participants scored.  Common break points for percentiles are: below 25th; 25th to 50th, 50th to 75th, 75th and greater.  But you might want to use other percentiles.
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Likert scale used to asses attitude or opinion of participants. Reliability of such a scale is assessed by Cronbach's alpha test.
Now to create a knowledge score on vaccine preventable diseases. Each participants will be asked to identify the vaccine preventable diseases from 8 selected diseases. The response would be yes or no (two way close ended) . One score for correct answer and zero for wrong answer. Therefore there will be scale measuring knowledge in a range 0 to 8. The higher the number the higher the knowledge.
Any way to test reliabilty of such knowledge scales like Likert scale?
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Internal consistency with dichotomous items is a tricky thing.  I have attached a couple of articles I use when teaching psychometrics that are useful in laying out the problems (Sitjtsma) and some alternatives (Trizano-Hermosilla & Alvarado).
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is there any scale which assess the attitude towards family school and society for the age group 11-18?
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These files have information related to your topic.
Regards
Is there any theory on the relationship of past experience or motivation or prior knowledge with how individual interpret current situation?
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I'm thinking of social comparison theory in explaining the relationship between past experience/motivation and appraisal/interpretation of current situation, and mental rehearsal in explaining the relationship between prior knowledge and appraisal/interpretation of current situation.  Would you think these are appropriate theoretical frameworks or is there any better one you would suggest?  Thank you.
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In the field of entrepreneurship there are theories of entrepreneurial intention and opportunity recognition which may be useful.  check out Shane and Venkataraman, 2000; Shane, 2003.
Can anyone advise myself and my colleague on behavioural attitude?
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Hello all, I have a small but important question. Me and my colleagues are trying to quantify trust from a human computer interaction perspective. One of the indicators in our research is a construct called Predictability which helps measure trust and according to my readings, a construct called behavioral attitude (BA) from theory of planned behavior would help me measure this. In other words, whilst drafting my questionnaire, for predictability, I can have measures from BA which is from theory of planned behavior. Can I change the name of BA to predictability when measuring predictability or report "predictability is measured using the measures used to quantify BA from theory of planned behavior ". Do you have any suggestions?  Please help: ) Warm regards, Sid
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hello all, thank you for your valuable suggestions. Will take them all into consideration now as I am in my final stages of writing this paper :) Thank you, Sid
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Also interested in any scales that measure attitude toward others, for example in team settings or communities
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Dear Linda,
Check the following ones.
Self-efficacy
Cronbach alpha (whole scale) = 0.86 (Sherer et al., 1982)
If something looks too complicated, I will not even bother to try it. (R)
When I make plans, I am certain I can make them work.
When I set important goals for myself, I rarely achieve them. (R)
I avoid trying to learn new things when they look too difficult for me. (R)
If I can’t do a job the first time, I keep trying until I can.
I do not seem capable of dealing with most problems that come up in my life. (R)
When trying to learn something new, I soon give up if I am not initially successful. (R)
When I have something unpleasant to do, I stick to it until I finish it.
When unexpected problems occur, I don’t handle them very well. (R)
When I decide to do something, I go right to work on it.
I feel insecure about my ability to do things. (R)
Failure just makes me try harder.
I give up easily. (R)
I avoid facing difficulties.  (R)
I give up on things before completing them. (R)
One of my problems is that I cannot get down to work when I should. (R)
I am a self-reliant person.
 
Source: Sherer, M., Maddux, J.E., Mercadante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., and Rogers, R.W. (1982) The self-efficacy scale: Construction and Validation
Psychological Reports, 51, 663-671.
Self-Efficacy
Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4, 62-83.
I will be able to achieve most of the goals that I have set for ourselves
When facing difficult tasks, I am certain that I will accomplish them
In general, I think that I can obtain outcomes that are important to me
I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which I set our minds
I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges
I are confident that I can perform effectively on many different tasks
Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well
Even when things are tough, I can perform quite well
 
Self-Efficacy
Frese, M., Kring, W., Soose, A., & Zempel J.1996. Personal Initiative at Work: Differences between East and West Germany. Academy of Management Journal, 39, (1) 37-63.
5-point Likert scale (1 = not true at all, 5=very true).
When I am confronted with a new task, I am often afraid of not being able to handle it (recoded).
I like to make suggestions on how to improve the work process.
I judge my abilities to be high
If I want to achieve something, I can overcome setbacks without giving up my goal.
When I want to reach a goal, I am usually able to succeed.
In case I would become unemployed, I am convinced that, because of my abilities, I will soon find a new job.
JOB ENGAGEMENT: ANTECEDENTS AND EFFECTS ON
JOB PERFORMANCE
BRUCE LOUIS RICH
California State University San Marcos
JEFFREY A. LEPINE
EEAN R. CRAWFORD
University of Florida Academy of Management Journal
2010, Vol. 53, No. 3, 617–635.
I work with intensity on my job
I exert my full effort to my job
I devote a lot of energy to my job
I try my hardest to perform well on my job
I strive as hard as I can to complete my job
I exert a lot of energy on my job
Emotional engagement
I am enthusiastic in my job
I feel energetic at my job
I am interested in my job
I am proud of my job
I feel positive about my job
I am excited about my job
Cognitive engagement
At work, my mind is focused on my job
At work, I pay a lot of attention to my job
At work, I focus a great deal of attention on my job
At work, I am absorbed by my job
At work, I concentrate on my job
At work, I devote a lot of attention to my job
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I am looking for a questionnaire that can predict the readiness of therapists to work with aggressive and antisocial patients. I am interested in attitude, cognitions, emotions end stigma.
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Hello Arno, 
Please see attached for the article entitled "Attitudes toward Antisocial Personality Disorder Among Clinicians" (author: Theresa Matich). Hope it helps. 
Best wishes,
Julio  
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My research objective is to study the sentiments, attitudes, concerns and opinion of educators towards inclusive education. For the study I am using the Sentiments, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education Revised (SACIE-R) Scale (Forlin et. al., 2011). The items of the SACIE-R were not sufficient and some additional items were needed in the local context. I made a separate questionnaire with the required additional items and termed it as Opinion about Inclusive Education. The items in the self-made questionnaire were to study the overall view of the educators towards the concept of inclusive education.
I am facing with a suggestion that one should not be measuring attitudes and opinion in the same study, as attitudes are formed from opinion.
Can anyone please help me with this? Is it really not desirable to measure attitudes and opinion in the same study? Any suggestions or references regarding this will be of great help.
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Dear Aparna,
I understand your concern but I personally don't think it is a problem as any association (or possible dependency) will come out in the analysis.
The criticism you have mentioned may be semantically correct but I doubt whether a majority of your respondents will interpret these words to see it that way or even be concerned about it. Academically, I would say that it is a contested claim.
There is an advantage in using standard instruments when carrying out surveys so I would advise sticking with the first part.
I assume you are creating the second part yourself. This will require validation which has implications about sample size.
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Does anyone have article /articles attitude scale (Science, Technology, Maths...) for with intellectual disability students?
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I have devised  a scale for indian conditions but for industries and published in ISTD in 1998, may be it could serve as a starting point.
Relevant links enclosed
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I am looking for a tool to measure my research participants' environmental attitude. The tool or scale needs to be empirically used and tested. Thanks for your insights. 
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Hello Shahrzad
These are available from RG:
Milfont, T. L., & Duckitt, J. (2010). The environmental attitudes inventory: A valid and reliable measure to assess the structure of environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1), 80-94.
Metin, M. (2010, December). A study on developing a general attitude scale about environmental issues for students in different grade levels. In Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching (Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 3). Hong Kong Institute of Education. 10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong.
Is there anything useful in this:
Environmental Attitudes. Thomas A. Heberlein. Madison, Wisconsin (see p.9)
Very best wishes,
Mary
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I need this scale for my thesis, thank you for your help.
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Can someone please provide the best scale to measure product attitude?
I need help finding a scale on product attitude and on focusing.
Please link me.
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Also you can take some evaluations realized to similar products  or you can design a survey  or questionnaire (to evaluate some features of product related with the attitude) for apply to customers and after select some expert to decide the scale.
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Does anyone know where I can find this reference:Attitude Resolution Algorithm of Gyro-Free Inertial Navigation System?
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Find a theoretical scheme, in the attached document, for gyro-less inertial navigation system (using accelerometer only)
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What precision can be attained in Attitude determination employing single GNSS receiver?
Especially when there is a constraint of space/place due to miniature size of host vehicle (e.g. nano-satellite etc)?
What accuracy in attitude determination can be achieved by using single antenna based on SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) observation? Or any other scheme employing single GNSS receiver.
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I have never heard of any practical single-antenna GNSS-based attitude determination systems. All known examples employ either IMU aiding, or multi-antenna configurations.
Moreover, I cannot suggest any reliable physical principle on which such a system can be based. In terms of SNR, a GNSS antenna can be sensitive to the incidence angle only if it has a very asymmetrical gain pattern, but this would be in a bad contradiction with general design goals, according to which an ideal GNSS antenna must have a perfectly hemispherical gain pattern.      
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Are there recent studies about tourists attitude towards city marketing activities?
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Dear Anastasia,
Your full question,
“..Are there recent studies about tourists attitude towards city marketing activities?
Are there recent studies about tourists attitude towards city marketing activities?....” is very important as it deals with the “tourists attitude towards city marketing activities”
I’ll try to help by URLs and Definitions
DEFINITIONS
city marketing activities
  1. Marketing
  • Hunt, Shelby D. "The nature and scope of marketing." Journal of Marketing 40.3 (1976): 17-28.
  • Bagozzi, Richard. "Marketing as Exchange."Journal of Marketing 39.4 (1975): 32-39.
  • Drucker, Peter (1954). The practice of management. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.
  • Marketing definition approved in October 2007 by the American Marketing Association: [1].
  • Paul H. Selden (1997). Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press. p. 23.
  • "Marketing library resources - content, knowledge databases - CIM". Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  • Paliwoda, Stanley J.; John K. Ryans (2008). "Back to first principles". International Marketing: Modern and Classic Papers (1st ed.). p. 25. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  • 2.0, Women. "The Science Of Marketing". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
  • "Best Masters of Science (MScs) in Marketing 2017/2018". www.masterstudies.com. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  • "10 Steps to Creating a Marketing Plan for Your Small Business - dummies". dummies. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  • NetMBA.com. "Marketing Concept". www.netmba.com. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  • Weeks, Richard; Marx, William (Autumn 1968). "The Market Concept: Problems and Promises". Business and Society. 9: 39 – via Sage Journals.
  • Hague,P.N., Hague, N. and Morgan, C-A., Market Research in Practice: How to Get Greater Insight From Your Market, London, Kogan-Page, 2013, pp 19-20
  • Smith, W.R., "Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 1 , 1956, pp. 3–8 and reprinted in Marketing Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1995, pp. 63–65
  • Green, S.," What Comes Next? Survey Analysis and Segmentation," Discover the Future of Research [web article], Wiley, 12 January, 2017,
  • Ahmad, R., "Benefit Segmentation: A Potentially Useful Technique of Segmenting and Targeting Older Consumers," International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003
  • Mc Namara (1972) cited in Deshpande, R., Developing a Market Orientation, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 1999, p. 11
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.Marketing is used to create, keep and satisfy the customer. With the customer as the focus of its activities, it can be concluded that Marketing is one of the premier components of Business Management - the other being innovation.
Definition
Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large." The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market with goods for sale. From a sales process engineering perspective, marketing is "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions" of a business aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction.
Philip Kotler defines marketing as :-marketing is about Satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process.
The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as "the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably."A similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value. In this context, marketing can be defined as "the management process that seeks to maximise returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage."
Marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry in the past, which included advertising, distribution and selling. However, because the academic study of marketing makes extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology, mathematics, economics, anthropology and neuroscience, the profession is now widely recognized as a science allowing numerous universities to offer Master-of-Science (MSc) programs
The process of marketing is that of bringing a product to market in which includes these steps: broad market research; market targeting and market segmentation; determining distribution, pricing and promotion strategies; developing a communications strategy; budgeting; and visioning long-term market development goals. Many parts of the marketing process (e.g. product design, art director, brand management, advertising, copywriting etc.) involve use of the creative arts.
Concept
The 'marketing concept' proposes that in order to satisfy the organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of potential consumers and satisfy them more effectively than its competitors. This concept originated from Adam Smith's book The Wealth of Nations, but would not become widely used until nearly 200 years later.
Marketing and Marketing Concepts are directly related.
Given the centrality of customer needs and wants in marketing, a rich understanding of these concepts is essential:
Needs: Something necessary for people to live a healthy, stable and safe life. When needs remain unfulfilled, there is a clear adverse outcome: a dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as the need for food, water and shelter; or subjective and psychological, such as the need to belong to a family or social group and the need for self-esteem.
Wants: Something that is desired, wished for or aspired to. Wants are not essential for basic survival and are often shaped by culture or peer-groups.
Demands: When needs and wants are backed by the ability to pay, they have the potential to become economic demands.
Marketing research, conducted for the purpose of new product development or product improvement, is often concerned with identifying the consumer's unmet needs. Customer needs are central to market segmentation which is concerned with dividing markets into distinct groups of buyers on the basis of "distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors who might require separate products or marketing mixes." Needs-based segmentation (also known as benefit segmentation) "places the customers' desires at the forefront of how a company designs and markets products or services." Although needs-based segmentation is difficult to do in practice, has been proved to be one of the most effective ways to segment a market. In addition, a great deal of advertising and promotion is designed to show how a given product's benefits meet the customer's needs, wants or expectations in a unique way
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CITY MARKETING
REF
Aisah Asnawi August 30, 2016 “City Marketing: Cronological Definitions”
“City marketing” has become an interesting research issues for decades and attracted many scholars from various fields of studies (Management, Geography, Urban Planning, communication to mention some) leading to deep and substantial publications. Definition of city marketing have evolved over time, and came up with a variety of terms such as place marketing and city branding. Although there are differences or even debate on the terms, but some suggest that both terms have the same meaning or have a common understanding with the “city marketing”. There are many definitions emerging since 1982 until today. However, this paper analyses it not as a group of science but analysing the definitions of city marketing by decades, namely year 1982 to 1999, 2000 to 2008 and 2008-to the present. Besides the purpose of this paper is also to analyze the definition of city marketing in both similarities and differences.
Results: This paper shows that some scholars illustrate a city as a product. But marketing is very much different. Understanding the development of traditional thinking, problems and solutions as well as application of marketing in a city, promoting to the image of the city leading to the improvement of the socioeconomic becomes widely popular. It contains functions of marketing management which are more measurable, clearer and pay attention to the interests of all stakeholders (residents, investors and visitors).
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  • "What To Do". Maranello. April 6, 2017. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  • Spillman, Benjamin (2008-04-15). "LVCVA: What works here, stays here". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  • Metti, Michael Sebastian (1 June 2011). "Jerusalem - the most powerful brand in history". Stockholm University School of Business. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011.
  • Scott Cutlip (1995) Public Relations History, "Seattle shows the way for cities", pp 166,7
  • Dinnie, Keith (2011). City Branding. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 150–158.
  • Anholt, Simon (2007). Competitive Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 59–62.
  • "Paris wins back 'most admired city' from London". GFK. April 6, 2017. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  • "Paris wins back 'most admired city' from London". GFK. April 6, 2017. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017
City marketing (related to city branding) is the promotion of a city, or a district within it, with the aim of encouraging certain activities to take place there. It is used to alter the external perceptions of a city in order to encourage tourism, attract inward migration of residents, or enable business relocation. A significant feature of city marketing is the development of new landmark, or 'flagship', buildings and structures. The development of cities as a marketable product has led to competition between them for inward investment and government funding. It is often manifested in the attempts by cities to attract international sporting events, such as the Olympic Games. Competition between cities exists at the regional, national and international level; and is an effect of globalisation.
Some places are associated with certain brands and build on each other, but sometimes the commercial brand is so powerful that eclipses the place brand. An example of this is Maranello, Italy, which uses the Ferrari headquarters as a primary attraction for tourists.
City marketing can occur strategically or organically. An example of strategic city marketing is Las Vegas. The city is promoted through a variety of efforts with the strategic intent of acquiring cultural and economic bonuses. A case of organic city marketing is Jerusalem. The city is marketed without a grand strategy, as disorganized stakeholders over the course of centuries have glorified the city and encouraged pilgrimage, yielding cultural and economic bonuses. Both cases demonstrate city marketing, each with varying strategic and organic involvement. Generally, organic marketing occurs alongside strategic marketing, as the perception of the city is impossible to solely construct with strategic efforts.
According to Scott Cutlip, "one of the first, if not the first, municipal promotion programs" was led by Erastus Brainerd for the city of Seattle beginning in 1896. Seattle was in competition with Portland and Victoria as the preferred city in which to get supplied for the Klondike Gold Rush. A Bureau of Public Information was established within the city’s Chamber of Commerce.
Like with any successful marketing effort, cities must be willing to commit to a long-term plan in order for their identity and message to be communicated effectively. A shared vision between stakeholders will help develop a cohesive overarching strategy for a city's image
MAIN THEME
R Rajesh(2013) “Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India “Impact of Tourist Perceptions, Destination Image and Tourist Satisfaction on Destination Loyalty: A Conceptual Model” PASOS, Vol. 11 Nº 3. Special Issue. págs. 67-78. 2013
“…..The impact of tourist perception, destination image and satisfaction on loyalty has been trendy research topic in tourism research. It is very important to determine the destination image while taking decisions for strategic marketing of tourism destinations. Because it is assumed that it will result in a positive image of a destination, loyalty to tourist destinations and satisfaction felt by tourists, such as variables (Suzan Coban, 2012). The loyalty is a concept closely related to tourists’ satisfaction and as a result even with the ideas there is a high degree of satisfaction with loyal tourists. However, in the context of travel and tourism, a review of literature reveals an abundance of studies on destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty has not been thoroughly investigated (Oppermann, 2000). Therefore, it is time for practitioners and academics to conduct more studies of loyalty in order to have greater knowledge of this concept, to understand the role of customer satisfaction in developing loyalty, the impact of other non-satisfaction determinants on customer loyalty, and their interrelationships * Dept. of Tourism Studies, School of Management, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India. Email: rajeshtresearch@gmail.com http://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2013.11.039 PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 11 Nº 3. Special Issue. Julio 2013 ISSN 1695-7121 68 Impact of Tourist Perceptions …, (Christina Geng Qing Chi & Hailin Qu, 2008). The effects of destination image and satisfaction on destination loyalty are studied in the present study. 2. Objectives of the study 1. The study the impact of tourist perceptions, destination image and satisfaction on tourist loyalty; 2. To analysis the components, attributes and factors influence of the tourist perception and destination image; 3. To examine the attributes of tourist satisfaction ; and 4. To expose the determinants of destination loyalty. 3. Conceptual Framework 3.1. Destination Image Destination image has been one of the key areas of tourism research for more than four decades (Svetlana & Juline, 2010). Image is defined as “the people feelings of anything that they aware” (Boulding, 1956). Image is defined as “people hold are a way of organizing the different stimuli received on a daily basis and help make sense of the world in which we live” (Mayo, 1973). Destination image is defined as “an expression of knowledge, impressions, prejudices, imaginations and emotional thoughts an individual has of a specific place” (Lawson and Baud Bovy, 1977). Image further defined as “the sum of beliefs, impressions, ideas and perceptions that people hold of objects, behaviors and events” (Crompton, 1979). Destination image defined as “the overall perception of the destination that is formed by processing information from various sources over time” (Assael, 1984). Ideas or perceptions held individually or collectively about a destination by people (Embacher & Buttle, 1989). Image defined “as the sum of beliefs, attitudes, impressions that a person or group has of an object and impressions may be true or false, real or imagined” (Barich and Kotler 1991). Image is defined as “an internalised, conceptualised and personalized understanding of what one knows” (Ahmed, 1996). Destination image is defined as “the perception of groups of people” (Jenkins, 1999). “Perceptions or impressions of a destination held by tourists with respect to the expected benefit or consumption values” (Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000). Totality of impressions, beliefs, ideas, expectations, and feelings accumulated towards a place over time by an individual or group of people” (Kim & Richardson, 2003). “Destination image is an interactive system of thoughts, opinions, feelings, visualisations, and intentions toward a destination” (Tasci et al., 2007). 3.2. Components of Destination Image Destination image made up of two components of image, the components were organic images and induced images. Organic images formed by individuals themselves through past experiences with destinations and unbiased sources of information (i.e. news, reports, newspaper articles and movies). Induced images created through information received from external sources, including destination advertising and promotion (Gunn, 1972). Destination image encompasses only cognitive image components. Cognitive image refers to beliefs, impressions, ideas, perceptions and knowledge that people hold on objects (Crompton, 1979). The overall or totality of image or impression based on individual attributes and also reveals the relationship between cognitive attributes and overall image (Keown et al, 1984). The totality of image depends on evaluations of different products and services (Mazursky, D & Jacoby, J, 1986). Tourist perceptions of destination attributes of various activities and attractions within an area will interact to form overall image (Gartner, 1986). The images were formed by cognitive and affective judgments, affective judgments based on individual feelings and emotions towards an object (Baloglu et al, 1997; Walmsley, 1998 & Baloglu & Mangaloglu 2001). Dann (1996) suggested destination image were created by cognitive, affective and conative. Cognitive component made up of the sum of beliefs, impressions, ideas and perceptions that people hold of an object. The affective component deals with how a person feels about the objects. 3.3. Attributes of Destination Image Charlotte and Ritchie (1991) the destination image researchers were used following attributes to measure the destination image, the attributes were scenery or natural attractions, costs or price levels, climate, tourist sites or activities ,nightlife and entertainment, sports facilities or activities, national parks or wilderness activities, local infrastructure, transportation, architecture or buildings, historic sites, museums, beaches, shopping facilities, accommodation facilities, cities fairs, exhibits, festivals, facilities PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 11 Nº 3. Special Issue. Julio 2013 ISSN 1695-7121 R. Rajesh 69 for information and tours, crowdedness ,cleanliness, personal safety, economic development or affluence, accessibility, degree of urbanisation, extent of commercialization, political stability, hospitality or friendliness or receptiveness, different customs or culture, different cuisine or food and drink, restful or relaxing, atmosphere, opportunity for adventure, opportunity to increase knowledge, family or adult oriented ,quality of service and fame or reputation. Sonmez S. & Sriakaya E. (2002) used this attributes to measure destination image, architectural styles, local festivals, archeological treasures, natural scenic beauty, cities, museums & art galleries, adventure, weather, cultural heritage, plenty of places to get away from crowds, local people are friendly, good-quality restaurants, hotels are easy to find , restful and relaxing place to visit, food, lifestyles and customs, standard of living, dress, road conditions, cleanliness and hygiene, safe and security, culture, shopping facilities, nature preserves and wilderness areas, tourist information, tour availability, skiing opportunity, national parks, price and good value for money. Beerli and Martin (2004) categorized attributes into nine dimensions: (1) natural resources (i.e. weather, temperature, rainfall, hours of sunshine, beaches, quality of seawater, length of beaches, overcrowding of beaches, wealth of countryside, protected natural reserves, lakes, mountains, deserts, variety and uniqueness of flora and fauna); (2) tourist leisure and recreation (i.e. accommodation, number of beds ,categories, quality, restaurants number, quality, bars, discos and clubs, hotels and self-catering, ease of access, excursions at destination, tourist centers and network of tourist information); (3) natural environment (i.e. beauty of the scenery, attractiveness, cleanliness, overcrowding, air and noise pollution and traffic congestion); (4) general infrastructure (i.e. development and quality of roads, airports and ports, private and public transport facilities, development of health services, development of telecommunications, development of commercial infrastructure, extent of building development); (5) culture, history, and art (i.e. festival, concerts, handicraft, gastronomy, folklore, religion, museums, historical buildings, monuments, customs and ways of life); (6) social environment (i.e. quality of life, underprivileged and poverty, language barriers, hospitality and friendliness of the local residents); (7) tourist infrastructure (i.e. accommodation, number of beds ,categories, quality, restaurants number, quality, bars, discos and clubs, hotels and self-catering, ease of access, excursions at destination, tourist centers, network of tourist information); (8) political and economic factors(i.e. political stability, political tendencies, terrorist attacks, safety, crime rate, economic development and prices); and (9) Leisure and recreations (i.e. golf, fishing, hunting, skiing, entertainment and sports activities, scuba diving, trekking, adventure activities, theme parks, water parks, zoos, casinos, nightlife and shopping). Chi, C. G.Qing, & Qu, H. (2008) classified attributes into nine aspects, (1) travel environment (i.e. safe and secure environment, clean and tidy environment, friendly and helpful local people, tranquil & restful atmosphere and pleasant weather); (2) natural attractions (i.e. scenic mountain & valleys, scenery & natural attractions, gardens & springs, scenic drive, parks, lakes, rivers, wildlife, caves and underground formations); (3) entertainment & events (i.e. shows or exhibitions, cultural events & festivals, quality, fun ,western music, nightlife and entertainment); (4) historic attractions (i.e. history & heritage and Vintage buildings); (5) infrastructure (i.e. restaurants, cuisine, shop facilities and accommodations); (6) accessibility (i.e. traffic flow and parking information, parking facilities ,access to the area and affordable trolley system); (7) relaxation (i.e. spa, soothing the mind and refreshing the body, spiritual rejuvenation); (8) outdoor activities (i.e. boating, fishing, hiking, picnicking, camping and hunting, outdoor recreation and golfing) and (9) price and value (i.e. food, accommodation, good value for money, attract The objective this research paper is develops a destination loyalty theoretical model by using tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction. These study analysis components, attributes, factor influencing the destination image and examine the tourist satisfaction and determinants of destination loyalty. This is a conceptual paper attempts at evaluating recent empirical on destination image, tourist satisfaction and loyalty. The conceptual framework model is developed on the basis of existing theoretical and empirical research in the field of destination marketing. The models include four constructs. Tourist Perception constructs has been influenced by factors like Historical and Cultural Attractions, Destination Affordability, Travel Environment, Natural Attractions, Entertainments and Infrastructure. Destination image construct has been influenced by factors like Infrastructure & Facilities, Heritage Attractions, Natural Made Attractions, Destination Safety & Cleanness, Friendly Local Community & Clam Atmosphere, Rejuvenation and Service Price and Affordability. The satisfaction construct has been influenced by factors like Entertainments, Destination Attractions and Atmosphere, Accommodation, Food, Transportation Services and Shopping. The destination loyalty construct has influenced by intentions to revisit, word of mouth promotion and recommending to others. The earlier study result reveals that tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction directly influence destination loyalty. The outcomes of the study have significant managerial implications for destination marketing managers. Key words: Perception, Image, Satisfaction, Loyalty, Attributes and Determinants.
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Si Ayutthaya Province Nongluck Popichit Faculty of Management Science Suan Dusit Rajabhat University Thailand Jirawat Anuwichanont, Ph.d. Graduate School Suan Dusit Rajabhat University Thailand Jirut Chuanchom, Ph.d. Faculty of Management Science Suan Dusit Rajabhat University Thailand Assoc.Prof. Sirivan Serirat Graduate School Suan Dusit Rajabhat University Thailand Assoc.Prof. Panisa Mechinda, Ph.d. Faculty of Business Administration Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi Thailand (2013) “A Survey of Destination Potential, Tourism Activities and Future Travelling Intention towards Tourism along the Rivers in Phra Nakhon” . “International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 4 No. 7; July 2013 116
This research was aimed to examine the potential of tourism destinations along the rivers and the factors affecting tourists’ future travelling intention towards the tourism along the rivers in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It includes the questionnaire with 5-level of Likert scale - as the tools in collecting data from the samples of 400 Thai tourists of the tourism who answered while spending time along the rivers in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. Statistics for data analysis were step-wise regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The research results were shown as the following. The evaluation of tourism destinations along the rivers in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province was found to be high potential with historical value as the first rank. The analysis revealed that the factors affecting tourists’ future travelling intention towards the tourism along the rivers included historical value of identity, tourism management and environmental factors, respectively at the statistical significance level of 0.05. In addition, there were positive relationships between attitude towards tourism activities and tourists’ future travelling intention. Key words: Destination Potential, Future Travelling Intention, Tourism along the Rivers Introduction According to the tourism survey of 2011, the findings revealed that Ayutthaya was regarded as one of the favorite tourist destinations of Thailand. Ayutthaya was ranked as the fourth province of Thailand which most tourists are interested to visit (Manager Online, 2012). Ayutthaya was apparent of having long and ancient history as well as temples and ancient places with high historical values. © Center for Promoting Ideas, USA www.ijbssnet.com 117 In addition, there are three rivers surrounding Ayutthaya, including Chao Phraya River, Pasak River and Lopburi River. This landscape brings various tourism activities, which offer tourists the opportunities to learn the ancient histories, sceneries and local folkways of communities along the rivers in Ayutthaya. This tourism along the rivers is favorite among both Thai and foreign tourists (Governor's Office of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, 2012). Therefore, the tourism along the rivers offer for visitors the opportunities to experience not only new and unfamiliar places with naturally spectacular sceneries and views, but also exploring the way of lives of local communities as well as tourism destinations along the rivers, which bring tourists delightful and relaxing experiences. To date tourists’ travelling behaviors have been changed dramatically. Nowadays, tourists give more emphasis on local communities, cultural heritage and the quality of tourism destinations with safety, cleanliness, environmental friendly and orientation. Moreover, they utilize more tourism information when travelling (Ministry of Tourism and Sports of Thailand, 2011, p. 1). In line with tourists’ behaviors, the market survey of tourism destination indicated that the destination value and readiness of supporting tourism activities are the determinant in attracting tourists to visit. Moreover, tourism activities are regarded as the major indicators in bringing satisfaction, enjoyment and happiness to tourists. These tourism outcomes resulted in tourists’ revisiting in the future and recommendation to others to visit tourism destinations. Literature Review Tourism Tourism is defined as the travel for seeking new experiences and relaxation which travelers are not forced to travel (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2001). Moreover, tourism is regarded as the temporary travel, not for the sake of occupation or staying permanently (World Tourism Organization, n.d.) with the objectives of recreation, business or others within less than one year (Rowe, Smith & Borein, 2002). This definition is consistent with International Union of Official Travel Organization (IUOTO) which internationally specifies three characteristics of tourism (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2006) including (1) travelling outside their usual environment temporarily (2) voluntary travelling (3) travelling without any professional purpose. Destination Potential The reason why tourists choose a destination is based on the extent of destinations’ attractiveness and interestedness in influencing tourists’ satisfaction. The assessment of destination potential helps indicating and rating the importance of existing destination resources in each region or province (Jittangwatana, 2005). In addition, the assessment of destination potential also identifies destinations’ capabilities and readiness in order to rank them according to their importance (Emphadhu & Ruschano, 2007). The assessment of tourism destination potential includes the examination of destination value or equity, physical aspects of destinations, readiness of destinations in terms of infrastructure, accessibility, environment, reputation and safety. However, the assessment of destination potential was related to the five major components of destination or 5A (Dickman, 1996) including attraction, accessibility, amenities, accommodation and activities. Most of the tourism destinations along the river in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province are historical destinations. Thus, the concept of the assessment of historical destinations and the assessment criteria of destination potential of the Office of Tourism Development. It was adopted to examine the attitudes towards destination potential in this research project (Office of tourism development, 2008). This assessment included historical value, physical aspect of tourism destination (accessibility, safety, varieties of tourism activities), destination potential in developing facilities and infrastructure and potential in tourism management. Tourism Activities Tourism activities are defined as the attractiveness and facilities which are developed enhance recreational and relaxing tourism such as golf, theme parks, entertainment complex, zoos, aquarium, parks and other activities. These tourism activities allow tourists to have participation in such activities such as sports, shopping or activities related to business, agriculture and industry (Tourism Authority of Thailand, n.d.). Even though tourists pay attention to destination and facilities as the first priority, tourism activities play the important role in attracting tourists in participating in these activities (Merchant, 2005). International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 4 No. 7; July 2013 118 Consequently, tourism activities are regarded as another important component of tourism. If tourists hold favorable and pleasant attitudes towards tourism activities, the future intention to visit the tourism destinations will be elevated. The tourism activities along the rivers in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province were considered as the tourism activities in relation to ecological tourism. These activities give tourists opportunities to engage in historical and cultural activities such as the sightseeing and learning of the identity of ancient places and objects, the background of historical and ancient places, works of art, local handicrafts, local culture and traditions, folk wisdom and local souvenirs and products (Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (1997). Moreover, tourism activities also include boat trips for the sightseeing of natural scenery, the scenery along the canal, the worship of holy things and photographing (Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, 2005). The tourism along the rivers is associated with tourism destinations with identities of cultures and traditions. The findings of the examination of the number of tourists’ participation in activities revealed that the sightseeing of scenery, museums, works of art and historical places resulted in the repeated travelling and positive recommendation to others (Taks et al., 2009). Future Travelling Intention Intentions were defined as a person’s expectation regarding certain behavior which has the tendency to happen under the specific conditions (Hsu & Crotts, 2006). Future travelling intention was defined as the tendency that tourists repeat travelling in the future. This intention influence future tourists’ behaviors which implies that tourists repeat visiting the same places and engage themselves in the same tourism activities because of favorable past experiences and attitudes regarding certain tourism destinations and activities (Chen & Gursoy, 2000). Thus, future travelling intention is influenced by attitudes and satisfaction towards past experiences. According to the planned behavioral theory (Ajzen, 2006), attitude toward behavior is the belief towards behavioral outcome and the evaluation of behavioral outcome while subjective norms is the belief towards others’ expectation as the norms and the motivation of expectation. Attitude and subjective norms have an impact on individuals’ intention and behavior. Therefore, the more favorable attitudes and subjective norms, the more behavioral intention will be. Francis et al. (2004) adopted the planned behavioral theory in forecasting the behavioral intention as (1) the assessment of attitude is to identify whether a person likes something (2) subjective norms is the situation that a person is socially forced to do something
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Finally,
“tourists attitude towards city marketing activities” could be concerned as a game, or even more as a continuous bargain, between local people and consumers (for example , “tourists”)
On this point, we introduce the COMMUNITY as “a player above the others”, in a re-active “behavior”
As “tourists attitude towards city marketing activities” reacts with real human needs and therefore behaviors, let me study this reaction, by the prism of strategies, individual strategies
Of course, the John Nash’ game –non cooperative game theory with its famous N.E gives an answer But it is not enough for a meta-capitalist global society
The launched “win-win-win papakonstantinidis model, may give some new ideas for a meta-capitalist economic organization
As, i believe and hope that any human reaction must have-it is forced to have- a social welfare step, has been launched-since 2002- an alternative price strategy approach: Any reactive, instant reflection winning strategy(DECISION) could be approached by the game theory-especially, the bargaining theory and its Nash win-win solution. [So, this let us to see human reaction as a game, especially as a part of the whole holistic equilibrium, under the [Nash hypothesis AND Pareto efficiency constraints] That is the “win-win-win papakonstantinidis model”
A “win-win-win holistic proposal includes the COMMUNITY , or the “C” factor, not only as “a third player”, but more a “person” with more than one responsibilities:
This “fantastic person” [i.e a family, a neighborhood, a place, an area, a city, a town, a state, AND history, tradition, behavior code, ethic, race….” (something that produces cohesion links) MUST play a 3D responsibilities, concerning as “mediator” of all “cohesion forces”
See:
Arbitrator
Mediator
Agent: “the Principal-Agent Theory”… The Leader: The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
Introducing the “COMMUNITY” as the “total good” we created a new player with increased responsibilities in the GAME : these responsibilities are arisen in the bargain and for the bargain, thus transforming a TWO –players anticipation, in a THREE-players anticipation, thus proposing a new view in our (capitalist) system
Especially,
The study of reactive behavior, as it is included in (rational) DECISION MAKING, as are based on re-active strategic MARKET behavior, expecting “PAYOFFS” as their “motivation power” in the bargain …………………………………
So, let me make this parallelism of reactive behavior with the investigation, in a game, as a re-active system of n-tuples strategies, or decision making……………………………………
In any game, payoffs are numbers which represent the motivations of players, towards starting a bargain …it is like “expectations”
The historical side:
Maybe, our proposal reminds the mid-war "Wörgl Experiments" in Austria, but it is a quite different situation, due to technology
In my mind, at that moment when it "appeared" it was doomed to fail, due to difficult economic and political conditions from the mid-war period
In my opinion, this period has something plus to previous periods: We have the "Information Technologies".
Now, "New Technologies" form a new economic-politic environment out of what we know till now New e-markets, new way of payment, new perception of anything
The liquidity of situations, borders, markets, form a NEW landscape, which -in my opinion-introduces us in a post-capitalism world, when the "INFORMATION" will be the most valuable meaning out of markets and political situations
..and a last note on these, due to the INFORMATION people will not are bound from any kind of oligopoly, as the information has transform a strict oligopoly in a complete competition: As I have the possibility to look for something all over the world, then the local oligopoly will not be so strict ..Today, "time sharing" or BNRB, or e-marketing or.... are new forms of economic activities, out from the strict local oligopolies
BEHAVIOR
Behaviorism represents a movement away from a focus on cognition or "thinking" or "feelings" and toward a focus on the Environment as the Immediate or Proximate cause from human behaviors
(Social Psychology also conceptualizes the environment (others) as motivating human behaviors, but through the lens of broader and longer-term rationality)
Behaviorism approaches human behavior from a deterministic perspective - human action is the product of environmental causes, rather than free will or choice - Premise: if you understand how a person has been "conditioned", you can reliably predict his/her behavior
A persons actions are determined by things that we cant control we JUST respond to the environment (nurture)
Two Forms of Behaviorism
Radical Behaviorism Behaviorism
Radical Behaviorism
Explaining behavior as a result of operant conditioning (manipulating the environment) - Behaviors result from consequences - Behaviors cause consequences (and past conditioning makes a person "aware" of this)
Marketing and Consumer Behavior From the Perspective of Operant Conditioning [Radical Behaviorism]
Assumption: Behaviors (Choices) and Preferences are driven by past learning (we are products of our childhood)
Behavior is Goal-Oriented, but not the outcome of careful reasoning or introspection - All humans have been uniquely programmed or Conditioned to react and behave in specific manners --- Behaviors are the result of past rewards or punishment --- Human behavior is always consistent with past conditioning
Thus while individual actions are not always "rational" according to consensual definitions, they are always consistent with (and explainable in terms of) individual patterns of prior learning
Behaviorism (came first)
Explaining behavior as a result of Respondent Conditioning (not thinking just doing reflex) - Behaviors Result from environmental cues - Cues cause behaviors (due to past conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Also called Instrumental or Skinnerian Conditioning - Made Famous by B.F. Skinner - Humans are conditioned through reinforcement to behave in a particular way
All human behavior is the result of past conditioning or Learning and represents an attempt to Obtain a Reward or Avoid a Punishment
Conditioning comes from a perception or belief in a particular pattern of cause-and-effect (do one thing which results in another and that is what you learn throughout life)
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Stakeholder Theory(Freeman, 2010/1984)., and especially its normative branch, suggests that all companies should act in the best interests of all stakeholders. By also noting that an organization will usually claim that it is operating within the bounds and norms of its society we also consider Legitimacy Theory (Deegan and Unerman, 2011). Legitimacy Theory relies upon a social contract being formed between the organization and society and this contract incorporates the expectations of society about how the organization should conduct its operations. Rather than being treated as competing theories, Gray et al. (1995, p. 52) argue that there is some correlation or overlap between Stakeholder Theory and Legitimacy Theory. Both theories, according to Gray et al. (1995, p. 52), “are better seen as two (overlapping) perspectives of the issue which are set within the framework of assumptions about ‘political economy’”. Deegan (2002, p. 295) contributes to this view by indicating that both theories conceptualize the organization as part of a broader social system which the company impacts upon, and is impacted by, other individuals and groups within society. This implies that organizations need to legitimize their actions before a wide set of stakeholders and consider morals and ethics when dealing with their stakeholders (Donaldson and Preston, 1995).
Reinforcement[1]
Reinforcement is an important part of operant or instrumental conditioning.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. This strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior (e.g., pulling a lever more frequently), longer duration (e.g., pulling a lever for longer periods of time), greater magnitude (e.g., pulling a lever with greater force), or shorter latency (e.g., pulling a lever more quickly following the antecedent stimulus).
Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward. Although it provides a good definition, positive reinforcement is only one of several reward functions. ... Rewards are attractive. They are motivating and make us exert an effort. ... Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward. ... Intrinsic rewards are activities that are pleasurable on their own and are undertaken for their own sake, without being the means for getting extrinsic rewards. ... Intrinsic rewards are genuine rewards in their own right, as they induce learning, approach, and pleasure, like perfectioning, playing, and enjoying the piano. Although they can serve to condition higher order rewards, they are not conditioned, higher order rewards, as attaining their reward properties does not require pairing with an unconditioned reward.
Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" (desire and pleasure, respectively) and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers; the converse statement is also true: positive reinforcers provide a desirable stimulus. Reinforcement does not require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Thus, reinforcement occurs only if there is an observable strengthening in behavior. However, there is also negative reinforcement, which is characterized by taking away an undesirable stimulus. An ibuprofen is a negative reinforcer because it takes away pain.
In most cases, the term "reinforcement" refers to an enhancement of behavior, but this term is also sometimes used to denote an enhancement of memory; for example, "post-training reinforcement" refers to the provision of a stimulus (such as food) after a learning session in an attempt to increase the retained breadth, detail, and duration of the individual memories or overall memory just formed. The memory-enhancing stimulus can also be one whose effects are directly rather than only indirectly emotional, as with the phenomenon of "flashbulb memory," in which an emotionally highly intense stimulus can incentivize memory of a set of a situation's circumstances well beyond the subset of those circumstances that caused the emotionally significant stimulus, as when people of appropriate age are able to remember where they were and what they were doing when they learned of the assassination of John F. Kennedy or of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward. Although it provides a good definition, positive reinforcement is only one of several reward functions. ... Rewards are attractive. They are motivating and make us exert an effort. ... Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward. ... Intrinsic rewards are activities that are pleasurable on their own and are undertaken for their own sake, without being the means for getting extrinsic rewards. ... Intrinsic rewards are genuine rewards in their own right, as they induce learning, approach, and pleasure, like perfectioning, playing, and enjoying the piano. Although they can serve to condition higher order rewards, they are not conditioned, higher order rewards, as attaining their reward properties does not require pairing with an unconditioned reward.
BARGAIN
When the strategist finds no reason to give specific preference to one criterion over another, the principle of insufficient reason suggests that all criteria should be preferred equally, i.e. λj=1;∀j. Conversely, when the DM has a strong perception of the relative importance of criteria, he/she may wish to disregard the wj entropy weights and follow the problem solely with the λj weights.
18/07: EXAMPLE
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J Nash, 1950
· Let us suppose that two intelligent individuals, Bill and Jack, are in a position where they may barter goods but have no money with which to facilitate exchange. Further, let us assume for simplicity that the utility to either individual of a portion of the total number of goods in­volved is the sum of the utilities to him of the individual goods in that portion. We give below a table of goods possessed by each individual with the utility of each to each individual. The utility functions used for the two individuals are, of course, to be regarded as arbitrary.
When the strategist finds no reason to give specific preference to one criterion over another, the principle of insufficient reason [42]suggests that all criteria should be preferred equally, i.e. λj=1;∀j. Conversely, when the DM has a strong perception of the relative importance of criteria, he/she may wish to disregard the wj entropy weights and follow the problem solely with the λj weights.
18/07: EXAMPLE
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J Nash, 1950
· Let us suppose that two intelligent individuals, Bill and Jack, are in a position where they may barter goods but have no money with which to facilitate exchange. Further, let us assume for simplicity that the utility to either individual of a portion of the total number of goods in­volved is the sum of the utilities to him of the individual goods in that portion. We give below a table of goods possessed by each individual with the utility of each to each individual. The utility functions used for the two individuals are, of course, to be regarded as arbitrary.
· The graph for this bargaining situation is included as an illustration (Figure 2). It turns out to be a convex polygon in which the point where the product of the utility gains is maximized is at a vertex and where there is but one corresponding anticipation. This is:
Bill gives Jack: book, whip, ball, and bat,
Jack gives Bill: pen, toy, and knife.
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· When the bargainers have a common medium of exchange the problem may take on an especially simple form. In many cases the money equivalent of a good will serve as a satisfactory approximate utility function. (By the money equivalent is meant the amount of money which is just as desirable as the good to the individual with whom we are concerned.) This occurs when the utility of an amount of money is approximately a linear function of the amount in the range of amounts concerned in the situation. When we may use a common medium of exchange for the utility function for each individual the set of points in the graph is such that that portion of it in the first quadrant forms an isosceles right tri­angle. Hence the solution has each bargainer getting the same money profit (see Figure 3).
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Figure 2—The solution point is on a rectangular hyperbola lying in the first quadrant and touching the set of alternatives at but one point
Figure 3—The inner area represents the bargains possible without the use of money. The area between parallel lines represents the possibilities allowing the use of money. Utility and gain measured by money are here equated for small amounts of money. The solution must be formed using a barter-type bargain for which u\ + u2 is at a maximum and using also an exchange of money.
Papakonstantinidis proposal
on “measuring” social welfare: the TOPSIS Method: It transforms the “quality property in a quantitive –mesurable sizes
18/07: EXAMPLE
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J Nash, 1950
· Let us suppose that two intelligent individuals, Bill and Jack, are in a position where they may barter goods but have no money with which
to facilitate exchange. Further, let us assume for simplicity that the utility to either individual of a portion of the total number of goods in­volved is the sum of the utilities to him of the individual goods in that portion. We give below a table of goods possessed by each individual with the utility of each to each individual. The utility functions used for the two individuals are, of course, to be regarded as arbitrary.
· The graph for this bargaining situation is included as an illustration (Figure 2). It turns out to be a convex polygon in which the point where the product of the utility gains is maximized is at a vertex and where there is but one corresponding anticipation. This is:
Bill gives Jack: book, whip, ball, and bat,
Jack gives Bill: pen, toy, and knife.
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· When the bargainers have a common medium of exchange the problem may take on an especially simple form. In many cases the money equivalent of a good will serve as a satisfactory approximate utility function. (By the money equivalent is meant the amount of money which is just as desirable as the good to the individual with whom we are concerned.) This occurs when the utility of an amount of money is approximately a linear function of the amount in the range of amounts concerned in the situation. When we may use a common medium of exchange for the utility function for each individual the set of points in the graph is such that that portion of it in the first quadrant forms an isosceles right tri­angle. Hence the solution has each bargainer getting the same money profit (see Figure 3).
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·
Figure 2—The solution point is on a rectangular hyperbola lying in the first quadrant and touching the set of alternatives at but one point
Figure 3—The inner area represents the bargains possible without the use of money. The area between parallel lines represents the possibilities allowing the use of money. Utility and gain measured by money are here equated for small amounts of money. The solution must be formed using a barter-type bargain for which u\ + u2 is at a maximum and using also an exchange of money.
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02/11/2017
Gain for player 3, COMMUNITY, G3
📷📷📷📷papakonstantinidis model (G1,G2,G3 MAX)
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Papakonstantinidis 02-11-2017
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The concept concerns the NE as the best social welfare’ level [the angels society] and any other “level” as the worst [capturing the “worst” scenario/strategy”] reduce the probability of excusing some information [the negative entropy]
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Payoffs may represent profit, quantity, "utility," or other continuous measures (CARDINAL PAYOFFS), or may simply rank the desirability of outcomes (ORDINAL PAYOFFS). In all cases, the payoffs must reflect the motivations of the particular player, especially, in human reactive
In other words, from the philosophical side, people, living in a rational world make efforts to create individual strategies, such as to satisfy personal needs From the same side, politicians who have been voted to govern, have the obligation to “produce” policies, such to meet needs of the other people
The importance of the “bargain” is obvious in any reactive decision/behavior of any being on the earth
From this point of view, we tried to make obvious the “social necessities” by “voting policies” based on state long or short run strategies
Introducing the “COMMUNITY” as the “total good” we created a new player in the bargain and for the bargain, thus transforming a TWO –players anticipation, in a THREE-players anticipation, thus proposing a new view in our (capitalist) system
From this point of view, human reactive “STRATEGY” is closer to decision making, while POLICY is closer to expected (with some probability) policy, coming from those has the “bargaining power” to crucially influence the bargain in a widely human (and not only) environment
Of course, a collection of payoffs forms a possible outcome of human reactive behavior
In game theory, an outcome is a situation which results from a combination of player's strategies. Every combination of strategies (one for each player) is an outcome of the game. A primary purpose of game theory is to determine which outcomes are stable according to a solution concept (e.g. Nash equilibria).
In a game where chance or a random event is involved, the outcome is not known from only the set of strategies, but is only realized when the random event(s) are realized.
In this frame, “the study of the question on human reactive behavior may be resulted as the outcome of mixed entrepreneurs’/State strategies (decisions) and that must be taken in the stage of decision making (the starting game’s point)
In an advanced games’ version, NE could define not only the A-B bargainers’ payoffs (the motivations of the particular player)but also the “COMMUNITY” (as a total of Human Values and Culture) payoff As each bargainer (A-B) understands that must reduce their claims (=payoffs)in order the Community be satisfied, then a NEW Equilibrium must be feasible and stable
By this innovation, the SOCIAL COST of human reactive behavior could be measured and estimated as deviation from the equilibrium point, according to Nash Solution, extending such as to include the COMMUNITY as the third part of negotiation
Launching the "win-win-win papakonstantinidis model" helps the scientific Community providing it by a NEW methodological tool for measuring the social cost, in terms of deviation from the EQUILIBRIUM POINT ,that represents dissatisfaction or satisfaction resulting from the consumption of certain goods
Expressing consumer's dissatisfaction or satisfaction in terms of avoiding the market of certain products that cause intolerance and turning to those that maximize their satisfaction with their consumption, our societies are built on people's "preferences" Why ".."? Because companies , especial the big multinational companies, have the know-how and the means to impose their will, on people mass and thus sell their production The same logic goes through and the political-political consumer-voter expresses with the vote of people Dissatisfaction or satisfaction resulting from the country's political programs or governance are included in the same world-planet MODEL
The math approach of the win-win-win papakonstantinidis model let us to have more and flexible policies, to realize a strategic objective
For this, we launched since 2002 (August 14, Visby University SW,EURACADEMY) the “win-win-win papakonstantinidis model” thus measuring the “social cost” coming from any bargain between 2, in terms of COMMUNITY losses –see at the 116 docs uploaded in RG,
Now, in practical level, a question may be arisen:
“Who can share, in the case of social welfare?”
[..The philosophical question “Who can share the benefits of moral cultivation?”, raised by the Professor Frieda Mah (Universal Acupuncture and TCM-Corp)[2] could be approached-in my mind- by the suggested “win-win-win papakonstantinidis model” as it meets “relations COMMUNITY-CITIZEN” as well as citizens, each-other in the frame of a bargain ..][3],
"In particular, in the case of a triple-pole bargain [ bargainers, A-B and the COMMUNITY, "C"][4] each of which claims its own profit, the "Nah-solution [corresponded to Nash Equilibrium] leads bargain in the best-for the whole of society, point: It is the point which meets the "Pareto optimality" criterion, in a "Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) "level"
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The marginal rate of substitution is defined as the absolute value of the slope of the indifference curve at whichever commodity bundle quantities are of interest. That turns out to equal the ratio of the marginal utilities on the point of price ratio, or “related prices” corresponding the cost that one is willing to decide to buy the “b” instead of “a” (combining property properties and relative values on an indifference curve
[A relative price for say, is the price of a commodity such as a good or service in terms of another; i.e., the ratio of two prices. A relative price may be expressed in terms of a ratio between any two prices or the ratio between the price of one particular good and a weighted average of all other goods available in the market. A relative price is an opportunity cost. Microeconomics can be seen as the study of how economic agents react to changes in relative prices.]
A relative price may be expressed in terms of a ratio between any two prices or the ratio between the price of one particular good and a weighted average of all other goods (aog) available in the market.
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The differential-marginal time [dt] on which we decide [to get married, to travel, to ask for a loan to buy a house, to study, to look for a job, to choose a way to go from my home to my job and thousands of moments when I make a decision (a strategy, according to the game theory)
On this point (the time-point of decision) must be
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Now, what is the “new” which lunched with the “win-win-win papakonstantinidis model?
Till now, according to Nash Equilibrium (NE), any succeed output of a “win-win agreement” [NE] could interpret different moves due to HUMAN (and not only) DECISIONS among different alternatives (CHOICES), in the market, or in any “re-active behavior which also could interpret , about anything in our life and not only
This point is quite different from the "n-tuples game's "Nash Equilibrium (N.E):
  1. in the n-tuple game (with n players), each of whom seeks individual benefit we focus only on n individual win (or loose)
but
  1. in the "win-win-win papakonstantinidis model" we focus, not only on the 3 individual interest's claim, but also on the "Community" win as a whole
In fact what we suggest is[a 3-D MRS dimension], or, "one more" than the n-tuples game, as a special condition, for achieving the social welfare's environment and better relations between COMMUNITY and bargainers- member of the same community
So, if the question is "Who can share the benefits of moral cultivation?" the answer is: "it could be resulted automatically as "market" [see BARGAIN] pressures from and toward bargainers (A-B) and Community, depending on “bargaining power" on a moment in and during the bargain, on the MRS point on the indifferent curve AND the best of relative prices for the same good, the same quality, the same services providing
In fact, we are in a cross-road, when we must to decide under the conditions of Common Knowledge of Rationality – CKR and the perfect information
[COMMON KNOWLEDGE RATIONALITY GAMES (Social Science)[5]
When two or more agents knowingly interact in the sense that each knows how the outcomes for them depend not just on their own actions (strategies) but also on the actions of the others, they are playing a game. Each is rational when acting instrumentally to maximize his or her subjectively expected utility associated with the outcomes, and the game is a common knowledge of rationality (CKR) game when, in addition, (1) each knows that each is rational, and (2) each knows that each knows that each is rational, and so on in an infinite chain of recursively built knowledge.
The purpose of CKR is to place each agent, so to speak, in the mind of others with the result that no one will behave in a manner that surprises. In particular, CKR licenses the iterative deletion of dominated strategies. Strategies are dominated when they yield a worse outcome in every eventuality than some other available strategy (for example, the cooperative strategy in a prisoners’ dilemma game).
Thus in a two-person game, when A knows that B is rational, he or she knows that B will not play a strategy that is dominated (so any such strategy can be effectively deleted). B, knowing this, also knows that A will not select a dominated strategy in terms of the payoffs that remain once B’s dominated strategies have been removed, and any such strategy of A can now also be ignored and so on. The strategies that remain are now referred to as rationalizable (Pearce 1984; Bernheim 1984); and in some, but far from all, games the result is a single strategy for each player (i.e., a unique prediction for rational agents will do).
It was sometimes thought that CKR delivered something potentially stronger: the Nash equilibrium solution concept, which identifies rational action with strategies that are best responses to each other. It is now typically accepted that in general the Nash equilibrium solution concept has to be motivated not only by CKR but also an assumption of common priors whereby rational agents hold a common view as to how a game will be played rationally. If there is such a unique, albeit possibly probabilistic, way in which each rational agent will play the game, then it will be apparent that, with CKR, rational actions must be best replies to each other (otherwise at least one agent would not be acting rationally).
CKR is sometimes modified so that agents only engage in some fixed level of reasoning of this sort. Thus first-order CKR refers to the case where A knows that B is rational and vice versa. Second-order CKR has in addition that A knows that B knows that A is rational and so on. Given the brain’s limited processing capacity, this is often more appealing than full-blown CKR; and in experiments, it seems that most people rarely engage in more than second-order CKR
COMMUNITY could be concerned as:
  • Administrative on Natural Region [village, town, district area]
  • STATES
  • States economic union as EU, the former European Economic Community [ EEC ]
  • A Federation Form (United States of America : USA[6] ), Germany[7]
  • In world forms level: United Nations (UN), etc
  • a common dream , a common vision, a shared religion, a common history a common past, common local traditions, a common way of life (ROMA, etc.) a common language, or “language idiom”
  • a local cohesion
A number of "triangle relations" of the above orientation could be resulted, ie EU, with Member States Governments and European Citizens , etc
on this point, let’s see some questions, tabled by Thomas Kronberger
Utility AXB:
The mathematical product AXB means that there is an operation linking A and B. This can be the multiplication as used in your example.
If the question is, if to invest in the motor (A) or in the wheels (B) of a car I agree with your multiplication AXB: Without motor the car will drive 0 meters, not important how good are the wheels and vice versa. You have to invest in both, for getting a usable car.
But I think it can be also another operation. For example: If we have 100 Euros for feeding hungry children and we must decide how much we give to organisation A and to organisation B. Probably we will get the best result, if we invest partially in A and partially in B. Considering the two extremes shows the difference to the “car-example”: Giving all the money to organisation A means, that B has the utility of 0. The product would of AXB would be = 0. But, as some children get food, the global result would be still a positive utility bigger than 0. In this case another operation for “X” has to be applied.
ANSWER: In marginal economics we are looking for marginal situations
Either for the minimum price of f(x) or the max price of the utility function
After all, the mathematical product AXB denotes the intersection of A and B’s profits The combination of these two ,
in the equilibrium point, this product AXB must be MAX
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So the AXB denotes a specific marginal situation, in which all participants will be satisfied as getting the maximum of what they expected from an hypothetical AGREEMENT
Otherwise, disagreement is the most usual ending a bargain
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The invisible community:
You’re right, when Putin and Trump act, this affects the whole world with its 7 billion people. The problem is, that these two (especially the second) ignore the rest of the world. The question is: What to do, for these two leaders open their eyes and ears for considering the stakeholders. In the todays news there was an interesting example how to do this:
Trump is thinking about punitive tariff duty on European steel and aluminium. In a German newspaper today was written about the idea to react by a punitive tariff duty on Harley Davidson motorbikes and Bourbon-Whisky These two products were chosen, because e-products are produced in states where many people vote for Trump WHO is not interested in European economy, but as he is interested in his voters, perhaps the European stakeholders can influence him.
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If the “Community” as a total of Human Values, Traditions and Ethic, has its own function
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Of course, nobody expects to make influence on these two very strong leaders Now, on this point I used the paradigm from dynamical nonlinear systems (chaos theory)..” In 1972 Edward Lorenz,(the father of Chaos Theory) presented a work entitled: "Predictability: Does the Flap of a Butterfly's Wings in Brazil Set Off a Tornado in Texas?"
Based on “Butterfly's Wings’ paradigm” I presented in the 1st “ International Symposium on Business, Economics and Financial Applications“ (ISBEFA) 1-2 June 2012 Argostoli- Kefalonia, GR, my work titled The win-win-win Papakonstantinidis model A behavioral analysis in dynamical systems The Non Instrumental Rationality Paradox
According to this, decision making is very sensitive to initial conditions and transferred by ordis, as it happens to the “weather[8]: The action of one only man or woman may form a quite different situation
A characteristic paradigm is coming from US in the year 1955[9] as Mrs Rosa Park refused to offer her seat in the Bus in a white man
I believe that decision making is formed by very small steps, wherever So if Community People be sensitized toward a direction , then these people will succeed in their common goaL
In my country 2 huge people’s declarations for the official name of the till now state FYROM, it seems that canceled the quick process which has been adopted from the Greek Government In US, President Trump tried to cancel the Obama’s Insurant Law, without success due to people’s dynamic declarations….
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Possible Questions and Comments:
ü -maths (input) and physics (output) do not match.
  1. we've tried to present a theoretical model, with a high practical value, i.e the “sensitization process”, which is the top of the “local development” procedure’s conditions: the objective is to transform a 2D anticipation into the 3D anticipation, in the same person, in and during the “instant” bargaining relation: what is preferable for me, (rationality) taking into account that the “opposite” has the same-at least- cleverness, the same-at least-rationality AND the same-at least-necessity to meet in its own personal ORDINAL -and not measurable cardinal utility. That means that people have different scale of preferences and are coming in any bargain, any negotiations- and trying to achieve their aspirations On this baseline, our model is proposed as a suggestion, to a 3-ple bargaining consideration: “What is the best for me, considering that the same is being pursued by the “opponent”, and, furthermore, considering that the community - the context in which the choices and decisions are made - also "claims" its own share. From this point of view, “payoffs” operate as motivations toward realizing any bargain/ negotiation: It has been accounting that we realize about 500 bargains into one day: Even the choice of the TV channel “x” instead of “y” is a form of bargain
  2. the latter is attributed to the sense of SENSITIZATION PROCESS , thus trimerizing anticipations and also thus reducing payoffs and also reducing personal expectations, operating “against” their own individual interest
  3. We used the “bargaining problem”, the game theory, in general, as there it could be easier tp manipulate the “Utility Function” especially the Marginal Utility Function which could offer the “math infinity moment” on which we can measure useful outputs
  4. Alternatively, we could use the ultimatum theory, the Principal-Agent Theory, The Mediator Theory, The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory, The “Arbitrator Theory” the Justice (Rawl) Theory..to highlight the importance of the “Community” as a cohesion power By the term “Community” are considerate, Family, Area, Place, Neighborhood, tradition, communication code, History, Language, interests, hobbies…anything that joint the People
  5. For your convenience, you can see the famous Tucker “Prisoner’s Dilemma”: The prisoner's dilemma is a standard example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two completely rational individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so. It was originally framed by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher while working at RAND in 1950. Albert W. Tucker formalized the game with prison sentence rewards and named it "prisoner's dilemma" You can see that the “social-not egoist prisoner’s behavior is preferable from the side of payoffs
  6. You are right, this model is static and not dynamic. So finding the equilibrium point is justified by its static form Till now, you are right. But, it is written in all the work that the proposed model tries to explain “what would be happen in the moment of the “ideal point” ( the “angels’ situation), even if there is not possibility to approach it. It’s a work of limits, rather than a description of dynamical operations In the Infinite Calculus, what is tried is to find “prices” very close to zero, or very “close” to 📷
  7. the current accounting system does not allow for the community as 3rd bargaining partner: The current accounting system concern it is about a shorter period of negotiation Today's basis of calculation has a maturity date See for example in Greece in recent years (period of financial sanctions - memorandums) More transactions are no longer passed through ordinary dumps [poor, donations, theaters instead of money , leave at the cashier See also second-hand markets in Scandinavian countries, social programs, We are on the INTERSECTIONS of the developments and the events we live in day-to-day.. We see a new world arising in the world
  8. Bargaining in a total monetary economy is monopolistic (oligopolistic). We see that
a. The Social Sector in the States co-exists in harmony inside the monetary economy, more than a century, all over the world
b. The world economy is not –till now- “totally monetary” There are billions of “flexible economy forms” that combines market and social characteristics- see the attached, written in 60’s If it was the perception like this, 50-half a century-this, then you can imagine what has been happened now
c. (1) The impact of collective bargaining settlements on the average price level has been greatly overstated. (2) The so called cost-push impact is essentially a short-run phenomenon. In the long run neither average prices nor total employment are greatly affected by excessive union bargaining power; (3) The guidelines and other government control proposals are neither workable nor compatible with a free society; and (4) Alternative government actions could be taken that will improve the functioning of the labor markets and at the same time avoid most flaws of governmental pricing. Furthermore, these actions will benefit both workers and consumers.http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/files/docs/historical/frbsl_history/presidents/francis/Francis_19710311
d. Of course the oligopolistic markets characterize the “totally monetary” economy Our thesis hear, based on researches (personal, for my country and especially coming by other scientists in China, USA, UK , Japan, Netherland, Scandinavian-especially in Denmark- show that other flexible forms of markets combine economies that are not “totally monetary” In the opposite, capitalism would have collapsed
  1. Capitalism is only a system and nothing more, or less
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Besides, the numbers corresponding the utils (imaginative units/prices of the Utility Functions) have only one reason: they means : “I like ice cream more than meat” In our “economics” language UTILITY is discriminated in two different types: cardinally and ordinary In the first time utility function is shaped by strict number prices “chocolate has the number 100 for all the people all over the world... The second type is the “ordinary utility” It is for each individual without comparing with the utility function of another person: Chocolate is only for me “100”, while for another person maybe “0”
In the practical level, success triangle’s paradigms [ State- Local Authority-People] from European Countries, especial from Scandinavian countries, could be described :
In a recent (2016) European Research by questionnaire, resulted that people in Denmark Norway, Sweden[10] are on the top of the States in word, in questions concerning “Relations State-People” People's Happiness”, “Democracy” “State Transparency” "level of cooperation State-Local Authorities" etc
LAP
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[1] REF
· Schultz W (2015). "Neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data". Physiological Reviews. 95 (3): 853–951.
· Winkielman P., Berridge KC, and Wilbarger JL. (2005). Unconscious affective reactions to masked happy verses angry faces influence consumption behavior and judgement value. Pers Soc Psychol Bull: 31, 121–35.
· Mondadori C, Waser PG, and Huston JP. (2005). Time-dependent effects of post-trial reinforcement, punishment or ECS on passive avoidance learning. Physiol Behav: 18, 1103–9.
· White NM, Gottfried JA (2011). "Reward: What Is It? How Can It Be Inferred from Behavior?".
· White NM. (2011). Reward: What is it? How can it be inferred from behavior. In: Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. CRC Press
[2] Prof Mach question :
“Who can share, in the case of social welfare
[3] Papakonstantinidis LA (2002,Aug 14) “The win-win-win model” Visby University, Gotland Isle, SW, SUMMER SCHOOL, The Euracademy Guide, p 28, Prism EPE Edition
[4] Papakonstantinidis LA 2011 The intermediate Community: A behavioral/ Bargaining Approach, for Conflict Resolution at the Local Level/ Bayesian Analysis The intermediate Community…” (2012) (2011-OCT) WORLD CONGRESS EMPRI/EuroMed (Web Sciences- IF 3) με τίτλο “The intermediate Community A behavioral / bargaining Approach for conflict resolution at the Local Level/ Bayesian Analysis Τίτλος Συνεδρίου “Business Research Challenges in a Turbulence Era” , the Cyprus University and Tel Aviv University, coordinating Συνεργασία / ISBN: 978-9963-711-01-7 βλ. Proceedings, pp – 1374-1387- Blind reviewers evaluation – e- book of proceedings
[6] The Federal Government of the United States (U.S. Federal Government) is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
[7] Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (German: Land, plural Länder; informally also Bundesland, plural Bundesländer)
[8] Lorenz was an meteorologist and so his findings for the Chaos Theory were coming from his observation concerned the climate changes
[9] 1955: Black woman challenges race law
A black woman has been arrested by police in Montgomery, Alabama, after refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white person.
Mrs Rosa Parks now faces a fine for breaking the segregation laws which say black Americans must vacate their seats if there are white passengers left standing.
It is not the first time Mrs Parks, who is a seamstress, has defied the law on segregation.
In 1943 she was thrown off a bus for refusing to get on via the back door, which was reserved for black passengers.
[10] Amanda Briney 2017 “An Introduction to the 5 Scandinavian Countries”- Thought Co: Scandinavia is a large region of northern Europe that is mainly made up of the Scandinavian Peninsula. It includes the countries of Norway and Sweden. Neighboring Denmark and Finland, as well as Iceland, are also considered to be part of this region.
Geographically, the Scandinavian Peninsula is the largest in Europe, extending from above the Arctic Circle to the shores of the Baltic Sea and covering about 289,500 square miles. You can learn more about the countries of Scandinavia, their population, capitals, and other facts with this list.