Science topics: Agriculture
Science topic

Agriculture - Science topic

The science of soil cultivation, crop production, and livestock raising.
Questions related to Agriculture
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I am doing research on effluent treatment plants. Can anyone tell me how waste water can be collected and effectively treated for agricultural use?
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If the wastewater is domestic, the candiate technology may be application of an Onsite Wastewater Differentiable Treamtent System, in which each stream at the household level can be separated into higher load graywater (wastewater from kitchen sink and washing machines), Lowerload greywater (wastewater from bath tub or wash basin), source-separated human feces and human urine using urine diverting toilets. The human fecesa can be treated using composting process, which is aerobic procss and saw dust can be used as matrix. The treated composted can then be brought to the farmland to be used as natrual fertilizr. The Source-sepatarted human urine contains nutreints, which can be applied directly on th farmland. Howver, preliminary treament may eb required to control the ammonia loss and smell. We need huge volume of urine around 10,000 Liters to meet the crop requirements such as wheat, rice an cotton etc. Therfore, we need to transport huge volume of source-separated human urine to the farmland which may increase transportation cost ofr farmers. So we recommend to set up and onsite volume reduction system using natrual wind velocity to reduce 70-80% volume of urine at household level.Then it could be tranported from each househols to farmland, where it has to be mixed with the irrigation water (which could be treated greywater). The higher load greywater contains organic matter, therefore, it can be treated by sand filteration method or Membrance Bioreactor to stabilize organic matter. The treated wastewater can be brought to the farmland via pipe system to be supplied as irrigation water. The lowerload greywater does not contain much of the organic matter, therefore, it could be mixed with treated higher load greywater in the pipes to be brought to the farmland where it can used as irrigation water. This new approach is gaining importance world over, many case studies can be found in Switzerland (EWAG Group), Germany (Hamberg Univeristy), Japan (Hokkaido Univeristy), Sweden, Finland (TAMK Univeristy), China (Xian Univeristy of Arch and Technology) etc.
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PhD = philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy)
The medieval university made possible the study of arts, law, medicine and theology.
Philosophy was only an introductory study for theology. „Philosophia est ancilla theologiae.” The degree of philosophiae doctor was developed in Germany in the 18th- and 19th-centuries and now it is acknowledged all over the world.
Scientists were often distinguished philosophers like Aristotle, Plato, Avicenna, Francis Bacon, René Descartes, David Hume, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz.
Philosophers studied and formulated ethics, logic, metaphysics which play a central role in scientific theories and methodology. Philosophy has been always attached to the theoretical solving of humanistic and general troubles during the history of mankind.
Can one say scientia est ancilla philosophiae or philosophia est ancilla scientiae?
These days some scientists work on tiny scientific fields and are specialists of micro areas. Are they able to see the whole field or determining parts of human needs? Or are they able to contribute to the true human welfare?
Ethics!
What is the main objective in writing a manuscript, to distribute new knowledge or to have one more publication?
Does determine credibility of scientific achievements the credibility in scientific degrees?
There are still many kinds of frauds and other “manoeuvres”.
Look at:
How to measure scientific merit?
Some examples: Some influential “scholars” requested (commanded) potential contributors before a conference to cite their, the influential “scholars’, publications in public circulars. Of course, they, these scholars, controlled meticulously the list of the submitted references but not the merit of the manuscripts. 15 researchers write individually one article a year. They make a deal and became co-authors of the other articles, thus every author has 15 articles a year. The examples may be infinite.
It would be interesting also to compare the opportunity of a native speaker submitting a manuscript in his/her mother tongue with that of a son/daughter of other nations.
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Unfortunately now a PhD is a requirement, not a philosophical challenge. Anyway you shoud read more about "ethics". Ethics come from "ethos"= habits. The new habits in scientific production are : publish or perish eventhough theres nothing new or useful to communicate , just to maintain a funding status or an individual or a lab. Inside new ethics the practice that you mentioned is accepted.These kind of dynamics came from US Universities where business administrators took control and unfortunately have been broadcasted through all the world since . Still on the old dynamics are some Universities in the UK and Germany.
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I was wondering if there is any detailed work about chemical constituents of prunus stem bark including alkaloids, flavonoids, essential oils, phenols, terpenes etc. and their utilisation as repellents or attractants of beetles.
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Hi Asma,
Something like this might help as a starting point:
Omar, S., Lalonde, M., Marcotte, M., Cook, M., Proulx, J., Goel, K., Durst, T., Philogène, B. J. R. and Arnason, J. T. (2000), Insect growth-reducing and antifeedant activity in Eastern North America hardwood species and bioassay-guided isolation of active principles from Prunus serotina. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 2: 253–257.
You might find you need to search first for 'chemicals in Prunus bark', then for each of these search to see if their effect on beetles is known (e.g. if the same chemical effect is known from other tree genera). Anyhow, good luck with your search..
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Agriculture without using pest-/herbicides and fertilizers (organic) is said to be more labour intensive. So if we would feed the world with purely organic, we likely needed a bigger share of the population involved in cultivation; assuming you consider the world to be fed organic as possible. Is there any study investigating this effect?
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I don't think there are any figures for that, but in India, until the "Green Revolution" which ushered in the age of mechanized, chemical based agriculture, 80% of the population was then acknowledged to be involved in agriculture. That may be called non-mechanized organic agriculture.
Today, 5% of the US population is involved in agriculture. So mechanization and chemical inputs freed about 75% of a population. The problem is that mechanization (dependence on fossil fuels) and chemicals (several oil derived) arrived almost simultaneously in different parts of the world, so it is difficult to generate estimates for the percentage of population required for mechanized organic farming.
Further, the production of vast amounts of organic fertilizers required for the grain belts would require a large amount of land; ditto for plant based pesticides like neem. So the land required for the production of one hectare of grain would probably be double, taking into consideration the area needed for cultivating material for organic fertilizers and pesticides.
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I need peer-reviewed papers on or what limits exist in terms of engineering and breeding plants for disease and drought resistance (for example). Papers with an evolutionary query - if generalized disease resistance is expressed in plant populations with reduced genetic variation. Is this a selective force for increased disease virulence? Are these strategies temporally limited or due new techniques employing gene cassettes address such issues?
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Published online 17 February 2011 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2011.102
Wu D, Cai S, Chen M, Ye L, Chen Z, et al. (2013) Tissue Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Wild and Cultivated Barley. PLoS ONE 8(1): e55431. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055431
Araus, José Luis , Slafer, Gustavo A. , Royo, Conxita and Serret, M. Dolores(2008) 'Breeding for Yield
Potential and Stress Adaptation in Cereals', Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 27: 6, 377 — 412
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I want some information of agriculture of secondary metabolites. (E-book(s), Article(s),...)
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Thank you for looking at this question. I am interested to know what regulations are involved in creating a control plan for vertebrate pests and what differences are in place between these and invertebrate pests. indepth biocontrol information would be happily recieved also but all methods are of interest.
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I am interested in all pest types you mentioned. I am particularly interested in all control method options and the ethical issues involved. If you know a few papers that discuss these to get me started then please refer me. Thank you for your interest. Jamie
How healthy is Canola Oil?
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If the rape seed plant was cross-bred naturally and not developed in the lab why is canola getting a bad reputation. Is it because of chemical process? What about structure? Is it close to Olive oil? Would love to learn more from biochemists studying canola oil or anyone on this matter.
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Canola oil comes from canola seeds. They are a genetic variation of rapeseed that was developed in the 1960s using traditional plant-breeding methods to make the rapeseed more palatable. ATTENTION: canola oil is toxic and can cause various diseases (emphysema, Mad Cow).
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Rice-ecosystem plays major contribution for ethane emission in agricultur
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You will find methane emissions when there are no other electron receptors present. So at (very) low redox potentials (<-200mV at least). The interesting bit in rice paddies is the flood-dry cycle that is applied, and its influence on the redox potential and subseqeuent methane release.
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See article below:
Ownership of McGill Entry in Hult Prize Called Into Question
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For those of you who are interested the story continues as the disputed team ended up winning the $1 million dollar prize.
I think this is a blow to both academic integrity and business ethics.
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Is it necessary?
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Did you mean Land Change Approach on agric. ecology?
Looking for research on the impacts of agricultural land abandonment in high altitude/mountain region
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Do you know of any research on the impacts of abandonment of agricultural activities in high altitude/mountain regions? We are undertaking a systematic review (a systematic map) of all impacts (environmental, social, economic) resulting from agricultural land abandonment across the globe. If you know of any research that might not be catalogued in academic databases (particularly non-English language studies), please let us know by emailing n.haddaway@bangor.ac.uk. Thank you.
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Hi Neal, Dr. Ismael Vaccaro at McGill University studies the environmental and social implications of land abandonment in the Pyrenees. He has some Spanish publications: http://www.mcgill.ca/anthropology/people/faculty/fulltime/ismaelvaccaro You could also read about the social and environmental effects of agricultural encroachment, eviction of settlers, and reforestation in Mount Elgon and Kibale National Parks in Uganda. There are a number of publications, but here are a couple to start with: http://chrislang.org/2006/12/30/a-funny-place-to-store-carbon-uwa-face-foundations-tree-planting-project-in-mount-elgon-national-park-uganda/ http://shootingcupoche.com/publication/229309262_Intensive_tree_planting_facilitates_tropical_forest_biodiversity_and_biomass_accumulation_in_Kibale_National_Park_Uganda
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I am looking for methodology of quick assessment of soil erosion in oil palm plantations in Sumatra.
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Hi Hsiao,
I would recommend you to refer the following book to get a proper understanding on the methods of soil loss measurements.
Toy, T.J., Foster, G.R., and Renard, K.G., 2002, Soil erosion: processes, predictions, measurements, and control: New York, John Wiley & Sons, 338 p.
The following document is also very useful for your research, in which you could use the given methods to assess the soil losses in your experimental sites. Perhaps, you may be able to download this document from the web.
Stocking, M.A., and Murnaghan, N., 2000, Land degradation - guidelines for field assessment: Norwich, UK, Overseas development group, University of East Anglia, p. 120.
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I am working on a report related to the use of agrometeorological products and
services for Policy Decision Makers by governmental and international organizations, NGOs (for example Red Cross, Care, World Vision). I need assistance to list the appropriate organizations and Agencies, to have links and examples of applications for policy, to document uses of products.
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United Nations Environment Programme http://www.pnuma.org/english/index.php
The Poverty-Environment Initiative (PEI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - See more at: http://www.unpei.org/#sthash.xVNOLwLH.dpuf
Project for ecosistems services ProEcoServ www.proecoserv.org
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Can someone provide me (official) information on vulnerability status of Centaurium erythraea Rafn in your country? Is it protected by law?
Additionally, is there some data about field cultivation of this species. I couldn't find it on the internet.
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This species doesn't belong to rare and endangered species in Ukraine, but Centaurium erythraea is under protection on regional level in Khmelnytskyi region. Please see: http://botany.kiev.ua/doc/of_reg_sp.pdf
Several Ukrainian Botanical Gardens are cultivating the plant in their collections.
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My research area is WSN in agriculture "Data issues and aggregation analysis in WSNs ", So for this what is the best simulator and where i can download it?
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In my opinion, Omnet++ (open source) with Castalia module is best for this kind of applications, since you can control almost everything, from network topology, MAC and routing protocols, channel model and even node movement. Furthermore, it is written in C, so the learning curve is very fast, and it is not node-platform specific.
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I read a lot of literature, but my chemistry knowledge is not enough. The standard has the same structure but a different name, so I don't know how to distinguish them.
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I recommend you the detection bay means of HPLC and the use of standards. Also you can find attached a very useful article about the extraction and identification of glycosilated flavonoids in plant material.
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This is an enormous topic and one of great complexity. Genetic modification means artificially changing the genetic material of an organism. The term genetic modification and genetic engineering are interchangeable. Genes can be moved between species, and between different levels of biological microorganism.
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(1) Have you come across any African government led-initiatives that promote agricultural value chains; (2) Countries that are well integrated into Africa's agricultural industry?
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Regarding (1), I invite you to read my latest article, referenced below. However, I do not understand (2).
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Founded in between 30-45 days of the crop, with bad smell, in rainy season.
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It is bacteria disease in maize because of whether change.
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Furrow irrigated raised bed, broad bed and furrow, raised bed, permanent raised bed, flat bed, ridge planting etc
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And where I could get some quantitaive data for food security in Nicaragua?
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The UK's foresight on the "future of food and farming" is a good comprehensive source of info on, especially, the supply-side challenges of agriculture. See http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/foresight/docs/food-and-farming/11-546-future-of-food-and-farming-report.pdf - and there is a lot of supplemental material on the "BIS website".
The FAO databases (http://faostat.fao.org/, http://www.fao.org/statistics/en/) have a wealth of country-level statistics on food production, WHO (http://www.who.int/research/en/) on health and non-communicable diseases, and IFPRI on food security per se (http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/nicaragua).
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I am writing a paper now and would love to bounce some ideas off people with experience with indigenous or other low-input agriculture in marginal landscapes. In particular I'm interested in farming areas with very little or no soil development or very rocky, but also areas that are very dry, or are very low fertility.
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I can give a few orientations and experiences gained on marginal lands in Pakistan/Balochistan, Syria, Mali and Ethiopia. 1) Stone-mulching (putting flat stones on to the stony land) contributed to water-harvesting by accumulation of dew and quick generation of basic fauna and flora-life, which triggered soil-development. At the same time it reduced the soil-temperature and evaporation. 2) Constructing stone-bunds (30-100 cm high) along contourlines (0-slope) contributed to soil- and water-collection which again promoted crop-growth. The agro-ecological projects in West-Africa very much used such stone-bunds to generate and stabilize soil-development combined with rain-water-harvesting and increasing yields. 3. The indigenious people have traditional knowledge / skills which should be identified by intense and trustful communication. 4. The use and spreading of manure from freely grazing animals (sheep, goat, cattle, camels, etc..; it. contains some 1-2,000 seeds per kg from the natural habitat) on selected lands can quickly contribute to a diverse vegetation. 5. In Ethiopia and Mali esp. I observed that strict fencing of marginal, stony or sandy lands and the prevention of any impact of man and animal can within 2-4 years re-establish a wonderful vegetation, which then can be cautiously maintained, exploited, further diversified and become astonishingly productive. 5. Never to forget: air contains some 78 % nitrogen-fertilizer, which can be gained free-of-charge by leguminous crops. Thus: any mobilization of barren, marginal, young soils should keep in mind this essential element of the biological soil-fertility-strategy. 6. Soil-additives: These are various products / materials available in many rural areas and should be included flexibly in the soil-development like: a) manure from animals, e.g. from small- and big scale poultry, piggery, cattle-units; b) crop-residues from agro-processing (fruit-peals, juice-production residues); c) mulch (e.g. straw, husks); d) compost; d) favorable minerals, stone-meals, lime-stone meal; e) industrial crop-waste (from saw-mills {eg. dust, barks}, sugarcane-waste, juice-pressing residues, etc.) f) bone-meal, horn-meal from abattoirs, local butchers; g) ash from kitchen-stoves and other places (e.g. charcoal-kilns); h) many others.
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To calculate the abatement cost of GHG emission, carbon pricing, GHG emission in terms of monetary terms etc.
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Dear,
try to search at web the program:
Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO)
"Carbon and sustainability reporting within the renewable Transport Fuel Obligation .
London, 2008.
Regards,
Vanessa
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Sustainable intensification has been defined as a form of production wherein “yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the cultivation of more land”.
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Increased input of organic manure (compost/animal dung), drip irrigation, crop rotation with seasons, N-fixing legume crops added, agroforestry with trees interspersed with crops, collect local varieties of a crop and grow all of them. Like the way agriculture has been done for centuries uptil the 1960s when the chemical inputs became popular, except that, as Masanobu Kukuoka pointed ouit oin his book "One Straw Revolution", each geographical area and plot of land has its unique combination of abiotic and biotic factors, and hence requires keen observation adn experimentation by the farmer to see what combination of crops, watering regime and pest control works best.
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First of all you spend your precious time and energy working in the lab and then pay the article processing fee to publish/disseminate your research. Is it really worth to pay processing charges when you can publish your articles in various free and reputed journals, like Elsevier and Springer
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Open access journal is Ok but if it is paid, I don't think we should pay for publishing. As far as possible, we should try to search for free journals. The publication house is having its own importance but in case you are determined not to pay, sooner or later you will get your paper published in a good journal. As far as I am concerned, I refrain from paying from publishing in paid journals whether they are open access or not is an entirely second condition for me.
Thanks and regards
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Dear Fabian,
Thanks for your information. Certainly, I know their project in Wageningen and read summary and details about it.
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an essential component of soil fertility, but to maintain SOC levels, the soil depends on crop residue input. On the other hand, biofuel production, e.g. CH4 from maize, depends on harvesting basically the same carbon from the field and feeding it to an anaerobic digester. How can these two demands be reconciled in view of long-term maintenance of soil fertility?
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We have been removing organic matter in the form of crop products for millennia. Although some carbon was returned via animal manure, this has declined greatly for the past century. This issue is not just about biofuel crops - for many other crops both the grain and stalks are harvested for food and straw/fibre, e.g. wheat. However roots are rarely harvested and these return significant amounts of carbon to the soil. This is why we do not always need to add organic carbon as well as fertilisers to crop systems. Soil carbon is also replenished by other rhizosphere components such as fungi, including mycorrhizae. We still understand very little about the rhizosphere but it is clearly a crucial component of soil fertility and crop performance.
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You can translate this document
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I want to study the effect of salt stress on banana (Musa spp.) in vitro, which stage will be more efficient, elongation stage or rooting stage?
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Do an experiment studies it,s the good way to have the knowledge
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Thanet farm in UK is the good example of self sufficiency in terms of crop production
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You mean agriculture in greenhouses
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Does anyone know what soil failure pattern is made by using the three-side wedge in soil?
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could be more explicit, I did'nt get this kind of tool and its use for.
How do soil resources influence Bromus tectorum success?
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I am interested in determining which soil resources most influence the success of Bromus tectorum in the Great Basin. Several researchers have suggested that N is the most important resource yet other have indicated P and water.
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I think it is a dynamic between those three factors. However, it seems (to my casual observations) that BRTE relies heavily on water availability, since without sufficient water the seed will not germinate. Think of when it is actually a good water year, BRTE is more or less a carpet across the landscape. When it is drought year (like this year), BRTE seems to more dominant in areas that may have more soil moisture (i.e. shady spots, small divots in the landscape ect.) even though their seed is everywhere in the seed bank. With other alien species, nutrients such as N and P are important, but water always seems to play a key role in how robust the alien grasses are. At my research site (in SoCal), the area is dominated with Bromus diandurs and Avena, and this year they are minimal compared to last year (due to the drought we are experiencing).
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A lot of titles of research papers in agricultural economics end with "...sustainable development". In your opinion, what does "sustainable development" mean?
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In the context of sustainable development of entire social-ecological systems, to me an adaptive approach still provides a fundamental framework for the implementation and adaptation of land management and polices over time as more information is collected. A crucial issue then could be developing landscape planning (e.g., restoration) that might accommodate for surprises and for variation of land-use pattern as humans will change land-use, and especially land management, to adjust to climate change. In this respect, new conceptual frameworks for the design of landscape sustainability are emerging to establish how landscape condition can be made sustainable in face of unpredictable disturbance and change (e.g., Olsson et al., 2004; Folke et al., 2005; Musacchio, 2009; Opdam et al., 2009; Ostrom, 2009; Benayas and Bullock 2012; Zurlini et al., 2013; Jones et al., 2013).
Strategies to this end could involve the design and management of landscape elements and structure to create less contagious and more heterogeneous rural landscapes enhancing biodiversity-oriented connectivity. In this respect, smallholder farming systems are crucial for rural sustainability. This can imply the strategic placement of managed and semi-natural ecosystems in landscapes to reduce stress intensity, so the services of natural ecosystems (e.g., commodities, water availability, pollination, reduced land erosion, soil formation) can be even enhanced (Jones et al., 2013). Land separation and land sharing are examples of such strategies (Benayas and Bullock, 2012). The first involves restoring or creating non-farmland habitat in agricultural landscapes through, for example, woodlands, natural grasslands, hedgerows, wetlands, and meadows on arable lands (Benayas and Bullock, 2012), or riparian habitats (Jones et al., 2010) to benefit wildlife and specific services. Land sharing involves the adoption of biodiversity-based agricultural practices, learning from traditional farming practices, transformation of conventional agriculture into organic agriculture and of „„simple‟‟ crops and pastures into agro-forestry systems. Some existing smallholder farming systems already have high water-, nutrient-, and energy-use efficiencies and conserve resources and biodiversity without losing yield (Kiers et al., 2008).
A key aspect is to implement monitoring programs to evolve iteratively as new information emerges and research and managing questions change. This helps evaluate how environmental targets and ecosystem services respond to specific landscape pattern designs, and whether or not certain landscape patterns at multiple scales result in synergies and trade-offs among different types of ecosystem services. In a nutshell, learning from what we are doing and from what we have already done.
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Could anyone advise me on creating 3D maps with GIS software?
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a. Open the yourproject.sxd in ArcScene (must have polyline shapefiles or points, .
b. From the 3D Analyst menu, choose Create/Modify TIN, and click Create TIN From Features. In the dialog's Layers box, check Elevation Points. Make sure the height source is ELEV( or whatever you have there) and the triangulation is mass points. Check Rivers and set its height source to < None >. Make sure it is triangulated as hard line. Check the lakes , make sure its height source is set to ELEV. Set the triangulation to hard replace. Check Boundaries (boundary shapefile if you have its better to have..). Set the height source to < None >. Make sure it is triangulated as soft clip. Set the output TIN location to your \MyData folder and name it NAMENAME. Click OK. The TIN is created and added to the scene
{ Note that if you have polylines they are also used as "mass point" and treated as a seperate points instead of a whole line. The elavation of the whole line is assigned to each of the points that originally belongs to it.}
From the UTSA & campus.esri.com)
What is the economic importance of fragrant rice?
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Seeking to find out the economic importance of fragrant rice.
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I don't know
Apricot production in European countries?
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Can anyone recommend a paper on apricot production in European countries?
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I do not know where you receive it, Pls read the full text paper A new method for measuring and calculating surface areas of apple fruits
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Soil fertility seems to have a significant effect in my field experiment. I would like to neglect that to be able to focus on the varietal effect and check if it's significant or not.
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Best way, and commonly used in field experiments, is to start with a proper experimental design. If soil differences (such as physical properties, commonly associated to mineral availability) are suspected, a Block Design should be used, blocking (grouping the various treatments, such as varieties) perpendicular to the direction of change in the varying environmental factor (Disturbing factor: soil fertility, moisture availability, soil physical properties, etc.). Blocking reduces the errors induced by the disturbing factors. A closer look at the advantages and disadvantages should be looked before implementation of the experimental design.
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Any suggestions on the pros/cons of using equity partnerships, secondary finance markets, leasing, or any other models of alternative financing as capital solutions for Australian agriculture/agribusiness? Examples of successful implementation of such in Australia or overseas would also be greatly appreciated.
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Hi!, you can find the rural cooperative banks. For example: http://www.abhinavjournal.com/images/Commerce_&_Management/Oct12/12.pdf
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I invite you to go through my article "Role of Gypsum Wastes in Polluting Groundwater and Enhancing Eutrophication in Coasts of Aqaba" on my site on researchgate and suggest uses for gypsum wastes, produced as by-product by fertilizers manufacturing.
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In Bolivia (my country) gypsum wastes are used to manufacture pre-fabricated walls of plaster for the construction of low-budget houses.
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I am preparing a comprehensive book for sugarcane varieties identification. Most of our local farmers and sugarcane procurement staff of sugar mill get confused. Can anybody share experience, or suggest literature?
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1.-Louisiana Sugarcane Variety Identification Guide 
2.- a comparative study of the morphological characters of six ...
3.- Sugarcane Variety Identification   http://www.laca1.org/presentations/2008/SB-Variety.pdf
4.- MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS VS. GENETIC DIVERSITY: RELIABLE BASIS FOR SUGARCANE VARIETIES IDENTIFICATION 
Khalid Hussain*, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Khalid Nawaz, Abdul Majeed, and Khizar Hayat Bhatti
5.- GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SUGAR CANE CULTIVARS IN MEXICO
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I am comparing the current Brazilian line of financing for low carbon agriculture (ABC program) with similar plans in the world. Do you have any suggestions for references (rural credits, funds, etc…) in other countries?
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In EU there are both funding strategies specific for agricultural activities as well as horizontal strategies (for low-carbon development, e.g. modernization of buildings, more general investments on renewable resources) that may reflect on agricultural activities.
At the end of october 2013, European Union reached a political agreement on the new CAP (Common Political Agreement). The legislative texts are expected to be formally adopted before the end of the year. The texts have been approved at Plenary (18-21 November), thus they will go to the December’s Council for the adoption of the agreement in its first reading. Implementing acts and delegated acts could then be published by the Commission early in 2014, with the implementing acts then subject to co-decision between the EP and Council. The new rules for rural development will start to apply as soon as the 2014-2020 Rural Development Programmes (RDPs) are approved and become operational.
What do the new CAPs will bring? according to draft document http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/13/st13/st13349-re01.en13.pdf
the priorities of the new plan are "promoting resource efficiency and supporting the shift towards a low carbon and climate resilient economy in agriculture, food and forestry sectors" through (see Articles 21, 29 among others) payments that shall be granted to farmers, groups of farmers or groups of farmers and other land-managers who undertake, on a voluntary basis, to carry out operations consisting of one or more agri-environment-climate commitments on agricultural land.
Some additional examples of existing horizontal measures:
- Measures to ensure minimum requirements are in place related to the energy performance of buildings consistent with Article 3, Article 4 and Article 5 of Directive 2010/31/EU.
- Measures necessary to establish a system of certification of the energy performance of buildings consistent with Article 11 of Directive 2010/31/EU
- Measures to ensure strategic planning on energy efficiency, consistent with Article 3 of Directive 2012/27 EU
- Measures consistent with Article 13 of Directive 2006/32/EC on energy end-use efficiency and energy services to ensure the provision to final customers of
individual meters in so far as it is technically possible, financially reasonable and proportionate in relation to the potential energy savings.
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I'm not a plant physiologist, however, I wanted to know why the photosynthesis rate of H2O shows a negative result? Can somebody explain it to me? The experiment was conducted at peatland ecosystem on C3 crops leaves.
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This sounds like an issue with your calibration. A bit more information would be helpful - what system was this obtained with? Li-6400?
Zeroing the water (calibration) is a time consuming process...it could also be a problem with the seal of the cuvette, or an issue with the leaves being sampled. Were they damp at all?
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I am trying to test the effects of an amino acid fertilizer on maize and wheat in a greenhouse. I am seeking any background information that could be used.
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When maize and broad bean plants sprayed with proline or phenylalanine,, saccharides as well as proteins progressively increased at all sanitization levels and proline concentration significantly declined. Salinity significantly increased the sodium content in both shoots and roots of maize and broad bean plants, while a decline in the accumulation of K+, Ca++, Mg++ and P was observed. Amino acids treatments markedly altered the selectivity of Na+, K+, Ca++ and P in both maize and broad bean plants. Spraying with any of either proline or phenylalanine restricted Na+ uptake and enhanced the uptake of K+, K+/Na+ ratio, Ca++ and P selectivity in maize and broad bean plants.
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IPM was born in the USA as the ideas and working results of Californian entomologists in the early 1950s. IPM is very logical from environmental and economic point of view and is an antithesis of blind calendar tied chemical control. In 1998 USDA announced the main strategy of IPM as prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression (PAMS) of pests. Unfortunately, growers and pest (icide) managers did not recognize compatibility (integration) among PAMS as it was thought by the founders of IPM. Another trouble: in 1993 USDA, EPA and PDA called for a national commitment to put into practice IPM on 75% OF US crop acreage by 2000. Now, according to estimations true IPM is being practiced on only about 4-8% of US acreage (Ehler and Bottrell, 2000). Ehler and Bottrell (2000) call this situation the illusion of IPM or they claim this can be IPM without I ; or if some call the present practice IPM it is only integrated pesticide management.
Economical success has been realized in Germany where researchers, educators, growers, legislators have done their best and IPM is being practised at some agricultural areas (Galli, 2005).
In other countries rhetoric predominates exclusively when mentioning IPM also these days. Unfortunately, use of IPM as it was defined originally is rather an illusion or not even that. Main reasons of this failure are the lack of necessary human knowledge, awareness, missing of interest, investments and legal frames, but mostly the hegemony of some dominating human attitudes which cannot accept apparently uncomfortable things. For implementing IPM it is necessary multiple knowledge (comprehensive familiarity on pests, their ecology, natural enemies and all linked fields), an operative pest forecasting system (at national, regional and local level) and several working values which can be determined merely during previous investigations. IPM can put into practice with a common action of researchers, teachers, growers and legislators. Unfortunately, it needs investments from the beginnings.
The most important or basic notions in IPM are Economic Threshold (ET) and Economic Injury level (EIL) without these values there is no IPM.
HOW HAVE YOU IMPLEMENTED IPM, ET AND EIL IN YOUR COUNTRIES?
References:
Ehler, L.E. and Bottrell, D.G. 2000. The illusion of integrated pest management. Issues in science and technology on line. pp. 6. http://www.issues.org/16.3/ehler.htm
Galli, P. (2005): 50 Jahre integrierter Pflanazenschutz im Obstbau in Baden-Württemberg. Landinfo, 5: 6-10.
Smith, R.F. and Reynolds, H.T. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proceedings FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.
Stern, V.M., Smith, R.F., van den Bosch, R. and Hagen, K.S. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81-101.
Michelbacher A.E. and Bacon, O.G. 1952. Walnut insect and spider mite control in Northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 45:1020-27.
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Dear Andras
IPM is mainly practiced on perennial crops like citrus,cut flowers and sugarcane in Zimbabwe. It is also practiced on annual crops, especially on vegetables like tomatoes, mange tout peas and cabbages. For citrus, about 2000 ha of the crop remains under proper management (thus, IPM is still practiced). The cutflower industry is now very very small- I do not have figures on the acreage. Close to 30 000 ha of land is under sugarcane.
There are two big local universities offering MSc Crop Protection degrees. In addition, all local universities (about 16) which offer BSc Agriculture( Honours) degrees have a component of IPM in their curricula. In addition, about 12 agricultural and polytechnical colleges offerring agriculture/horticulture certificates and diplomas also have curricula that covers aspects of IPM.
Government regulates the pesticide industry with regards to what chemicals are imported into the country, who can import, on what crops the pesticdes can be applied, etc. Government, through the Department of Agriculture and Extension Services (AGRITEX) does train people on safe farming practices. This is normally when IPM is emphasized to farmers.
Farmers into the export business are bound by regulations of the importers not to use certain pesticides. So they end up looking at alternative methods off dealing with pests in their fields.
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Movement of barchan dunes cause hazards on urban roads and agriculture.
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More sand decrease the speed of moving the dunes.
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Hydroponics for medicinal plants.
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Mostly farmers in Pakistan take seed after 2-3 forage cuts. When will we leave crop for seed yield?
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Dear Mr. Ahmad,
In Morocco, the situation looks similar to your case : alfalfa producers use the first cuts as forage and harvest seeds later in the season. The best row spacing there is 30-60 cm in order to find a good compromise between forage yield and seed yield. Plant density shoud be between 3-5 plants per linear meter. This should be attained with a seeding rate around 5 kg/ha in good conditions.
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Supreme court of India passes BRAI
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I would not favor it.. And side by side yes also. Reason for no is that one time permission will lead to subsequent dilution and decrease in the quality of crops.
And yes is because,
India is one of the largest manufacturer of producing number of varieties of agricultural crops presently and since the agricultural revolution has started. And our wild type varieties are rarely found around the globe.
But now adays we are failing to maintain wild type breeds and loosing crop nutritional qualities by loosing soil nutritional value and continuously applying chemical pesticides and planting hybrid varieties.
Number of varieties have already lost their identity and many are threaten. Govt. of India, considering India as agri based country spending crores and crores behind agri research and without any significant contribution. Agri dept and universities are now become just formalities by Govt on paper. If such amount of money is spent on agri research then where does it goes? Why is wild type varities are getting lost? If they are failed to maintain and hybrids are being sold illegally in name of wild type than Govt should implement BRAI so that Govt can get some money for their funds and illegal selling can be regulated.
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I am asking because that it seems that research on True Potato Seed is decreasing.
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I have a colleague of mine who worked on TPS in the nineties in Egypt. Yes it is easy to transfer and free of virus but it takes too long until you have an economic yield compared to seed tuber methods. So If the country have plenty of lands that can be cultivated for a long season of one crop, it will have a future there otherwise......
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Few studies are available on use of plastic bags for cultivation of different horticulture plants in green house conditions for experimentation. Plenty of other studies are available on use of pots for experimentation. How much is it suitable to use these containers for experimentation, with respect to root growth and biological properties of media used as cultivar?
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Hi
It’s a good idea to start your experiment in plastic it will give you some results could give you a near view of the problem. But if you want to know the exact affects you must do it in natural rhizosphere which means soil, Because as you know there are many different between the natural environment and artificial environments including physical, chemical and biological properties which mean that pot experiments will never reflect the natural environments. And off course it affects root system and microbial population in the rhizosphere.
I hope you the best
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Sure Sachin, I will talk to people to find out.
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There are many journals in the field of agricultural economics, which are rated highly but they also charge money to publish the research. I am in search of some journals which do not charge money, yet they are rated highly by Thmpson-Reuters, any answers?
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Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ARES Journal)
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Today, many European countries are suffering under the European crisis, and I think that it could mean a crisis for education, agriculture and forestry in Europe. What is your opinion?
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Yes, all levels of education is suffering from the crisis. In Europe there is the European Trade Union Committee for Education as one of the most important negotiation parter to European Commission in this topic works on the crisis and fight against the crisis. This organization writes papers, opinions, makes mini-surveys in European countries and according to the answers coming from European countries ETUCE sends its opinions to European Commission. About ETUCE please find the Prezi presentation, here:
The website of ETUCE can be found here:
In Hungary, particularly, there have been budget cuts in higher education sector. The salaries of higher education staff were frozen from 2008. And the other fringe benefits such as "meal tickets" were taken away in many institutions. About the Hungarian situation you can follow the information also in the Prezi presentation, here:
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I'm conducting a Life Cycle Assessment and wheat is one of the inputs.
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There are many publication on N responses to wheat production - there are a few on my profile and you can also find many in Agronomy Journal and the Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Pesticide use is very site-specific so that one is tricky.
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If so, what will be the magnitude of such heat?
What will be the approximate change in the temperature value of the fruit?
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Malaysia is the largest palm oil but the use of FTIR spectroscopy  for quality control is
not prevalent in the industry which can reduce the chemical analysis time considerably and improve Productivity.
The temperature range within the fruit is 30 - 36 deg C, ambient is 31.1deg C
Attapon Choto et all (2014), Sterilization of Oil Palm Fruit Using Radio - Frequency Heating, Int’l Journal of Advances in Chemical Engg., & Biological Sciences (IJACEBS) Vol. 1, Issue 1(2014) ISSN 2349-1507 EISSN 2349-1515.
FTIR - TG-IR (thermogravimetry-infrared spectrometry) IR spectra of the gases evolved during thermal decomposition are obtained as a function of temperature. Tiny samples with the aid of an infrared microscope can image the surface by scanning.
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Specially conidia of Beauveria bassiana
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In many countries weed control, soil fertility and the lack of effective water management (both drought and flooding) are the most important impediments to farming. Unfortunately, relatively very few agricultural research programs address these issues. Do we need to re-focus our research priorities, in order to achieve higher productivity and sustainability? To be clear, however, I am not implying that current research programs are unimportant. I am just wondering if we hitting the nail on the head here. What do you think?
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Sub-Saharan agricultural productivity growth has been quite slow despite having a number of international organizations doing research for the purpose of improving the situation. Traditional on-station research has had very little impact on the farming communities although a lot of excellent publications have appeared in international refereed journals. The situation is now improving, however, as researchers revisit their research methodologies in sub-Saharan Africa. On-farm research planning and implementation has greatly brought about change among resource-poor farmers who cannot read publications and their extension workers also have no access to international journals in the rural areas. So with the current change in research methodology and outlook, research in sub-Saharan Africa is reaching the smallholder farmers and will no doubt improve the agricultural situation in the near future.
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I want to know if wheat at different growing stages has an influence on the ecosystem respiration. And what is its mechanisms?
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Yes, It affects the ecosystem,
please read the following paper
Do you know an agriculture focused project which uses the crowdsourcing concept?
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I am looking for case studies where crowdsourcing has been used mainly in the agriculture domain.
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I have a case study of crowsourcing between farmers and technitians. You can find the article in my profile
Does anyone know the gene responsible for Bambusa's rapid growth or can u give the information about where to find it ?
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Bamboo is the fastest growing plant on this planet. It has been recorded growing at an amazing 47.6 inches in a 24 hour period. I would like to know which gene is responsible for Bambusa's rapid growth. Does anyone know what it is or where I can find it?
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I'm not sure you can refer to one specific gene for such complex phenomenon
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When we talk of  any organic manure -based substrate , it needs to be so dynamic , that should be in a position to total nutrient requirement of cucumber . While doing so , role of microbially loaded substrate using multiple inoculations should never be over-looked. While tracing nutrient level at different growth stages, we can arrive at optimum concentration of different nutrients ..?
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I am mostly interested in a UK/European context, but examples from any country/continent would be interesting. Re: unambiguous, earlier sowing dates may not necessarily be a result of higher winter/spring temperatures, they could be the result of technological advances of cultivation equipment.
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Then I will probably give you names of people you already know.
I'd certainly ask Andy Jarvis (as Theme Leader of the Adaptation Theme). But the Science officers are perhaps more likely to respond.. Christine Jost and Wiebke Foerch are names that pop to mind. Oh, and perhaps the webpage of the recently held Climate Smart conference can help you (http://climatesmart.ucdavis.edu).
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Bio-fortification is a plant breeding or agronomic strategy for enhancing bio-available micro-nutrient concentrations in the edible parts of food crops.
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Unfortunately there are not such things as silver bullets ("the best"). However, biofortification is a sensible addition to the tool-box of micronutrient interventions that - together with poverty alleviation, nutrition education, dietary diversification, improved infant feeding practices, fortification and supplementation - can be a useful component in strategies for developing countries to eradicate micronutrient malnutrition.
There are already some experiences with biofortified crops, such as orange-fleshed sweet potatoes in Uganza and Mozambique - you may want to check the website of HarvestPlus for more information on biofortification and a range of crops that are being developed: http://www.harvestplus.org/content/learn-more Similar work is also going on at IRRI, where Golden Rice is bred and should be ready for dissemination soon: http://www.irri.org/goldenrice/
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We have seen that high input agriculture systems have improved the agricultural productivity of land, but at the same time drastically hinder the natural health of soil. Now many ecologists and agricultural scientists suggest adopting the organic form of agriculture. Do you think organic agriculture alone will sustain the food demand of growing population?
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I think there are some aspects that are missed in this conversation as it typically appears in conventional discussions. And I just want to preface this by saying that, as I'm sure everyone here agrees, that there is no well-defined concept of "organic" agriculture, and what we are all discussing here exists on a huge spectrum of practices. But in general I think we mean mixed crop, low input, non-pesticide/herbicide agriculture (feel free to correct me if that is not your definition).
The first often missed aspect is that the vast majority of the efforts and research that have gone into agriculture over the past 100 years is focused on industrial, mono-cropped, fertilizer-heavy (since the green revolution), and now roundup-ready (since GMO) agriculture. Very, very little research has gone into organic farming, and the crops and varieties needed to perform well in organic systems. The very few research stations focused on plant breeding for non-industrial agriculture have shown huge gains in organic systems. I think we need to consider how productive organic agriculture could be if we invested in it, not just taken the current state of things as they are. Obviously industrial agriculture is going to seem more productive if we've put all our effort into making it so. To say that organic systems cannot yield as much as industrial ones I think is the wrong claim to make...they currently do not, but I would argue that it is largely because of the lack of investment and unrealized potential.
Secondly I agree with Arun that organic systems are already highly productive in many cases. Agro-forestry systems in Polynesia have shown to yield up to 15 tonnes per ha of mixed crop yields...that is more that the corn yields of US or soybeans of Brazil. So they can be much more efficient in terms of yield:area. However, they are not nearly as productive in terms of yield:labor...it takes many, many more workers to operate these systems. So I agree with others that a lot of the choice between organic and industrial agriculture comes down to a social choice. Do we want to invest the human capital into caring for the very land that has allowed us to reach the state we are at? I would say of course we do, but I also know not everyone agrees.
Finally, I would ask do we want the world to only live on organic agriculture? There are, just for one example, some amazing closed loop systems for urban agriculture using aeroponics in Singapore...wonderful innovations that don't have many of the environmental impacts that either organic or industrial dirt farming have. I'm not at all saying this is the way to go in the future, but I am saying that we should be open to a range of options, and recognize that the best solutions are going to be a mix or strategies that will increase our resilience and sustainability each in their own way. The best thing we can do is be scrutinizing of every system of agriculture to make sure it is performing as best it can. I don't think we have done that well with industrial agriculture.
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thanks for sugestion ,Chris Ifeta
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There has been a lot that has been done on Adoption of Agricultural technologies using Tobit and now the double hurdle models. Any ideas how I can model (ex-ante) the probability of adopting a particular and its impact on poverty reduction?
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It depends on the level of information you can get. I used a probit model to understand adoption of open-pollinating maize varieties in east timor - turned out (supported by prior information) that for higher yielding varieties to be adopted some form of airtight storage was needed, else the local varieties were better (tighter sheaths for insect resistance). Also post-yield harvest was important - many of the new varieties lost a lot of their yield advantage post processing.
So, if you have a sample of people trialling your new technology you can do this after a year or two to see who is still using it and run a limited dependent variable regression on the drivers of that technology retention (such as a probit). This is probably the most simple way.
If not you could try to run a survey to elicit households utility function, then make some assumptions (derived from the literature, field tests and interviews) on the characteristics of your technology and its risks. Then you could assume that households are utility maximising and do a benefit-cost analysis using risk-inclusive ranking techniques such as stochastic dominance (with no information on risk preferences) or expected utility maximisation (with information on risk preferences) or stochastic dominance with respect to a function (with some information on risk preferences). You then have three possible outcomes for each household: (1) Adopt, (2) Don't adopt, (3) Don't Know (no dominance ranking).
Or you could just assume that higher yield, profit, or whatever this technology does is the be-all and end-all. Use data on the technologies performance to rank it against the status quo for different applications (areas/households/farming types) and estimate the adoption within each of these areas etc using risk-inclusive techniques.
The key is to understanding the limitations to livelihoods improvement. Is it access to markets or is it that excess production cannot be stored for fear of insects or stealing, or is it that labour is unavailable??? Risk will often play a big part - the downside risk in many cases, and these in particular, is severe (e.g. food shortage) whilst the upside is only a gradual improvement in livelihoods.
Hope that helps,
Daniel
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What is the total factor productivity in agriculture commodity?
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Increase in agricultural productivity are often linked with questions about sustainability and sustainable development. Changes in agricultural practices necessarily bring changes in demands on resources. This means that as regions implement measures to increase the productivity of their farm land, they must also find ways to ensure that future generations will also have the resources they will need to live and thrive.
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In the present context of moratorium on Bt brinjal (eggplant, aubergine) and raging controversies in India, some NGOs and anti-GM people are asking scientists if the Bt brinjal ready for commercialization has passed the test of human trials as a part of food safety requirements. However, it is a norm that GM food crops do not necessarily need such trials.
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Dear Dr. Dwivedi, anti-GM groups insist that GM food crops should undergo human trials. Most of us disagree. However, they claim that rat studies are not sufficient. Just like pharma compounds undergo clinical trials using human volunteers, Bt brinjal should also undergo such trials as it is consumed by humans. They simply do not believe the fact that Bt brinjal is safe. If human trials are not required by Codex, so what? Include it, they say. They also claim that there may be sufficient safety tests on Bt as a protein but none as Bt brinjal product per se. They claim that Bt protein may be safe as such but when expressed in crops, it may be hazardous to human health; therefore, prove its safety through human trials. Even if human trials do not give any additional answer from that of animal trials, still do the trials and convince us that Bt brinjal is safe as a food crop. The anti-GM group claims that Bt gene is not a plant gene and therefore, a bacterial modified gene in plants is a doubtful product; hence test the Bt brinjal through human trials; once we are satisfied, then we will allow its commercialization!
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As you may know, bio-sensors are widely used in medical, industrial and pharmaceutical processes. But I wanted to know about the projects that the sensors has been applied in agricultural depended activities or the potential of their applications in agriculture.
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there is a lot of applications of biosensors in Agriculture, espicially rapid ones for exemple the need for toxins detection.
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I just need to know where to localize non-renewable groundwater in Italy currently exploited for agricultural purposes. I am mainly interested in agro-business because this is where products are more likely to be export-oriented, but I also want to consider local and domestic consumption in Italy ( South-to-North exports of agricultural products). I am mapping the Italian production irrigated with non-renewable water.
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Dear Francesca,
these resources (if not yet used by you...) may be useful for your work:
Wada, Y., L. P. H. van Beek, C. M. van Kempen, J. W. T. M. Reckman, S. Vasak, and M. F.P. Bierkens, 2010. Global depletion of groundwater resources. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L20402, doi:10.1029/2010GL044571
Wada, Y., L. P. H. van Beek and M. F. P. Bierkens, 2012. Nonsustainable groundwater sustaining irrigation: A global assessment. Water Resources Research, 48, W00L06, doi:10.1029/2011WR010562.
Gleeson, T., Y. Wada, et al. (2012). "Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint." Nature 488(7410): 197-200.
article by Sandra Postel:
International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre:
World-wide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessment Programme (WHYMAP):
Best regards,
Markus
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A place where we can analyze and discus the different plants, comestible or not by humans, and used by animals as feed, naturally found and cultivated in different regions on Earth. The same we apply regarding animals that serve as food for humans. The local regional names in addition to the Latin names should be used as to be understood at global level. If we refer to quantities, the metric system is preferred or the equivalency be shown as well. Your personal experience in the field (direct or indirect) in your area is a great importance for the dialog.
PS) Please do not forget to vote the participating member's comments / posts / participation based on its importance. This encourages other RG members to participate as well.
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i am doing research on the effects of different drip irrigation regime on growth, yield and water use efficiency of corn (zea mays). Can anyone tell me how can I define the term irrigation regime and deficit irrigation?
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Deficit irrigation is applying less irrigation water than the full requirement of the crop i.e. the crop is to face certain amount of stress. The objectives of deficit irrigation can be to have more area under irrigation with the available water in the catchment.
Not sure about irrigation regime, hopefully it is the amount of irrigation water applied to the crop during its full growing season.
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Enclosed is the estimation of covariance for a 7x7 diallel cross design that I found in a workshop manual. However, using the formula and example provided, I am not able to calculate w2, w3, w4,..., w7! only w1 is possible!
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Dear Farhat!
Use excel for computing the covariances. If these formulae don't fit. Then read the methods given in "Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis", by BD Singh and RK Chaudhary, 1979.
If you want to use software for calculating them, use this link to download Dial98. It will give you many things in diallel analysis.
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Bark beetles are attracted to their hosts by chemical stimuli eg. "Flavonoids..", first step in order to select their hosts. Is there any work about those stimili? Chemical extracts from the bark of "Prunus", stone fruit trees (almond, peach, plum and apricot)?
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Hi Asma,
In fact, there were some interesting research studies (although linked to forest entomology) related to attraction of beetles by bark volatiles (components of essential oils: sesquiterpenes, (3Z)-Hexenol, the phenylpropene methyl chavicol (Estragole),…) released by stressed/weak host plants. Anyway, you can find out all details in the three articles I attached.
Furthermore, regarding volatile compounds (with bio-insecticide properties) liberated from Prunus biomass, you can check out the following link: http://www.patentbuddy.com/Patent/7195788
Cheers
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Can anyone tell me about growth inhibitors of zygomycete and Deuteromycete?
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Most of the deuteromycetes causes external diseases like spots,blotches etc.so, instead of going for systemic fungicides(carbendazim and mancozeb) we can use fungicides like captan, thiram, zineb.
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I am interested in control methods used to prevent pest populations causing havok to agricultural industry. In particular I am most interested in biological control methods. If anyone knows any information, both recent and historical, I would be grateful.
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Hi Jamie,
some top species:
Helicoverpa armigera
Cydia pomonella
Plutella xylostella
Sitobion avenae
Ostrinia nubilalis
Frankliniella tritici
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
Mayetiola destructor
Gryllus pennsylvanicus
...
I think there are a lot of informations about these pest!
Cheers, Nadine
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Suggest some quality review of literature, methodology etc.
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Relation of green GDP and GDP could be explicated as following: Green GDP = GDP - depreciation of fixed assets - resources and environmental costs = NDP-resources and environmental costs. Of which, NDP refers to net domestic product. The formula shows that green GDP is corresponding to NDP not to GDP. In this project, we adopted the total value concept of green GDP corresponding to GDP instead of net value just because GDP is used more commonly than NDP when considering practical application.
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My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome
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I would rather publish it for free w/ open access option (e.g. RG, Berkeley Press Selected Works, ProQuest - http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/about.html, various other platforms depending on the field) than trust LAP or any similar publisher. They do spam frequently by seemingly ''inviting'' researchers and students. This ''invitation'' is a result of pubic profiles easily tracked on all kinds of sites where robots search for particular strings (e.g. thesis, research, article).
There is also the option to publish your works on GRIN (http://www.grin.com/en/help/author#options). Again, my advice would be to do it for free (as they refer to it - the free area), as an open access option. You would gain an ISBN to your work and visibility. You may also choose to have your works published as paper books in addition to the freely available online version. However, it is not known for how long the site will exist. You can only hope that your works will not suddenly disappear. I think that this platform is a good option for other student works (essays, term papers) which have not been targeted by any other publishing channels (as far as I know).
Mind that a thesis is always an official work, irrespective of your financial gain, and thus it can be cited as a work deposited in the library of your institution. If you choose to make it available online, the only thing that changes is that more people would access it, and they would have to add to the quotation (if they choose to quote it) available at ... ("..." = the internet site where it was uploaded).
Another option that came to my mind is that you might try to publish your thesis or term papers w/ peer-review option by choosing to submit them to an open access journal. I have seen some offering this option (for both term papers and theses already defended or still works in progress). Unfortunately, I don't remember which ones exactly but I can give you links to some directories where you can explore your options: Directory of Open Access Journals (http://www.doaj.org/) - you may also filter by student or graduate journals; UNESCO global OA portal (http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/portals-and-platforms/goap/); the German Open Access portal - in German and English - see repositories and journals by discipline: http://open-access.net/de_en/open_access_in_individual_disciplines/; Journals hosted by Bepress Digital Commons incl. student journals (http://digitalcommons.bepress.com/online-journals/); the Undergraduate Journals and Conferences Directory (http://wordpress.mercyhurst.edu/upd/) - some journals are open to works written by graduate students and by people who are no longer in academia but who would like to publish their old works.
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We know that more than a thousand hectares of peat swamp in Indonesia were used for plantation, such as oil palm. In oil palm, the production will decrease after 25 or 30 years. After that, they will replant with rubber plant, but, I don't think that rubber plant should be suitable on peat swamp. If we want to rehabilitate the peat swamp, is there any ideas to rehabilitate it?
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I am sorry I do not have information on this subject.
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In order to invent green house gasses emission from agricultural activities we need to locally determine their emission factor. Are there articles or manuals available?
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Hello, Please check the attached article. You may read and get help about emmision factor. You may find some information about emmision factor.
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I am doing my research work in this field,so i think any one can help by saying solution to this problem,i have refered so many articles but i could not found solution. If any related papers are their on this please upload
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Ok, I've understood. Some time ago I asked the similar question to the staff of the http://www.conrad.com/ . My idea was to combine a photoelectric panel for generating electricity and pumping water from the deep well in order to wet fields in the places where electricity is not available. They answered that all components (special pump, convertors and photoelectric panel) are available at Conrad, but you should build by yourself a corresponding autonomous system. Other options they were not able to suggest. It would be nice to hear here about other possibilities.
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How do I produce low cost nursery tray?
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The recycled low density and high density plastics can be used in agriculture for various purposes. For manufacturing of such trays, tech people in such manufacturing can be more helpful.
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Does boron deficiency cause seeds of chili pepper to turn black? Or any other reason for this to happen?
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Hello
I dont know, my studies is about seed dormancy.
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Recent statistical data is needed.
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Read the report of Jackfruit Improvement in the Asia-Pacific Region by Dr. Amrik Singh Sidhu to know the production status of Jackfruit in India and Southern states of India.
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Climate change will affect agricultural land use. However it is less clear how individual land use types will change. Within the UK rough grazing land (marginal agricultural land) is important for many ecosystem services. Will it be increasingly converted into more or less intensive use due to the warmer and drier conditions expected for the UK?
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I think Ruth captured the whole essence. What makes the land marginal? Is it a slope? What is the degree of slope? What is the nature of the soil? The texture etc.? Is the climate change causing increase or decrease in precipitation? What is the pattern of rainfall distribution, the snow cover, and the dry spell. Any close source of water for irrigation? What are the available alternatives for rejuvenation of the marginal land under the circumstance? Appropriate response to these will help in determining the stocking capacity and the handling of the land and the stock.
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Fertilizing? Remediation? Land modification?
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Organic mater is very important part for doing soil reclamation, but if it is available top soil even less, then you need to find the best pioneer plant that can grow in such condition. It would be the best way to apply liquid organic fertilizer (LOB) containing PGPR that can survive and support plant growth. It would also be useful if you could ad small amount of humic acid in the LOB.
In the case of biochar application as a soil amendment, how much biochar can be incorporated into the soil?
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e.g. in kg/ha Does it need to measure the C content of the soil or to consider the C:N ratio before determining its amount?
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Thank you so much dear Aria
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Can anyone help me to find information (journal, review or programme) about modelling, especially growth modelling and soil fertility modelling for annual crops?
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Nowadays, there are is a lot of books related to crop models. Goggle-ing it you may find:
Also I do recommend:
M.J. Shaffer, Liwang Ma, Soren Hansen (eds) (2001). "Modeling Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics for Soil Management". Taylor & Francis.
L. R. Ahuja, K. W. Rojas, J. D. Hanson, M. J. Shaffer, L. M (eds.) (2000). "Root Zone Water Quality Model: Modeling Management Effects on Water Quality and Crop Production". Water Resources Publication
L.R. Ahuja, V.R. Reddy, S.A. Saseendran, and Qiang Yu (eds.) (2008). "Response of Crops to Limited Water: Understanding and Modeling Water Stress Effects on Plant Growth Processes" Advances in Agricultural Systems Modeling 1. ASA, CSSA, SSSA.
J. Hanks, and J. T. Ritchie (eds.) "Modeling plant and soil systems."
Agronomy Monographs No. 31. ASA,CSSA, SSSA
Best regards.-
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During preparation of SRA we analyzed numbers of projects from the last 15 years. A lot of them bring excellent results but usually these results are not well known. How we can improve visibility and sustainability. Could ResearchGate help us?
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It is true that most of project outcome parameters lack proper quantification and make them visible. For example a project on new cropping system may disturb the balance of soil nutrition, which we normally take from crop yields. However, soil analysis of major and micro-nutrients before and after the project can provide better answer. Similarly, change in environmental factor also needs to be appropriately measured. Even the response of relevant farmers would also be added quantification of project impact.    
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Please could you give us your opinion.
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Within the ERA-Net project ICT-Agri a Strategic Research Agenda has recently been coordinated/elaborated: http://db-ictagri.eu/ict-agri/content/SRA.php . This Agenda shows important fields with research needs in the ICT in agriculture (including robotics) research area. It was elaborated with the participation of an expert panel covering a range of disciplines.
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African farmers hitherto cultivated their crops and reared their livestock/animals without chemicals. Then, they were introduced to the so called improved farming methods with emphasis on heavy reliance on agro-chemicals, particularly inorganic fertilizers. Years after, they are asked to go back to the traditional farming methods they abandoned, this time with new names such as "organic farming", "conservation agriculture", etc. The African farmer is now in dilemma. The future of African agriculture is bleak unless this dilemma is resolved. The question is, how can the dilemma be resolved? Better still, what is the way forward for African agriculture?
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This is the story of every part of the earth where agriculture is being done.Before 1900 there was no chemical farming and yet civilisation was survived.The so called drought started in 1850 or afterward due to uneven distribution of food or diversion of fertile lands of rice, wheat, sorghum to the industrial crops like cotton, sugarcane etc. So it was not the problem of productivity with the traditional agriculture but a man-made unsustainable systems and chemical were introduced as panacea for this malady. So after some times phosphate reserves will exhaust, soil become sick, ground water depleted to dark zone, insects and weeds become resistance to pesticides and deterioration in ecosystem and human health with this chemical farming--------- whether we wait for this situation and then follow ecofriendly farming or-------- start from today a gradual shift to eco friendly farming -it is to be decided by farming community,policy makers etc.The later option is certainly better.
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• Future Internet and Internet-based applications such as sensor technology, cloud computing and machine-to-machine communication.
• Mobile applications.
• Improving of positioning systems.
• Service Oriented Architecture.
• Methods of knowledge management.
• Semantic models, multilingualism, vocabularies and automatic translation.
• New Earth observation methods.
• Management and accessibility of geospatial information.
• Open data access.
• Open Source development.
• New modelling.
• The power of social networks and social media.
• New e-educational and training methods.
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Research and Development (R&D) within the field of Agriculture has diversified over the years to reflect the growing diversification to support the growth of social demands like public spending on agriculture to deal with issues relating to poverty.  R&D policies and techniques has improved productivity by improving higher yields of crops by adjusting management techniques, adjusting crops and consumers traits through education and research.    By applying R&D to economics and policies to help improve social needs this can have a dynamic impact on population, in return, improving stability, environment factor (e.g., sustainability, ecosystem, and human health) and manufacturing.
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the following research priorities for the Applications domain:
• Collaborative environments and trusted sharing of knowledge and supporting innovations in agri-food and rural areas, especially supporting food quality and security.
• New (ICT) structures to serve sustainable animal farming, especially regarding animal and human health and animal welfare.
• ICT applications for the complete traceability of production, products and services throughout a networked value chain including logistics.
• A new generation of applications supporting better and more effective management of sustainable agriculture production and decision making in agriculture ICT applications supporting the management of natural resources.
• An ICT application supporting adoption of farming practices adapted to climatic changes.
• An ICT application supporting energy efficiency on farm level.
• An ICT application supporting rural development and local businesses.
• An ICT application for education, training and awareness raising.
• ICT applications reducing administrative burdens in rural areas.
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Why do you see it as most important?
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• To improve the representation of ICT agriculture specialists and users in European activities
• To include ICT and knowledge management for agri-food and rural communities generally as a vital part of the ICT policies and initiatives
• To support a better transfer of RTD results and innovation to the everyday life of farmers, food industry and other rural communities
• To accelerate bottom-up activities as a driver for local and regional development
• To support discussion and transfer of knowledge between developed and developing countries
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Kerel, My experience of ICT adoption in agriculture specifically in developing countries are two fold: Firstly, the technology is expensive for many smallholder farmers who are  majority in Uganda over 80% and secondly is as a ramification of ignorance or limited education. This is coupled with the fact that agriculture in Uganda is mainly done by rural uneducated farmers whose exposure is limited. Therefore, ICT adoption requires change in mind set through education and making it accessible through minimal prices.
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Impact factors in Ag journals are lower simply because the audience for the research is smaller. It has nothing to do with the quality of the research , at least for the top end ag journals. Coupled with this is an obvious discipline bias. For example, ecology is a classic example. Take a look and see how often an ag paper or an agro-ecology study is reported in the ecology journals. This occurs even though ecology was founded within the the agricultural discipline. Most non-ag Universities do not even carry ag journals in their libraries. Adding to this mix, is the ever present issue of journal impact polictics. There is a wide range of literature on this. Unfortunately, several government research granting agencies are telling researchers to publish in higher impact journals or risk loosing their grants. This is a completely ridiculus approach. It is important to publish your work in the appropriate journals for your discipline. You should ask yourself "What audience do I want to read my work". If the answer is " ag researchers throughout the world" ...then make it so.
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Two years ago we imported exotic rabbits from France to improve rabbit productivity in the country. The rabbits have shown good growth rates but are not reproducing very well. We have high incidence of kit mortality during kindling and after kindling even after post weaning stages. The rabbits were imported from a temperate country to a tropical country. They are receiving Vitamin C to reduce effect of heat stress. Air-conditioning and fans are used on very hot days to also reduce effect of heat.
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You need to be looking at several factors in order to pin point the most likely cause or causes of early death.
i) housing
do they have adequate room (doe and kits). This will affect the mothering ability of the doe in terms of caring for the newborns. Crushing can wipe out a significant number of newborns.
ii) litter size
what is the litter size like? A large litter size can limit the amount of milk intake required per newborn. This can also expose the doe if she is not a good milker which might be due to low doe feed intake (caused by high ambient temperature or post-partum
disease).
iii) ambient temperature
you need to know the ambient temperature that they require at birth. producers in most cases believe that the room temperature is right for the animals if they (stockman) feel comfortable in the room. It is a cruel way of setting the room temperature in any situation, particularly if you are dealing with newborns.
It might be important to have a good look at the dead newborns and the litter or doe they belong. See if they ever suckle or if they had a round belly (death due to starvation can easily lead to crushing as affected newborns will not have the energy to avoid crushing by the doe). It is also easy to identify crushed kits and might reflect the mothering abiltiy of the doe.
Here is a review about mortality in young rabbits which I believe might help.
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I am interested in vermicomposting-integrated farming. This is because the only vermicomposting program did not flourish in Nepal because of the market for worms. There will not be any problem in finding a market for worms in integrated farming because it will consume all of the composting worms. Thus, I am also working and developing a model project for integrated organic farming. In this integrated approach to farming, I am trying to understand and develop about 5 to 8 different farming techniques at a time on a large scale.
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"Integrated Organic Farming is one of the solution of Environmental Pollution"
do You mean that the respective type of farming is a solution to have more polluted environment?
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Every two weeks I have taken photos of plant species withing a known area that I am testing for change in coverage. I have been using Photoshop to determine the actual plant area coverage. However many times some of the vegetation is covered with soil due to large fluctuations of water levels causing soil to settle on leaves. This makes it really hard to use color to delineate between soil and plant. Has anyone run into this issue and have any potential solutions?
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you can try imageJ
the official website you can download the software and manual
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see above
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Here are some references that should get you going.
Hammond, Norman; Puleston, Dennis E. (1977), "The Art and Agriculture of Hydraulic Agriculture in the Maya Lowlands", Social Process in Maya Prehistory: Studies in Memory of Sir Eric Thompson, Academic Press, pp. 449–468
Flannery, Kent; Puleston, Dennis E. (1982), "The Role of Ramon in Maya Subsistence", Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, Academic Press, pp. 353–366
Vernon L. Scarborough. 2012. Agricultural Land Use and Intensification In The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology Edited by Deborah L. Nichols.
Abstract and Keywords
Agricultural intensification is the process whereby land-use activity is heightened through an increase in production on a plot. Production can be stimulated by an increase in the amount or kind of labor invested, the incorporation of crops that yield more food or fiber, or the use of a novel technology. In Mesoamerica, few “technological breakthroughs” precipitated change, rather the developmental trajectory for intensification was based on labor allocation and slow advances in the amount of food potentially harvested by an evolving process of plant domestication—principally maize. This article discusses agricultural intensification in West Mexico, Central Highland Mexico, the Valley of Oaxaca, and the Maya lowlands.
Thomas W. Killion. 1992. Gardens of Prehistory:The Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica. University of Alabama Press and on line at http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780817383763l.